The assemblage of specimens from Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and western Venezuela that had been determined as a variable species, Hiraea cephalotes Triana & Planch. (Malpighiaceae), was found to comprise seven species in addition to H. cephalotes (Colombia, Ecuador). Six are newly described: Hiraea amazonica C.E.Anderson (Brazil), H. angustipetala C.E.Anderson (Ecuador), H. breteleri C.E.Anderson (Venezuela), H. ecuadorensis C.E.Anderson (Ecuador), H. escobariae C.E.Anderson (Colombia), and H. peruviana C.E.Anderson (Peru). Hiraea spruceana var. mortoniana J.F.Macbr. is elevated to the rank of species as H. mortoniana (J.F.Macbr.) C.E.Anderson (Peru). The name Hiraea spruceana Nied. is confirmed as a synonym of H. cephalotes. All eight species are characterised by having the flowers borne in axillary, multiflowered umbels. All but one have styles with a blunt apex; in Hiraea amazonica the apex of the styles is drawn out into a short spur. All species are illustrated.
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