Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

ZAMIA (ZAMIACEAE) PHENOLOGY IN A PHYLOGENETIC CONTEXT: DOES IN SITU REPRODUCTIVE TIMING CORRELATE WITH ANCESTRY?

  • J. A. R. Clugston (a1) (a2), M. P. Griffith (a2), G. J. Kenicer (a1), C. E. Husby (a2), M. A. Calonje (a2), D. W. Stevenson (a3) and D. P. Little (a3)...
Abstract

The Cycadales are a group of significant global conservation concern and have the highest extinction risk of all seed plants. Understanding the synchronisation of reproductive phenology of Cycadales may be useful for conservation by enabling the targeting of pollen and seed collection from wild populations and identifying the window of fertilisation to aid in the cultivation of Cycadales. Phenological data for 11 species of Zamia were gathered from herbarium specimens. Four phenological characters were coded with monthly character states. DNA was isolated and sequenced for 26S, CAB, NEEDLY, matK and rbcL, and a simultaneous phylogenetic analysis of phenology and DNA sequence data was carried out. Three major clades were recovered: a Caribbean clade, a Central American clade and a South American clade. Eight species showed statistically significant synchronisation in microsporangiate and ovulate phenological phases, indicating the time of fertilisation. Close reproductive synchronisation was consistently observed throughout the Caribbean clade (statistically significant in four of five species) but was less consistent in the Central American clade (statistically significant in one of two species) and South American clade (statistically significant in three of four species). Ultimately, phenology is shown to be a potential driver of speciation in some clades of Zamia and in others to be a potential barrier to hybridisation.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      ZAMIA (ZAMIACEAE) PHENOLOGY IN A PHYLOGENETIC CONTEXT: DOES IN SITU REPRODUCTIVE TIMING CORRELATE WITH ANCESTRY?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      ZAMIA (ZAMIACEAE) PHENOLOGY IN A PHYLOGENETIC CONTEXT: DOES IN SITU REPRODUCTIVE TIMING CORRELATE WITH ANCESTRY?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      ZAMIA (ZAMIACEAE) PHENOLOGY IN A PHYLOGENETIC CONTEXT: DOES IN SITU REPRODUCTIVE TIMING CORRELATE WITH ANCESTRY?
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
E-mail for correspondence: jclugston@rbge.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. T. Ballardie & R. J. Whelan (1986). Masting, seed dispersal and seed predation in the cycad Macrozamia communis . Acta Oecol. 70 (1): 100105.

A. S. T. Blake & G. Holzman (2012). A new Zamia species from the Panama Canal area. Bot. Rev. 78 (4): 335344.

D. A. Clark & D. B. Clark (1987). Temporal and environmental patterns of reproduction in Zamia skinneri, a tropical rain forest cycad. J. Ecol. 75 (1): 135149.

D. B. Clark & D. A. Clark (1988). Leaf production and the cost of reproduction in the Neotropical rain forest cycad, Zamia skinneri. J. Ecol. 76 (4): 11531163.

J. S. Donaldson (1993). Mast-seeding in the cycad genus Encephalartos: a test of the predator satiation hypothesis. Acta. Oecol. 94 (2): 262271.

J. S. Donaldson (1997). Is there a floral parasite mutualism in cycad pollination? The pollination biology of Encephalartos villosus (Zamiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 84 (10): 13981406.

J. E. Eckenwalder (1980). Dispersal of the West Indian cycad, Zamia pumila L. Biotropica 12 (1): 7980.

R. C. Edgar (2004). MUSCLE: a multiple sequence alignment method with reduced time and space complexity. BMC Bioinformatics 5: 113. 19.

J. Farris , V. Albert , M. Kallersjö , D. Lipscomb & A. Kluge (1996). Parsimony jackknifing outperforms neighbor-joining. Cladistics 12 (2): 99124.

R. E. Forkner , R. J. Marquis , J. T. Lill & J. Le Corff (2008). Timing is everything? Phenological synchrony and population variability in leaf-chewing herbivores of Quercus . Ecol. Entomol. 33 (2): 276285.

P. A. Goloboff , J. S. Farris & K. C. Nixon (2008). TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics 24 (5): 774786.

O. Gordo & J. J. Sanz (2010). Impact of climate change on plant phenology in Mediterranean ecosystems. Global Change Biol. 16 (3): 10821106.

R. Gorelick & T. E. Marler (2012). Evolutionary developmental biology in cycad phenology. Commun. Integr. Biol. 5 (3): 272274.

R. Gorelick , D. Fraser , B. J. M. Zonneveld & D. P. Little (2014). Cycad (Cycadales) chromosome numbers are not correlated with genome size. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 175 (9):986997.

N. Grobbelaar , J. Meyer & J. Burchmore (1989). Coning and sex ratio of Encephalartos transvenosus at the Modjadji Nature Reserve. S. African J. Bot. 55 (1): 7982.

T.S. Grove , A.M. O'Connell & N. Malajczuk (1980). Effects of fire on the growth, nutrient content and rate of nitrogen fixation of the cycad Macrozamia riedlei . Austral. J. Bot. 28 (3): 271.

C. López-Gallego & P. O'Neil (2010). Life-history variation following habitat degradation associated with differing fine-scale spatial genetic structure in a rainforest cycad. Popul. Ecol. 52 (1): 191201.

T. E. Marler & K. J. Niklas (2011). Reproductive effort and success of Cycas micronesica K.D. Hill are affected by habitat. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 172 (5): 700706.

A. W. Meerow , J. Francisco-Ortega , M. Colonje , M. P. Griffith , T. Ayala-Silva , D. W. Stevenson & K. Nakamura (2012). Zamia (Cycadales: Zamiaceae) on Puerto Rico: asymmetric genetic differentiation and the hypothesis of multiple introductions. Amer. J. Bot. 99 (11): 18281839.

V. Negrón-Ortiz & G. J. Breckon (1989). Population structure in Zamia debilis (Zamiaceae). I. Size classes, leaf phenology, and leaf turnover. Amer. J. Bot. 76 (6): 891900.

F. Nicolalde-Morejón , A. P. Vovides & D. W. Stevenson (2009). Taxonomic revision of Zamia in mega-Mexico. Brittonia 61 (4): 301335.

K. J. Norstog & P. K. S. Fawcett (1989). Insect–cycad symbiosis and its relation to the pollination of Zamia furfuracea (Zamiaceae) by Rhopalotria mollis (Circulionidae). Amer. J. Bot. 76 (9): 13801394.

K. J. Norstog , D. W. Stevenson & K. J. Niklas (1986). The role of beetles in the pollination of Zamia furfuracea L. fil. (Zamiaceae). Biotropica 18 (4): 300306.

R. Ornduff (1987). Sex ratios and coning frequency of the cycad Zamia pumila L. (Zamiaceae) in the Dominican Republic. Biotropica 19 (4): 361364.

R. Ornduff (1992). Features of coning and foliar phenology, size classes, and insect associates of Cycas armstrongii (Cycadaceae) in the Northern Territory, Australia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 119 (1): 3943.

O. Ovaskainen , S. Skorokhodova , M. Yakovleva , A. Sukhov , A. Kutenkov , N. Kutenkova , A. Shcherbakov , E. Meyke & M. del Mar Delgado (2013). Community-level phenological response to climate change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110 (33): 1343413439.

A. Prado , A. Sierra , D. Windsor & J. C. Bede (2014). Leaf traits and herbivory levels in a tropical gymnosperm, Zamia stevensonii (Zamiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 101 (3): 437447.

T. E. Reed , S. Jenouvrier & M. E. Visser (2013). Phenological mismatch strongly affects individual fitness but not population demography in a woodland passerine. J. Anim. Ecol. 82 (1): 131144.

D. Sankoff (1975). Minimal mutation trees of sequences. SIAM J. Appl. Math. 28 (1): 3542.

D. Schneider , M. Wink , F. Sporer & P. Lounibos (2002). Cycads: their evolution, toxins, herbivores and insect pollinators. Naturwissenschaften 89 (7): 281294.

B. Schutzman (2004). Systematics of Meso-American Zamia (Zamiaceae). In: T. Walters & R. Osborne (eds) Cycad Classification: Concepts and Recommendations, pp. 159172. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.

M. P. Simmons & H. Ochoterena (2000). Effects of gap characters on sequence-based phylogenetic analyses. Syst. Biol. 49 (2): 369381.

D. W. Stevenson (2004). Cycads of Colombia. Bot. Rev. 70 (2): 194234.

T. N. Suinyuy , J. S. Donaldson & S. D. Johnson (2009). Insect pollination in the African cycad Encephalartos friderici-guilielmi Lehm. S. African J. Bot. 75 (4): 682688.

T. N. Suinyuy , J. S. Donaldson & S. D. Johnson (2013). Patterns of odour emission, thermogenesis and pollinator activity in cones of an African cycad: what mechanisms apply? Ann. Bot. 112 (5): 891902.

W. Tang (1987). Insect pollination in the cycad Zamia pumila (Zamiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 74 (1): 9099.

W. Tang (1990). Reproduction in the cycad Zamia pumila in a fire-climax habitat: an eight-year study. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117 (4): 368374.

L. I. Terry , H. W. Gimme , J. S. Donaldson , E. Snow , P. I. Forster & P. J. Machin (2005). Pollination of Australian Macrozamia cycads (Zamiaceae): effectiveness and behavior of specialist vectors in a dependent mutualism. Amer. J. Bot. 92 (6): 931940.

I. Terry , G. H. Walter , C. Moore , R. Roemer & C. Hull (2007). Odor-mediated push–pull pollination in cycads. Science 318 (5847): 70.

W. Thuiller , S. Lavorel , M. B. Araújo , M. T. Sykes & I. C. Prentice (2005). Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (23): 82458250.

A. P. Vovides (1990). Spatial distribution, survival, and fecundity of Dioon edule (Zamiaceae) in a tropical deciduous forest in Veracruz, Mexico, with notes on its habitat. Amer. J. Bot. 77 (12): 1532.

A. P. Vovides , K. J. Norstog , P. K. Fawcett , M. W. Duncan , R. J. Nash & D. V. Molsen (1993). Histological changes during maturation in male and female cones of the cycad Zamia furfuracea and their significance in relation to pollination biology. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 111 (2): 241252.

H. G. Wallraff (1979). Goal-oriented and compass-oriented movements of displaced homing pigeons after confinement in differentially shielded aviaries. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 5 (2): 201225.

G. R. Walther , E. Post , P. Convey , A. Menzel , C. Parmesan , T. J. Beebee & F. Bairlein (2002). Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416 (6879): 389395.

P. Willmer (2012). Ecology: pollinator–plant synchrony tested by climate change. Curr. Biol. 22 (4): 131132.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Edinburgh Journal of Botany
  • ISSN: 0960-4286
  • EISSN: 1474-0036
  • URL: /core/journals/edinburgh-journal-of-botany
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 70 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 333 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.