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Saxifraga minutissima D.S.Rawat, a new and extremely small species of Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae), is described from the Garhwal Himalaya, India. It differs from all other species of Saxifraga, except Saxifraga bicuspidata, in having five stamens and lacking petals. It can be distinguished from Saxifraga bicuspidata in having leaves and sepals entire. The finely striate pollen exine pattern of Saxifraga minutissima indicates that the species belongs to Saxifraga section Ciliatae. Its prostrate, axillary leafy shoots and lack of crisped, rufous hairs strongly suggests a place in Saxifraga subsection Serpyllifoliae, where one of its closest relatives may be Saxifraga stella-aurea.
Fifty-one species of basidiomycetes are recorded from the Southern Atlantic archipelago of the Falkland Islands. Several other fungi are discussed in the light of these findings. Some of these fungi are recorded for the first time from the Falklands and especially from some of the smaller islands of the group adjacent to West and East Falkland. The world distributions of the fungi dealt with in this compilation, particularly in the southern hemisphere, are given where they are known. Comments are made on the possible reasons for the occurrence of the species in the Falklands, especially the ectomycorrhizal taxa.
The changes in floristic composition, richness, species diversity and ecological groups of a semideciduous seasonal forest located at 14°49′32″S 52°06′20″W in the Cerrado–Amazonian Forest transition, in the area of Nova Xavantina, eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, were determined between 2003 and 2008. Sixty permanent plots of 10 × 10 m were established, where the individuals with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 5 cm were recorded and identified. The changes in floristic composition over the period were small and species losses and gains were limited to those of low abundance. The species richness and diversity did not change during this period and observations over a longer period will be necessary to determine whether it is a static community or in a succession towards the relatively nearby Amazonian forests. A review of existing works on the transition forest of Mato Grosso is also given.
A new species from South India, Salacia agasthiamalana Udayan, Regy Yohannan & Pradeep (Hippocrateaceae), is described from the Western Ghats of Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala State. An illustration and data on habitat, distribution and phenology are provided.
A floristic inventory was carried out in an area of palm-dominated creek forest in Jenaro Herrera, in the northeast of Peru. All trees ≥ 10 cm dbh were surveyed in a one-hectare permanent plot using the standard RAINFOR methodology. There were 618 individuals belonging to 230 species, 106 genera and 43 families. The results showed that the total basal area of the trees in the plot was 23.7 m2. The three species with the highest importance value indexes were Iriartea deltoidea Ruiz & Pav., Oenocarpus bataua Mart. (Arecaceae) and Carapa procera DC. (Meliaceae). The five most dominant families in order of importance were Arecaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Sapotaceae. Although the soil of this plot was poorly drained, the number of trees and the diversity of the plot were typical for terra firme forest in the western Amazon.
A new species from Thailand, Begonia bella Phutthai (Begoniaceae), is described and illustrated. It belongs in Begonia sect. Parvibegonia and is a narrow endemic in Phangnga province. Its IUCN category is considered to be ‘Vulnerable’.
Pouzolzia floresiana Friis & Wilmot-Dear (Urticaceae) is described and illustrated on the basis of a single collection from the western part of the Indonesian island of Flores. The species is a thick-stemmed herb, similar in habit to Pouzolzia thailandica, but differs in having axillary flower clusters and broadly winged fruiting perianths. The description of the new species supplements a revision of the Old World taxa of Pouzolzia by the two authors published in 2006.
A new species in the Old World genus Debregeasia (Urticaceae), D. australis Friis, Wilmot-Dear & C.J.Chen, based on material from forest habitats in eastern Queensland, Australia, is described, illustrated and mapped. A new synopsis of the genus and a new key to species recognised is provided as a supplement to the revision of Debregeasia by C. M. Wilmot-Dear in 1988. Debregeasia orientalis, described from China since 1988, is accepted, species from China and Bangladesh (D. elliptica and D. dentata) are reinstated, and other taxonomic changes made since the revision of 1988 are summarised.
Two new species of Amomum, A. agastyamalayanum V.P.Thomas & M.Sabu and A. newmanii M.Sabu & V.P.Thomas (Zingiberaceae), from the Western Ghats of Kerala are described and illustrated. Their distribution, ecology, IUCN status, etymology and similarities to related taxa are also discussed.
Chromosome numbers were determined in 23 accessions representing 21 species hitherto belonging to Chirita (Gesneriaceae), a genus that has recently been remodelled and split into five different genera: Damrongia, Henckelia, Liebigia, Microchirita and Primulina. The previously monotypic Primulina tabacum was also investigated. Counts for 19 species were new, two were confirmatory and two gave different numbers from previously published counts. The results here, together with previously published cytological data for the erstwhile genus Chirita, were analysed in the light of the taxonomic revision of the genus and published phylogenetic data. Chirita was originally highly heterogeneous in chromosome numbers, including seven different somatic numbers, 2n = 8, 18, 20, 28, 32, 34 and 36. Among the five remodelled genera, Henckelia was found to be as equally heterogeneous as the erstwhile Chirita, Microchirita included only two chromosome numbers, 2n = 18 and 34, the three species of Damrongia were uniform with 2n = 18, while species belonging to the extended Primulina showed only one basic number, x = 18, with 15 samples being diploid, and one being tetraploid. In the light of recent phylogenetic studies, polyploid as well as dysploid changes appear to have shaped the genomes of the newly defined genera Henckelia, Microchirita and, to a lesser degree, Primulina.
A new species of Camellia L. (Theaceae) from Vietnam, C. inusitata Orel, Curry & Luu, is described, illustrated and compared with six Camellia species from sections Thea (L.) Dyer, Corallina Sealy and Paracamellia Sealy. Reproductive morphology and molecular evidence supports taxonomic placement in the genus Camellia but the vegetative morphology is so distinct that a new section, Camellia sect. Bidoupia Orel, Curry & Luu, is established.
A new species of Rhynchoglossum, R. capsulare Ohwi ex Karton. (Gesneriaceae), is described and illustrated. This species resembles the widespread Rhynchoglossum obliquum Blume. A new combination, Codonoboea kjellbergii (B.L.Burtt) Karton., is proposed to accommodate the former Henckelia kjellbergii B.L.Burtt.