This paper completes the systematic treatment of the bamboos of Nepal and Bhutan, covering five genera from subtropical to lower temperate zones. Three further genera from the subtribe Arundinariinae Bentham are included: Drepanostachyum Keng f., Himalayacalamus Keng f., and Ampelocalamus Chen, Wen & Sheng. They have semelauctant ebracteate inflorescences, pachymorph rhizomes, and 3 stamens. Neomicrocalamus Keng f. has semelauctant bracteate inflorescences and 6 stamens, and is in the new subtribe described here, Racemobambosinae. Chimonobambusa Makino has bracteate inflorescences and 3 stamens and is the only Himalayan genus in the subtribe Shibataeinae (Nakai) Soderstrom & Ellis. A new Drepanostachyum species from Bhutan is described as D. annulatum. Himalayacalamus, which was originally described as a monotypic genus, is enlarged by the description of five new species, H. asper, H. brevinodus, H. cupreus, H. fimbriatus, and H. porcatus, all from Nepal. A Himalayan representative of the genus Ampelocalamus, A. patellaris, is transferred from Dendrocalamus. Neomicrocalamus andropogonifolius from eastern Bhutan is transferred from Bambusa.