Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Analyzing lexical emergence in Modern American English online 1

  • JACK GRIEVE (a1), ANDREA NINI (a1) and DIANSHENG GUO (a2)
Abstract

This article introduces a quantitative method for identifying newly emerging word forms in large time-stamped corpora of natural language and then describes an analysis of lexical emergence in American social media using this method, based on a multi-billion-word corpus of Tweets collected between October 2013 and November 2014. In total 29 emerging word forms, which represent various semantic classes, grammatical parts-of-speech and word formation processes, were identified through this analysis. These 29 forms are then examined from various perspectives in order to begin to better understand the process of lexical emergence.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Analyzing lexical emergence in Modern American English online 1
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Analyzing lexical emergence in Modern American English online 1
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Analyzing lexical emergence in Modern American English online 1
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Footnotes
Hide All
1

The research reported in this article was funded by AHRC, ESRC and Jisc (grant reference number 3154) as part of Round 3 of the Digging into Data Challenge. We would also like to thank Alice Kasakoff, Bernd Kortmann, Emily Waibel and two anonymous reviewers for their comments on this article.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
AllanKathryn & Robinson Justyna (eds.). 2011. Current methods in historical semantics. Berlin: De Gruyter.
AitchisonJean & Lewis Diana. 1995. How to handle wimps: Incorporating new lexical items as an adult. Folia Linguistica 29, 720.
AitchisonJean. 2001. Language change: Progress or decay? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
BammanDavid, Eisenstein Jacob & Schnoebelen Tyler. 2014. Gender identity and lexical variation in social media. Journal of Sociolinguistics 18, 135–60.
BauerLaurie. 1983. English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
BiberDouglas. 1988. Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
BlytheRichard A. & Croft William. 2012. S-curves and the mechanisms of propagation in language change. Language 88, 269304.
BréalMichel. 1897. Essai de sémantique: sciences des significations. Paris: Hachette.
BrintonLaurel J. & Traugott Elizabeth C.. 2005. Lexicalization and language change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
CannonGarland. 1987. Historical change and English word formation. New York: Lang.
DaviesMark. 2010. The Corpus of Contemporary American English as the first reliable monitor corpus of English. Literary and Linguistic Computing 25, 447–64.
DarmesterArsène. 1887. La vie des mots étudiée dan leur significations. Paris: Delagrave.
DenisonDavid. 2003. Log(ist)ic and simplistic S-curves. In Hickey (ed.), 54–70.
EisensteinJacob, O'Connor Brendan, Smith Noah A. & Xing Eric P.. 2010. A latent variable model for geographic lexical variation. Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 1277–87.
EisensteinJacob, O'Connor Brendan, Smith Noah A. & Xing Eric P.. 2014. Diffusion of lexical change in social media. PloS one 9, e113114.
FischerRoswitha. 1998. Lexical change in Present-day English: A corpus-based study of the motivation, institutionalization, and productivity of creative neologisms. Tübingen: Narr.
GeeraertsDirk. 2010. Theories of lexical semantics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
GeeraertsDirk & Cuyckens Hubert (eds.). 2007. The Oxford handbook of cognitive linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
GeeraertsDirk, Gevaert Caroline & Speelman Dirk. 2012. How anger rose: Hypothesis testing in diachronic semantics. In Allan & Robinson (eds.), 109–l32.
GeeraertsDirk, Grondelaers Stefan & Bakema Peter. 1994. The structure of lexical variation: Meaning, naming, and context. Berlin: De Gruyter.
GreenJonathan. 2011. Green's dictionary of slang. Edinburgh: Chambers.
GriesStefan Th. & Hilpert Martin. 2010. Modeling diachronic change in the third person singular: A multifactorial, verb- and author-specific exploratory approach. English Language and Linguistics 14, 293320.
GrondelaersStefan, Geeraerts Dirk & Dirk SpeelmanD. 2007. Lexical variation and change. In Geeraerts & Cuyckens (eds.), 988–1011.
HaddicanBill & Johnson Daniel E.. 2012. Effects on the particle verb alternation across English dialects. Selected papers from NWAV 40. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
HickeyRaymond (ed.). 2003. Motives for language change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
HilpertMartin & Gries Stefan Th.. 2009. Assessing frequency changes in multistage diachronic corpora: Applications for historical corpus linguistics and the study of language acquisition. Literary and Linguistic Computing 24, 385401.
HohenhausPeter. 2005. Lexicalization and institutionalization. In Štekauer Pavol & Lieber Rochelle (eds.), Handbook of word-formation, 353–73. Dordrecht: Springer.
HohenhausPeter. 2006. Bouncebackability: A web-as-corpus-based study of a new formation. SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics 3, 1727.
HopperPaul. J. & Traugott Elizabeth C.. 2003. Grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
HuangYuan, Guo Diansheng, Kasakoff Alice & Grieve Jack. 2016. Understanding US regional linguistic variation with Twitter Data. Forthcoming in Computers, Environment and Urban Systems.
KerremansDaphne, Stegmayr Susanne & Schmid Hans-Joerg. 2011. The NeoCrawler: Identifying and retrieving neologisms from the internet and monitoring ongoing change. In Allan & Robinson (eds.), 59–96.
KilgarriffAdam. 2001. Web as corpus. Proceedings of Corpus Linguistics 2001, 342–4.
KleparskiGrzegorz. 2000. Metonymy and the growth of lexical categories related to the conceptual category Female Human Being. Studia Anglica Resoviensia 1, 1726.
KrochAnthony. 1989. Reflexes of grammar in patterns of language change. Language Variation and Change 1, 199244.
KrugManfred G. 2000. Emerging English modals: A corpus-based study of grammaticalization. Berlin: De Gruyter.
KurathHans. 1949. A word geography of the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
LabovWilliam. 1972. Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
LabovWilliam. 1994. Principles of linguistic change, vol. 1: Internal factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
LabovWilliam. 2001. Principles of linguistic change, vol. 2: Social factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
LipkaL., HandlS. & FalknerW. 1994. Lexicalization and institutionalization. In Asher (ed.), the encyclopedia of language and linguistics, 2164–7.
MarchandHans. 1969. The categories and types of present-day English word-formation: A synchronic-diachronic approach. Munich: Beck.
Méndez-NayaBelén. 2006. Adjunct, modifier, discourse marker: On the various functions of right in the history of English. Folia Linguistica Historica 40, 141–69.
Méndez-NayaBelén. 2008. On the history of downright . English Language and Linguistics 12, 267–87.
MillerD. Garry. 2014. Lexicogenesis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
NevalainenTerttu & Raumolin-Brunberg Helena. 2003. Historical sociolinguistics. Harlow: Longman.
O'ConnorBrendan, Eisenstein Jacob, Xing Eric P. & Smith Noah A.. 2010. A mixture model of demographic lexical variation. Proceedings of NIPS Workshop on Machine Learning for Social Computing 14.
PetersenAlexander M., Tenenbaum Joel, Havlin Shlomo & Eugene Stanley H.. 2012a. Statistical laws governing fluctuations in word use from word birth to word death. Scientific Reports 2, 313.
PetersenAlexander M., Tenenbaum Joel, Havlin Shlomo & Eugene Stanley H. & Perc Matjaz. 2012b. Languages cool as they expand: Allometric scaling and the decreasing need for new words. Scientific Reports 2, 943.
ReisigKarl. 1839. Vorlesungen über die lateinische Sprachwissenschaft. Leipzig: Lehnhold.
RogersEverett. 2010. Diffusion of innovations. New York: Simon and Schuster.
SiemundPeter. 2014. The emergence of English reflexive verbs: An analysis based on the Oxford English Dictionary . English Language and Linguistics 18, 4973.
SweetserEve. 1991. From etymology to pragmatics: Metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
TagliamonteSali A. & D'Arcy Alexandra. 2004. He's like, she's like: The quotative system in Canadian youth. Journal of Sociolinguistics 8, 493514.
WhitmanNeal. 2015. Geeking out on fleek. www.vocabulary.com/articles/dictionary/geeking-out-on-fleek/ (accessed 28 May 2015).
ZhangWeiwei, Geeraerts Dirk & Speelman Dirk. 2015. Visualizing onomasiological change: Diachronic variation in metonymic patterns for Woman in Chinese. Cognitive Linguistics 26, 289330.
ZipfGeorge. K. 1935. The psycho-biology of language. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
ZipfGeorge. K. 1949. Human behavior and the principle of least effort. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

English Language & Linguistics
  • ISSN: 1360-6743
  • EISSN: 1469-4379
  • URL: /core/journals/english-language-and-linguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 117
Total number of PDF views: 477 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1124 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

A correction has been issued for this article: