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  • Cited by 4
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hickey, Raymond 2016. Sociolinguistics in Ireland.

    Hickey, Raymond 2015. Researching Northern English.

    MAGUIRE, WARREN 2012. Pre-R Dentalisation in northern England. English Language and Linguistics, Vol. 16, Issue. 03, p. 361.

    Loakes, Deborah and McDougall, Kirsty 2010. Individual Variation in the Frication of Voiceless Plosives in Australian English: A Study of Twins' Speech. Australian Journal of Linguistics, Vol. 30, Issue. 2, p. 155.


Fricated realisations of /t/ in Dublin and Middlesbrough English: an acoustic analysis of plosive frication and surface fricative contrasts1

  • MARK J. JONES (a1) and CARMEN LLAMAS (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 November 2008

The frication of the voiceless plosives /p, t, k/ in word-final intervocalic position in Dublin and Middlesbrough English is examined in controlled data, and the acoustic characteristics of fricated realisations of /t/ are compared with other fricatives. The findings are that /t/ is not the only plosive to be fricated in the data sample, but does appear to differ from other plosives in terms of the regularity of frication and its nongradient character for some subjects. The realisation of fricated /t/ at both localities differs from that of other fricatives, and is probably perceptually distinct from other fricative contrasts at each locality, but is not identical across the two localities. On the basis of data presented here, it appears unlikely that fricated /t/ in Middlesbrough English is a direct transfer effect from the language of Irish immigrants to Middlesbrough.

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Susan Behrens & Sheila Blumstein . 1988. On the role of amplitude of the fricative noise in the perception of place of articulation in voiceless fricative consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 84, 861–7.

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George W. Hughes & Morris Halle . 1956. Spectral properties of fricative consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 28, 303–10.

Allard Jongman , Ratree Wayland & Serena Wong . 2000. Acoustic characteristics of English fricatives. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 108, 1252–63.

Jeffrey Kallen (ed.). 1997. Focus on Ireland. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Sylvia Moosmüller & Catherine Ringen . 2004. Voice and aspiration in Austrian German plosives. Folia Linguistica 38, 4362.

Catherine M Sangster . 2001. Lenition of alveolar stops in Liverpool English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 5, 401–12.

Christine H Shadle . 1990. Articulatory-acoustic relationships in fricative consonants. In William J. Hardcastle & Alain Marchal (eds.), Speech production and speech modelling, 187209. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

Linda Shockey . 2003. Sound patterns of spoken English. Oxford: Blackwell.

Laura Tollfree . 2001. Variation and change in Australian English consonants: reduction of /t/. In David Blair & Peter Collins (eds.), English in Australia, 4567. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Jennifer Aydelott Utman & Sheila E. Blumstein . 1994. The influence of language on the acoustic properties of phonetic features: a study of the feature [strident] in Ewe and English. Phonetica 51, 221–38.

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English Language & Linguistics
  • ISSN: 1360-6743
  • EISSN: 1469-4379
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