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International coordination of environmental policies: is it always worth the effort?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 March 2019

Jude Bayham
Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
Félix Muñoz-García
School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA
Ana Espínola-Arredondo*
School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA
*Corresponding author. Email:


We study entry policies as an alternative form of environmental policy. Given the strong political opposition to standard output subsidies and taxes, several countries have recently used entry policies to promote renewable energy technology, such as solar panels and biofuels. We study a two-stage game in which two regulators choose an entry policy (i.e., tax, subsidy or permit) to maximize domestic welfare. Observing the policy, firms decide the region in which to enter and compete as Cournot oligopolists. We find that both domestic (uncoordinated) policies and internationally coordinated policies increase welfare relative to unregulated settings. However, the welfare gains from international policy coordination are only large when the product is extremely clean. These results indicate that the welfare gains of international policy coordination may only offset the costs of negotiation in relatively clean industries.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019 

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