Barbier, E, Burgess, J, Swanson, T and Pearce, D (1990) Elephants, Economics and Ivory. London: Pearce.
Blanc, JJ (2008) Loxodonta Africana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, version 2014.3. Available at http://www.iucnredlist.org.
Brown, GM and Layton, DF (2001) A market solution for preserving biodiversity: the Bblack rhino. In Shogren, JF and Tschirhart, T (eds). Protecting Endangered Species in the United States: Biological Needs, Political RealitiesEconomic Choices. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bulte, EH and Damania, R (2005) An economic assessment of wildlife farming and conservation. Conservation Biology 19( 4), 1222–1233.
Bulte, EH, Damania, R and van Kooten, GC (2007) The effects of one-off ivory sales on elephant Mortality. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(2), 613–618.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) (2011) Tables and References. Annex 2 to the Document SC61 Doc. 44.2 (Rev. 1). 61st Meeting of the Standing Committee, Geneva (Switzerland). 15-19 August 2011. SC61 Doc. 44.2 (Rev. 1).
Dawson, S and Blackburn, TM (1991) Asian elephant threatened. Nature 352(6333), 274.
Fischer, C (2004) The complex interactions of markets for endangered species products. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 48(2), 926–953.
Hsiang, S and Sekar, N (2016) Does legalization reduce black market activity? Evidence from a global ivory experiment and elephant poaching data. NBER Working Paper w22314. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Kremer, M and Morcom, C (2000) Elephants. American Economic Review 90(1), 212–234.
Larmer, B (2013) Tracking mammoths. National Geographic, April.
Lister, A and Bahn, PG (2007) Mammoths: Giants of the Ice Age. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Martin, E (2006) Are we winning the case for ivory substitutes in China? Pachyderm 40, 89–101.
Martin, E and Martin, C (2010) Russia's mammoth ivory industry expands: what effect on elephants? Pachyderm 47, 26–35.
Martin, E and Martin, C (2011) Large and mostly legitimate: Hong Kong's mammoth and elephant ivory trade. Pachyderm 50, 37–49.
Milliken, T (1997) The status of ivory stocks in Africa, 1990–1996. Traffic Bulletin 16(3), 93–105.
Milliken, T, Burn, RW, Underwood, FM and Sangalakula, L (2004) The Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS) and the Illicit Trade in Ivory: a report to the 13th meeting of the Conference of the Parties. CoP13 Doc. 29.2 (Rev. 1), CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland.
Milliken, T, Burn, RW, Underwood, FM and Sangalakula, L (2012) The Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS) and the Illicit Trade in Ivory: a report to the 16th meeting of the Conference of the Parties. CoP16 Doc. 53.2.2 (Rev. 1), CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland.
Milliken, T, Burn, RW, Underwood, FM and Sangalakula, L (2016) The Elephant Trade Information System (ETIS) and the Illicit Trade in Ivory: a report to the 17th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES, CoP17 Doc. 56.06 (Rev. 1), CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland.
Moyle, B (2014) The raw and the carved: shipping costs and ivory smuggling. Ecological Economics 107, 259–265.
Revkin, AC (2012) A closer look at Gibson Guitars’ legal troubles. New York Times, 10 August 2012.
Shoshani, J (1992) Elephants: Majestic Creatures of the Wild. Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale Press.
Stiles, D (2004) The ivory trade and elephant conservation. Environmental Conservation 31(4), 309–321.
Stiles, D (2009) CITES approved ivory sales and elephant poaching. Pachyderm 45), 150–153.
Sukumar, R (2003) The Living Elephants: Evolutionary Ecology, Behaviour, and Conservation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Taylor, MS (2011) Buffalo hunt: international trade and the virtual extinction of the North American bison. American Economic Review 101(7), 3162–3195.
Thouless, CR, Dublin, HT, Blanc, JJ, Skinner, DP, Daniel, TE, Taylor, RD, Maisels, F, Frederick, HL and Bouche, P (2016) African Elephant Status Report 2016: an update from the African Elephant Database. Occasional Paper Series of the IUCN Species Survival Commission No. 60. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland. vi + 309pp.
Underwood, FM, Burn, RW and Milliken, T (2013) Dissecting the illegal ivory trade: an analysis of ivory seizures data. PLoS ONE 8(10), e76539.
Vigne, L and Martin, E (2014) China Faces A Conservation Challenge. Nairobi: Save The Elephants, The Aspinall Foundation.
Wittemyer, G, Northrup, JM, Blanc, JJ, Douglas-Hamilton, I, Omondi, P and Burnham, KP (2014) Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(36), 13117–13121.