Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The livelihood impacts of the Equitable Payments for Watershed Services (EPWS) Program in Morogoro, Tanzania

  • Emmanuel J. Kwayu (a1), Jouni Paavola (a2) and Susannah M. Sallu (a3)

Abstract

Research on PES programs in agro-ecosystems is recent and limited in developing countries. The authors use a multi-method, quasi-experimental impact evaluation approach to examine direct and indirect livelihood impacts of the Equitable Payments for Watershed Services (EPWS) program piloted in the Morogoro region in Tanzania. The evaluation is based on a survey of 116 program participants and 117 non-participants, 32 semi-structured interviews and 16 focus group discussions to complement the survey data. They find that, while the EPWS program incentives resulted in direct benefits, indirect benefits such as increased crop yields, higher land values, new employment opportunities, more knowledgeable farmers, improved leadership skills as well as increased trust, expanded internal and external networks and strengthened institutions were more important. The results clearly indicate the potential of PES schemes to generate win-win outcomes in agro-ecosystems, but they also call for attention to equity in the design of PES programs implemented on agro-ecosystems.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The livelihood impacts of the Equitable Payments for Watershed Services (EPWS) Program in Morogoro, Tanzania
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The livelihood impacts of the Equitable Payments for Watershed Services (EPWS) Program in Morogoro, Tanzania
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The livelihood impacts of the Equitable Payments for Watershed Services (EPWS) Program in Morogoro, Tanzania
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Asquith, N.M., Vargas Ríos, M.T., and Smith, J. (2002), ‘Can forest-protection carbon projects improve rural livelihoods? Analysis of the Noel Kempff Mercado Climate Action Project, Bolivia’, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 7(4): 323337.
Asquith, N.M., Vargas, M.T., and Wunder, S. (2008), ‘Selling two environmental services: in-kind payments for bird habitat and watershed protection in Los Negros, Bolivia’, Ecological Economics 65(4): 675684.
Baker, J.L. (2000), Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty: A Handbook for Practitioners, Washington, DC: World Bank.
Bartels, W.L., Schmink, M., Arcos, H.D.S.S., Borges, E.A., and Duarte, A.P. (2010), ‘Diversifying livelihood systems, strengthening social networks, and rewarding environmental stewardship among small-scale producers in the Brazilian Amazon: lessons from Proambiente ’, in Tacconi, L., Mahanty, S. and Suich, H. (eds), Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change: Livelihoods in the REDD?, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 82105.
Branca, G., Lipper, L., Neves, B., Lopa, D., and Mwanyoka, I. (2011), ‘Payments for watershed services supporting sustainable agricultural development in Tanzania’, Journal of Environment and Development 20(3): 278302.
Bremer, L.L., Farley, K.A., Lopez-Carr, D., and Romero, J. (2014), ‘Conservation and livelihood outcomes of payment for ecosystem services in the Ecuadorian Andes: what is the potential for “win–win”?’, Ecosystem Services 8: 148165.
Brockington, D. (2011), ‘Ecosystem services and fictitious commodities’, Environmental Conservation 38(4): 367369.
Brown, D.R., Dettmann, P., Rinaudo, T., Tefera, H., and Tofu, A. (2011), ‘Poverty alleviation and environmental restoration using the clean development mechanism: a case study from Humbo, Ethiopia’, Environmental Management 48(2): 322333.
Bulte, E.H., Lipper, L., Stringer, R., and Zilberman, D. (2008), ‘Payments for ecosystem services and poverty reduction: concepts, issues, and empirical perspectives’, Environment and Development Economics 13(3): 245254.
Caliendo, M. and Kopeinig, S. (2008), ‘Some practical guidance for the implementation of propensity score matching’, Journal of Economic Surveys 22(1): 3172.
Calvet-Mir, L., Corbera, E., Martin, A., Fisher, J., and Gross-Camp, N. (2015), ‘Payments for ecosystem services in the tropics: a closer look at effectiveness and equity’, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 14: 150162.
Caplow, S., Jagger, P., Lawlor, K., and Sills, E. (2011), ‘Evaluating land use and livelihood impacts of early forest carbon projects: lessons for learning about REDD+’, Environmental Science and Policy 14(2): 152167.
CARE/WWF, (2007), Social and Livelihoods Assessment for Villages Around East Usambara and Uluguru Mountains, Dar-es-Salaam: CARE International.
Carney, D. (1998), ‘Implementing the sustainable rural livelihoods approach’, in Carney, D. (ed.), Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: What Contribution Can We Make?, London: Department for International Development.
Chambers, R. and Conway, G. (1992), ‘Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st Century’, Discussion Paper No. 296, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex.
Clot, S., Andriamahefazafy, F., Grolleau, G., Ibanez, L., and Méral, P. (2014), ‘Payments for ecosystem services: can we kill two birds with one stone? Insights from a natural field experiment in Madagascar’, Document de Recherché 2014-1, LAMETA, Universite Montpellier 1.
Cole, R.J. (2010), ‘Social and environmental impacts of payments for environmental services for agroforestry on small-scale farms in southern Costa Rica’, International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 17(3): 208216.
Corbera, E. (2010), ‘Mexico's PES-carbon programme: a preliminary assessment and impacts on rural livelihoods’, in Tacconi, L., Mahanty, S. and Suich, H. (eds), Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change: Livelihoods in the REDD?, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 5481.
Corbera, E. and Pascual, U. (2012), ‘Ecosystem services: heed social goals’, Science 335: 655656.
Corbera, E., Kosoy, N., and Martínez Tuna, M. (2007), ‘The equity implications of marketing ecosystem services in protected areas and rural communities: case studies from Meso-America’, Global Environmental Change 17(3–4): 365380.
Corbera, E., Soberanis, C.G., and Brown, K. (2009), ‘Institutional dimensions of Payments for Ecosystem Services: an analysis of Mexico's carbon forestry programme’, Ecological Economics 68(3): 743761.
Dehejia, R.H. and Wahba, S. (2002), ‘Propensity score-matching methods for nonexperimental causal studies’, Review of Economics and Statistics 84(1): 151161.
de Man, M. (2004), ‘Local impacts and effectiveness of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: the case of payments for forest hydrological services in Costa Rica's Aranjuez watershed’, Utretch University, TC Utrecht.
Dempsey, J. and Robertson, M.M. (2012), ‘Ecosystem services: tensions, impurities, and points of engagement within neoliberalism’, Progress in Human Geography 36: 758779.
Echavarria, M., Vogel, J., Albán, M., and Meneses, F. (2002), ‘Impact assessment of watershed environmental services: emerging lessons from Pimampiro and Cuenca’, London: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).
Ellis, F. and Freeman, H. (2005), ‘Conceptual framework and overview of themes’, in Ellis, F. and Freeman, H. (eds), Rural Livelihoods and Poverty Reduction Policies, New York: Routledge, pp. 315.
Engel, S., Pagiola, S., and Wunder, S. (2008), ‘Designing payments for environmental services in theory and practice: an overview of the issues’, Ecological Economics 65(4): 663674.
FAO (2007a), Paying Farmers for Environmental Services: The State of Food and Agriculture, 2007, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
FAO (2007b), State of the World's Forests, 2007, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Ferraro, P.J. (2009), ‘Regional review of payments for watershed services: Sub-Saharan Africa’, Journal of Sustainable Forestry 28(3): 525550.
Ferraro, P.J. and Pattanayak, S.K. (2006), ‘Money for nothing? A call for empirical evaluation of biodiversity conservation investments’, PLoS Biology 4(4): e105.
Ferraro, P.J. and Simpson, R.D. (2002), ‘The cost-effectiveness of conservation payments’, Land Economics 78(3): 339353.
German, L., Ruhweza, A., Mwesigwa, R., and Kalanzi, C. (2011), ‘Social and environmental footprints of carbon payments: a case study from Uganda’, in Tacconi, L., Mahanty, S. and Suich, H. (eds), Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change: Livelihoods in the REDD?, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 160184.
Grieg-Gran, M., Porras, I., and Wunder, S. (2005), ‘How can market mechanisms for forest environmental services help the poor? Preliminary lessons from Latin America’, World Development 33(9): 15111527.
Heckman, J.J., LaLonde, R.J., and Smith, J.A. (1999), ‘The economics and econometrics of active labor market programs’, in Ashenfelter, O. and Card, D. (eds), Handbook of Labor Economics, vol. 3A, New York: North Holland, pp. 18652097.
Hejnowicz, A.P., Raffaelli, D.G., Rudd, M.A., and White, P.C.L. (2014), ‘Evaluating the outcomes of payments for ecosystem services programmes using a capital asset framework’, Ecosystem Services 9: 8397.
Hope, R., Porras, I., Miranda, M., Agarwal, C., and Amezaga, J. (2005), ‘Are the upland poor benefiting from environmental service reward schemes’, ETFRN News.
Huang, M., Upadhyaya, S., Jindal, R., and Kerr, J. (2009), ‘Payments for watershed services in Asia: a review of current initiatives’, Journal of Sustainable Forestry 28(3): 551575.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), ‘Summary for policymakers’, in Metz, B., Davidson, O.R., Bosch, P.R., Dave, R. and Meyer, L.A. (eds), Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 124.
Jindal, R. (2006), ‘Carbon sequestration projects in Africa: potential benefits and challenges to scaling up’, Earth Trends Environmental Essay Competition Winner. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Kosoy, N., Corbera, E., and Brown, K. (2008), ‘Participation in payments for ecosystem services: case studies from the Lacandon rainforest, Mexico’, Geoforum 39(6): 20732083.
Landell-Mills, N. and Porras, I.T. (2002), Silver Bullet or Fools' Gold? A Global Review of Markets for Forest Environmental Services and their Impact on the Poor, London: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).
Leimona, B., Pasha, R., and Rahadian, N. (2010), ‘The livelihood impacts of incentive payments for watershed management in Cidanau watershed, West Java, Indonesia’, in Tacconi, L., Mahanty, S. and Suich, H. (eds), Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change: Livelihoods in the REDD?, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 106129.
Liniger, H., Studer, R.M., Hauert, C., and Gurtner, M. (2011), Sustainable Land Management in Practice – Guidelines and Best Practices for Sub-Saharan Africa, Midrand: TerrAfrica; Berne: WOCAT; Rome: FAO.
Locatelli, B., Rojas, V., and Salinas, Z. (2008), ‘Impacts of payments for environmental services on local development in northern Costa Rica: a fuzzy multi-criteria analysis’, Forest Policy and Economics 10(5): 275285.
Lopa, D., Mwanyoka, I., Jambiya, G., et al. (2012), ‘Towards operational payments for water ecosystem services in Tanzania: a case study from the Uluguru Mountains’, Oryx 46(1): 3444.
Martin, A., Gross-Camp, N., Kebede, B., and McGuire, S. (2014), ‘Measuring effectiveness, efficiency and equity in an experimental Payments for Ecosystem Services trial’, Global Environmental Change 28: 216226.
Matzdorf, B. and Meyer, C. (2014), ‘The relevance of the ecosystem services framework for developed countries’ environmental policies: a comparative case study of the US and EU', Land Use Policy 38: 509521.
McAfee, K. and Shapiro, E.N. (2010), ‘Payments for ecosystem services in Mexico: nature, neoliberalism, social movements, and the state’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 100: 579599.
Miles, L. and Kapos, V. (2008), ‘Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: global land-use implications’, Science 320(5882): 14541455.
Miranda, M., Porras, I.T., and Moreno, M.L. (2003), ‘The social impacts of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica. A quantitative field survey and analysis of the Virilla watershed’, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Molnar, A., Liddle, M., Bracer, C., Khare, A., White, A., and Bull, J. (2008), ‘Community-based forest enterprises: their status and potential in tropical countries’, ITTO Technical Series No. 28, International Tropical Timber Organization, Yokohama.
Muradian, R., Corbera, E., Pascual, U., Kosoy, N., and May, P.H. (2010), ‘Reconciling theory and practice: an alternative conceptual framework for understanding payments for environmental services’, Ecological Economics 69(6): 12021208.
Neuendorf, K.A. (2002), The Content Analysis Guidebook, New York: Sage.
Pagiola, S. (2005), Assessing the Efficiency of Payments for Environmental Services Programs: A Framework for Analysis, Washington, DC: World Bank.
Pagiola, S. and Platais, G. (2007), Payments for Environmental Services: From Theory to Practice, Washington, DC: World Bank.
Pagiola, S., Arcenas, A., and Platais, G. (2005), ‘Can payments for environmental services help reduce poverty? An exploration of the issues and the evidence to date from Latin America’, World Development 33(2): 237253.
Pascual, U., Muradian, R., Rodríguez, L.C., and Duraiappah, A. (2010), ‘Exploring the links between equity and efficiency in payments for environmental services: a conceptual approach’, Ecological Economics 69(6): 12371244.
Pattanayak, S., (2009), ‘Rough guide to impact evaluation of environmental and development programs’, SANDEE Working Paper No. 40-09, Kathmandu.
Porras, I., Grieg-Gran, M., and Neves, N. (2008), ‘All that glitters: a review of payments for watershed services in developing countries’, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Ravallion, M. (2007), ‘Evaluating anti-poverty programs’, in Schultz, T.P. and Strauss, J. (eds), Handbook of Development Economics, Volume 4, Amsterdam: North Holland, pp. 37873846.
Redford, K.H. and Adams, W.M. (2009), ‘Payment for ecosystem services and the challenge of saving nature’, Conservation Biology 23(4): 785787.
Robertson, N. and Wunder, S. (2005), Fresh Tracks in the Forest: Assessing Incipient Payments for Environmental Services Initiatives in Bolivia, Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).
Rosenbaum, P.R. (2002), Observational Studies, New York: Springer.
Rosenbaum, P.R. and Rubin, D.B. (1983), ‘The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects’, Biometrika 70(1): 4155.
Scales, I.R. (2015), ‘Paying for nature: what every conservationist should know about political economy’, Oryx 49(2): 226231.
Schomers, S. and Matzdorf, B. (2013), ‘Payments for ecosystem services: a review and comparison of developing and industrialized countries’, Ecosystem Services 6: 1630.
Singh, N.M. (2015), ‘Payments for ecosystem services and the gift paradigm: sharing the burden and joy of environmental care’, Ecological Economics 117: 5361.
Smith, H.F. and Sullivan, C.A. (2014), ‘Ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes – farmers’ perceptions', Ecological Economics 98: 7280.
Sommerville, M.M., Jones, J.P.G., and Milner-Gulland, E. (2009), ‘A revised conceptual framework for payments for environmental services’, Ecology and Society 14(2): 34.
Stevenson, J.R., Serraj, R., and Cassman, K.G. (2014), ‘Evaluating conservation agriculture for small-scale farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 187: 110.
Tacconi, L., Mahanty, S., and Suich, H. (eds) (2010), Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change: Livelihoods in the REDD?, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Tacconi, L., Mahanty, S., and Suich, H. (2011), ‘PES schemes' impacts on livelihoods and implications for REDD activities’, in Tacconi, L., Mahanty, S. and Suich, H. (eds), Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change: Livelihoods in the REDD?, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 244260.
Tachibana, T. and Adhikari, S. (2009), ‘Does community-based management improve natural resource condition? Evidence from the forests in Nepal’, Land Economics 85(1): 107131.
TerrAfrica, (2007), ‘Strategic Investment Program for sustainable land management in sub- Saharan Africa (SIP)’, Washington, DC: TerrAfrica Secretariat.
Vatn, A. (2010), ‘An institutional analysis of payments for environmental services’, Ecological Economics 69(6): 12451252.
White, H. and Barbu, A. (2006), ‘Impact evaluation – the experience of the independent evaluation group of the World Bank’, Washington, DC: World Bank.
Wunder, S. (2005), ‘Payments for environmental services: some nuts and bolts’, CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 42, Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor.
Wunder, S. (2006), ‘Are direct payments for environmental services spelling doom for sustainable forest management in the tropics?’, Ecology and Society 11(2): 23.
Wunder, S. (2007), ‘The efficiency of payment for environmental services in tropical conservation’, Conservation Biology 21(1): 4858.
Wunder, S. (2008), ‘Payments for environmental services and the poor: concepts and preliminary evidence’, Environment and Development Economics 13(3): 279297.
Wunder, S. (2015), ‘Revisiting the concept of payments for environmental services’, Ecological Economics 117: 234243.
Wunder, S. and Albán, M. (2008), ‘Decentralized payments for environmental services: the cases of Pimampiro and PROFAFOR in Ecuador’, Ecological Economics 65(4): 685698.
Wunder, S., Engel, S., and Pagiola, S. (2008), ‘Taking stock: a comparative analysis of payments for environmental services programs in developed and developing countries’, Ecological Economics 65(4): 834852.
Wunder, S., Angelsen, A., and Belcher, B. (2014), ‘Forests, livelihoods, and conservation: broadening the empirical base’, World Development 64, Suppl. 1: S1S11.
Zilberman, D., Lipper, L., and McCarthy, N. (2008), ‘When could payments for environmental services benefit the poor?’, Environment and Development Economics 13: 255278.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed