The effects of economic development on the exploitation of renewable resources are investigated in settings where property rights are ill defined or not enforced. This paper explores potential conservation implications from labor and product market developments, such as enhanced transportation infrastructure. A model is developed that predicts individual fish catch per unit effort based on characteristics of individual fishermen and the development status of their villages. The econometric model is estimated using data from a cross-sectional household survey of artisanal coral reef fishermen in Minahasa, Indonesia, taking account of fishermen heterogeneity. Variation across different villages and across fishermen within the villages is used to explore the effects of development. Strong evidence is found for the countervailing forces of product and labor market effects on the exploitation of a coral reef fishery.
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