Agrawal, A. (2003) Sustainable governance of common-pool resources: context, methods, and politics. Annual Review of Anthropology 32: 234–262.
Agrawal, A. (2005) Environmentality: Technologies of Government and the Making of Subjects. Durham, NC, USA: Duke University Press.
Agrawal, A., Chhatre, A. & Hardin, R. (2008) Changing governance of the world's forests. Science 320: 1460–1462.
Alchian, A. & Demsetz, H. (1973) The property right paradigm. Journal of Economic History 33 (1): 16–27.
Anderies, J.M., Janssen, M. & Ostrom, E. (2004) A framework to analyze the robustness of social-ecological systems from an institutional perspective. Ecology and Society 9 (1): 18.
Andersson, K., Gibson, C. & Lehoucq, F. (2006) Municipal politics and forest governance: comparative analysis of decentralization in Bolivia and Guatemala. World Development 34 (3): 576–595.
Armitage, D., Berkes, F. & Doubleday, N., eds (2007) Adaptive Co-Management: Collaboration, Learning and Multi-Level Governance. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press.
Banana, A.Y. & Gombya-Ssembajjwe, W. (2000) Successful forest management: the importance of security of tenure and rule enforcement in Ugandan forests. In: People and Forests: Communities, Institutions, and Governance, ed. Gibson, C.C., McKean, M.A. & Ostrom, E., pp. 87–98. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
Banana, A.Y., Vogt, N., Bahati, J. & Gombya-Ssembajjwe, W. (2007) Decentralized governance and ecological health: why local institutions fail to moderate deforestation in Mpigi District of Uganda. Scientific Research and Essays 2 (10): 434–445.
Barrett, C.B., Brandon, K., Gibson, C. & Gjertsen, H. (2001) Conserving tropical biodiversity amid weak institutions. Bioscience 51: 497–502.
Batistella, M., Robeson, S. & Moran, E.F. (2003) Settlement design, forest fragmentation, and landscape change in Rondônia, Amazônia. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 69 (7): 805–812.
Berkes, F. (2002) Cross-scale institutional linkages: perspectives from the bottom up. In: The Drama of the Commons, ed. Ostrom, E., Dietz, T., Dolšak, N., Stern, P.C., Stonich, S. & Weber, E.U., pp. 293–322. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.
Berkes, F. (2007) Community-based conservation in a globalized world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (39): 15188–15193.
Berkes, F. & Folke, C. (1998) Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge, MA, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Berkes, F. & Turner, N.J. (2006) Knowledge, learning and the evolution of conservation practice for social-ecological system resilience. Human Ecology 34 (4): 479–494.
Blaikie, P. (2006) Is small really beautiful? Community-based natural resource management in Malawi and Botswana. World Development 34 (11): 1942–1957.
Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Pimbert, M., Farvar, M.T., Kothari, A. & Renard, Y. (2007) Sharing Power: Learning-By-Doing in Co-Management of Natural Resources. London, UK: Earthscan.
Brander, J.A. & Scott Taylor, M. (1998) Open access renewable resources: trade and trade policy in a two-country model. Journal of International Economics 44: 181–209.
Bray, D.B. (2010) Capitalism meets common-property. Americas Quarterly Winter: 30–35.
Brock, W.A. & Carpenter, S.R. (2007) Panaceas and diversification of environmental policy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (39): 15206–15211.
Bromley, D., Feeny, D., McKean, M., Peters, P., Gilles, J., Oakerson, R., Runge, C.F. & Thomson, J., eds. (1992) Making the Commons Work: Theory, Practice, and Policy. San Francisco, CA, USA: ICS Press.
Brunckhorst, D.J. (2010) Using context in novel community-based natural resource management: landscapes of property, policy and place. Environmental Conservation 37 (1): 16–22.
Brunckhorst, D., Coop, P. & Reeve, I. (2006) ‘Eco-civic’ optimisation: a nested framework for planning and managing landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning 72 (5): 117–134.
Brunckhorst, D., Reeve, I., Morley, P. & Bock, K. (2008) Strategic spatial governance: deriving social–ecological frameworks for managing landscapes and regions. In: Landscape Analysis and Visualisation: Spatial Models for Natural Resource Management and Planning, ed. Pettit, C., Cartwright, W., Bishop, I., Lowell, K., Pullar, D. & Duncan, D., pp. 253–276. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
Brunson, M.W. & Huntsinger, L. (2008) Ranching as a conservation strategy: can old ranchers save the new west? Rangeland Ecology and Management 61 (2): 137–147.
Campbell, B.M., Gordon, I.J., Luckert, M.K., Petheram, L. & Vetter, S. (2006) In search of optimal stocking regimes in semi-arid grazing lands: one size does not fit all. Ecological Economics 60 (1): 75–85.
Canadell, J.G. & Raupach, M.R. (2008) Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science 320: 1456–1457.
Carlsson, L. & Berkes, F. (2005) Co-management: concepts and methodological implications. Journal of Environmental Management 75: 65–76.
Cash, D.W, Clark, W.C., Alcock, F., Dickson, N.M., Eckley, N., Guston, D.H., Jager, J. & Mitchell, R.B. (2003) Knowledge systems for sustainable development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (14): 8086–8091.
Chapin, F.S., Matson, P.A. & Mooney, H.A. (2002) Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. New York, NY, USA: Springer.
Chhatre, A. & Agrawal, A. (2008) Forest commons and local enforcement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (36): 13286–13291.
Cleaver, F. (1999) Paradoxes of participation: questioning participatory approaches to development. Journal of International Development 11: 597–612.
Cleaver, F. (2000) Moral ecological rationality, institutions and the management of common property resources. Development and Change 31 (2): 361–383.
Coleman, E. (2009) Institutional factors affecting ecological outcomes in forest management. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 28 (1): 122–146.
Coleman, E. & Steed, B. (2009) Monitoring and sanctioning in the commons: an application to forestry. Ecological Economics 68 (7): 2106–2113.
Cooper, J., Bernstein, J. & Claasen, R. (2005) Overview of agri-environmental programmes in the European Union and the United States. Farm Policy Journal 2:31–41.
Cox, M. (2008) Balancing accuracy and meaning in common-pool resource theory. Ecology and Society 13 (2): 44.
Cox, M. (2010) Exploring the dynamics of social-ecological systems: the case of the Taos valley acequias. Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, Indiana, USA.
Cox, M., Arnold, B. & Villamayor-Tomas, S. (2010) A review of design principles for community-based natural resource management. Ecology and Society (in press).
Dallmeier, F. & Comiskey, J.A. (1998) Forest Biodiversity in North, Central and South America, and the Caribbean: Research and Monitoring. Paris, France: UNESCO.
Dasgupta, P. & Heal, G.M. (1979) Economic Theory and Exhaustible Resources. Cambridge, MA, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Degnbol, P., Gislason, H., Hanna, S., Jentoft, S., Raakjær, J., Nielsen, Sverdrup-Jensen S. & Clyde Wilson, D. (2006) Painting the floor with a hammer: technical fixes in fisheries management. Marine Policy 30: 534–543.
Dietz, T., Ostrom, E. & Stern, P.C. (2003) The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302 (5652): 1907–1912.
Dressler, W., Büscher, B., Schoon, M., Brockington, D., Hayes, T., Kull, C.A., McCarthy, J. & Shrestha, K. (2010) From hope to crisis and back again? A critical history of the global CBNRM narrative. Environmental Conservation 37 (1): 5–15.
Evans, P. (2004) Development as institutional change: the pitfalls of monocropping and the potentials of deliberation. Studies in Comparative International Development 38 (4): 30–52.
Fairfax, S.K., Gwin, L., King, M.A., Raymond, L. & Watt, L.A. (2005) The Limits of Land Acquisition as a Conservation Strategy, 1780–2004. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
FAO (2010) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Feeny, D., Berkes, F., McCay, B.J. & Acheson, J.M. (1990) The tragedy of the commons: twenty-two years later. Human Ecology 18 (1): 1–19.
George, A.L. & Bennett, A. (2005) Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
Ghate, R. & Nagendra, H. (2005) Role of monitoring in institutional performance: forest management in Maharashtra, India. Conservation and Society 3 (2): 509–532.
Gibson, C.C., McKean, M.A. & Ostrom, E., eds. (2000) People and Forests: Communities, Institutions, and Governance. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
Gibson, C.C., Williams, J.T. & Ostrom, E. (2005) Local enforcement and better forests. World Development 33 (2): 273–284.
Hackel, J.D. (1999) Community conservation and the future of Africa's wildlife. Conservation Biology 13 (4): 726–734.
Hanna, S. & Munasinghe, M. (1995) Property Rights in a Social and Ecological Context; Case Studies and Design Principles. Washington, DC, USA: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and The World Bank.
Hardin, G. (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science 162 (3859): 1243–1248.
Hayek, F. (1945) The use of knowledge in society. American Economic Review 35 (4): 519–530.
Hayes, T. (2006) Parks, people, and forest protection: an institutional assessment of the effectiveness of protected areas. World Development 34 (12): 2064–2075.
Hill, R., Williams, K J., Pert, P.L., Robinson, C.J., Dale, A.P., Westcott, D.A., Grace, R.A. & O'Malley, T. (2010) Adaptive community-based biodiversity conservation in Australia's tropical rainforests. Environmental Conservation 37 (1): 73–82.
Johnson, K., Swanson, F., Herring, M. & Greene, S. (1999) Bioregional Assessments: Science at the Crossroads of Management and Policy. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Korten, D.C. (1980) Community organization and rural development: a learning process approach. Public Administration Review 40 (5): 480–511.
Lam, W.-F. (1998) Governing Irrigation Systems in Nepal: Institutions, Infrastructure, and Collective Action. San Francisco, CA, USA: ICS Press.
Levin, S.A. (1992) The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73: 1943–1967.
Levin, S.A. (1999) Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Cambridge, MA, USA: Perseus Books.
Lovejoy, T.E. (2006) Protected areas: a prism for a changing world. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 329–333.
Lubell, M. (2005) Public learning and grassroots cooperation. In: Adaptive Governance and Water Conflict: New Institutions for Collaborative Planning, ed. Scholz, J.T. & Stiftel, B., pp. 174–184. Washington, DC, USA: Resources for the Future Press.
Marshall, G. (2005) Economics for Collaborative Environmental Management: Renegotiating the Commons. London, UK: Earthscan.
McGinnis, M. (1999) Polycentricity and Local Public Economies: Readings from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan Press.
McGinnis, M. (2010) Building a programme for institutional analysis of social-ecological systems: a review of revisions to the SES framework. Working Paper. Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
Meinzen-Dick, R. (2007) Beyond panaceas in water institutions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (39): 15200–15206.
Moller, H., Berkes, F., Lyver, P.O. & Kislalioglu, M. (2004) Combining science and traditional ecological knowledge: monitoring populations for co-management. Ecology and Society 9 (3): 2.
Murphree, M.W. (2002) Protected areas and the commons. Common Property Resource Digest 60: 1–3.
Netting, R.M. (1972) Of men and meadows: strategies of alpine land use. Anthropological Quarterly 45: 132–144.
NRC (1986) Proceedings of the Conference on Common Property Resource Management. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.
NRC (2002) The Drama of the Commons. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.
Ostrom, E. (1986) An agenda for the study of institutions. Public Choice 48 (1): 3–25.
Ostrom, E. (1990) Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, E. (2005) Understanding Institutional Diversity. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press.
Ostrom, E. (2007 a). Institutional rational choice: an assessment of the institutional analysis and development framework. In: Theories of the Policy Process, 2nd edition, ed. Sabatier, P.A., pp. 21–64. Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press.
Ostrom, E. (2007 b) A diagnostic approach for going beyond panaceas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (39): 15181–15187.
Ostrom, E. (2009) A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science 325: 419–422.
Ostrom, E. & Nagendra, H. (2006) Insights on linking forests, trees, and people from the air, on the ground, and in the laboratory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (51): 19224–19231.
Ostrom, E. & Parks, R.B. (1999) Neither gargantua nor the land of lilliputs: conjectures on mixed systems of metropolitan organization. In: Polycentricity and Local Public Economies: Readings from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, ed. McGinnis, M., pp. 284–305. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan Press.
Ostrom, E., Gardner, R. & Walker, J. (1994) Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan Press.
Ostrom, E., Janssen, M. & Anderies, M.A. (2007) Going beyond panaceas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (39): 15176–15178.
Ostrom, E., Parks, R.B. & Whitaker, G.P. (1978) Patterns of Metropolitan Policing. Cambridge, MA, USA: Ballinger.
Ostrom, V. (1999 a) Polycentricity (Part 1). In: Polycentricity and Local Public Economies: Readings from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, ed. McGinnis, M., pp. 52–74. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan Press.
Ostrom, V. (1999 b) Polycentricity (Part 2). In: Polycentricity and Local Public Economies: Readings from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, ed. McGinnis, M., pp. 119–138. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: University of Michigan Press.
Pagdee, A., Kim, Y. & Daugherty, P.J. (2006) What makes community forest management successful: a meta-study from community forests throughout the world. Society and Natural Resources 19 (1): 33–52.
Poteete, A.R. & Ostrom, E. (2004) Heterogeneity, group size and collective action: the role of institutions in forest management. Development and Change 35 (3): 437–461.
Poteete, A.R., Janssen, M. & Ostrom, E. (2010) Working Together: Collective Action, the Commons, and Multiple Methods in Practice. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press.
Ragin, C.C. (1987) The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, USA: University of California Press.
Ragin, C.C. (2000) Fuzzy Set Social Science. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
Ragin, C.C. (2008) Redesigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy Sets and Beyond. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
Rose, C. (2002) Common property, regulatory property, and environmental protection: comparing community-based management to tradable environmental allowances. In: The Drama of the Commons, ed. Ostrom, E., Dietz, T., Dolšak, N., Stern, P.C., Stonich, S. & Weber, E., pp. 233–258. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press.
Rudel, T.K. (2008) Meta-analysis of case studies: a method for studying regional and global climate change. Global Environmental Change 18 (1): 18–25.
Sandström, C. (2009) Institutional dimensions of comanagement: Participation, power and process. Society and Natural Resources 22: 230–244
Satria, A., Matsuda, Y. & Sano, M. (2006) Questioning community based coral reef management systems: case study of Awig-Awig in Gili Indah, Indonesia. Environment, Development and Sustainability 8: 99–118.
Schlager, E. (1990) Model specification and policy analysis: the governance of coastal fisheries. PhD dissertation, Indiana University, USA.
Schlager, E. (2007) A comparison of frameworks, theories, and models of policy processes. In: Theories of the Policy Process, 2nd edition, ed. Sabatier, P.A., pp. 293–320. Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press.
Schlager, E. & Ostrom, E. (1992) Property-regimes and natural resources: a conceptual analysis. Land Economics 68 (3): 249–262.
Scholz, J.T. & Wang, C-L. (2006) Cooptation or transformation? Local policy networks and federal regulatory enforcement. American Journal of Political Science 50 (1): 81–97.
Schoon, M. & Cox, M. (2010) Understanding disturbances and responses in social-ecological systems. Society and Natural Resources. In press.
Scott, J. (1998) Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition have Failed. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press.
Shackleton, C. & Shackleton, S. (2004) The importance of non-timber forest products in rural livelihood security and as safety nets: a review of evidence from South Africa. South African Journal of Science 100: 658–664.
Shanmugaratnam, N. (1996) Nationalisation, privatisation, and the dilemmas of common property management in western Rajasthan. Journal of Development Studies 33: 163–187.
Shivakoti, G.P. & Ostrom, E., eds. (2002) Improving Irrigation Governance and Management in Nepal. San Francisco, CA, USA: ICS Press.
St Martin, K., McCay, B.J., Murray, G., Johnson, T. & Oles, B. (2007) Communities, knowledge and fisheries of the future. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues 7 (2/3): 221–239.
Stavins, R.N. (2008) Addressing climate change with a comprehensive U.S. cap-and-trade system. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 24 (2): 298–321.
Steins, N.A. & Edwards, V.M. (1999) Collective action on common pool resource management: the contribution of a social constructivist perspective to existing theory. Society and Natural Resources 12: 539–557.
Tang, S.Y. (1992) Institutions and Collective Action: Self-Governance in Irrigation. San Francisco, CA, USA: ICS Press.
Terborgh, J. (1999) Requiem for Nature. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Trawick, P.B. (2001) Successfully governing the commons: principles of social organization in an Andean irrigation system. Human Ecology 29 (1): 1–25.
Tucker, C.M. (2008) Changing Forests: Collective Action, Common Property, and Coffee in Honduras. New York, NY, USA: Springer.
Walker, B. & Salt, D. (2006) Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Webb, E. & Shivakoti, G.P., eds. (2008) Decentralization, Forests and Rural Communities: Policy Outcomes in South and Southeast Asia. New Delhi, India: Sage India.
Weimer, D.L. & Vining, A.R. (2005) Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice. 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall.
Western, D. & Wright, R.M. (1994) The background to community-based conservation. In: Natural Connections: Perspectives in Community-Based Conservation, ed. Western, D. & Wright, R.M., pp. 1–14. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.
Wollenberg, E., Merino, L., Agrawal, A. & Ostrom, E. (2007) Fourteen years of monitoring community-managed forests: learning from IFRI's experience. International Forestry Review 9 (2): 670–684.
Young, O. (2002) The Institutional Dimensions of Environmental Change: Fit, Interplay, and Scale. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.