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Acute myocardial infarctions, strokes and influenza: seasonal and pandemic effects

  • E. D. FOSTER (a1), J. E. CAVANAUGH (a1), W. G. HAYNES (a2), M. YANG (a1), A. K. GERKE (a3), F. TANG (a1) and P. M. POLGREEN (a4) (a5)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 03 January 2013

The incidence of myocardial infarctions and influenza follow similar seasonal patterns. To determine if acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) and ischaemic strokes are associated with influenza activity, we built time-series models using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. In these models, we used influenza activity to predict the incidence of AMI and ischaemic stroke. We fitted national models as well as models based on four geographical regions and five age groups. Across all models, we found consistent significant associations between AMIs and influenza activity, but not between ischaemic strokes and influenza. Associations between influenza and AMI increased with age, were greatest in those aged >80 years, and were present in all geographical regions. In addition, the natural experiment provided by the second wave of the influenza pandemic in 2009 provided further evidence of the relationship between influenza and AMI, because both series peaked in the same non-winter month.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Mr E. D. Foster, Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, 105 River Street, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. (Email:
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Epidemiology & Infection
  • ISSN: 0950-2688
  • EISSN: 1469-4409
  • URL: /core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection
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