1 Eric Roston and Blacki Migliozzi, “How a Melting Arctic Changes Everything; Part II: The Political Arctic,” Bloomberg, May 16, 2017, www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2017-arctic/the-political-arctic. See also “The Emerging Arctic,” Council on Foreign Relations, www.cfr.org/interactives/emerging-arctic?cid=otr_marketing_use-arctic_Infoguide%2523!#!/emerging-arctic?cid=otr_marketing_use-arctic_Infoguide%2523; Ronald O'Rourke, Laura B. Comay, Peter Folger, John Frittelli, Marc Humphries, Jane A. Leggett, Jonathan L. Ramseur, Pervaze A. Sheikh, and Harold F. Upton, Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2019), crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R41153.
8 Quoted in Keupp, Marcus Matthias, “Arctic Security, Sovereignty, and Rights of Utilization: Implications for the Northern Sea Route,” in Keupp, Marcus Matthias, ed., The Northern Sea Route: A Comprehensive Analysis (Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer, 2015), p. 23.
9 From European and East Asian ports, the Northern Sea Route is around 6,000 nautical miles shorter than the route around the Cape of Good Hope; around 2,700 nautical miles shorter than routes through the Suez Canal; and around 5,400 nautical miles shorter than the route through the Panama Canal. See Yevgeny Aksenov, Ekaterina E. Popova, Andrew Yoo, A. J. George Nurser, Timothy D. Williams, Laurent Bertino, and Bergh, Jon, “On the Future Navigability of Arctic Sea Routes: High-Resolution Projections of the Arctic Ocean and Sea Ice,” Marine Policy 75 (January 2017), p. 301.
13 Conley, Heather A., Pumphrey, David L., Toland, Terence M., and David, Mihaela, Arctic Economics in the 21st Century: The Benefits and Costs of Cold (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013). See also Gautier, Donald L., Bird, Kenneth J., Charpentier, Ronald R., Grantz, Arthur, Houseknecht, David W., Klett, Timothy R., Moore, Thomas E., et al. , “Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Arctic,” Science 324, no. 5931 (May 2009), pp. 1175–79; Henderson, James and Loe, Julia, The Prospects and Challenges for Arctic Oil Development (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, November 2014), p. 4, www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/WPM-56.pdf.
14 Bird, Kenneth J., Charpentier, Ronald R., Gautier, Donald L., Houseknecht, David W., Klett, Timothy R., Pitman, Janet K., Moore, Thomas E., Schenk, Christopher J., Tennyson, Marilyn E., and Wandrey, Craig J., Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of the Arctic Circle, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2008–3049 (Reston, Va.: US Geological Survey, 2008), pp. 1–4; Jeff Desjardins, “This Infographic Shows How Gigantic the Arctic's Undiscovered Oil Reserves Might Be,” Business Insider, April 7, 2016, www.businessinsider.com/how-gigantic-arctics-undiscovered-oil-reserves-might-be-2016-4.
15 Bird et al., Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal, p. 1.
16 Conley et al., Arctic Economics in the 21st Century, p. 19.
17 Hassol, Susan Joy, Impacts of a Warming Climate: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 5.
18 Eli Kintisch, “These Ice Cellars Fed Arctic People for Generations: Now They're Melting,” National Geographic, October 30, 2015, news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/10/151030-ice-cellar-arctic-melting-climate-change/; Fritz Allhoff, “Alaska, Food Security, and Climate Change,” Law and Biosciences Blog, April 25, 2016, law.stanford.edu/2016/04/25/alaska-food-security-and-climate-change/; Fritz Allhoff and Luke Golemon, “Bioethics in the Arctic: The Alaska Context,” HEC Forum (forthcoming).
20 Allhoff and Golemon, “Bioethics in the Arctic.”
21 Commane, Róisín, Lindaas, Jakob, Benmergui, Joshua, Luus, Kristina A., Chang, Rachel Y.-W., Daube, Bruce C., Euskirchen, Eugénie S., et al. , “Carbon Dioxide Sources from Alaska Driven by Increasing Early Winter Respiration from Arctic Tundra,” PNAS 114, no. 21 (May 2017), pp. 5361–66.
22 Schuster, Paul F., Schaefer, Kevin M., Aiken, George R., Antweiler, Ronald C., Dewild, John F., Gryziec, Joshua D., Gusmeroli, Alessio, et al. , “Permafrost Stores a Globally Significant Amount of Mercury,” Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 3 (February 2018), pp. 1463–71.
23 Heininen, Lassi, “State of the Arctic Strategies and Policies—A Summary,” Arctic Yearbook (2012), p. 2. See also Brosnan, Ian G., Leschine, Thomas M., and Miles, Edward L., “Cooperation or Conflict in a Changing Arctic? Opportunities for Maritime Cooperation in Arctic National Strategies,” in Zellen, Barry Scott, ed., The Fast-Changing Arctic: Rethinking Arctic Security for a Warmer World (Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2013), pp. 83–102.
26 See Scharre, Paul, Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War (New York: W. W. Norton, 2018); Robert Work, “Remarks by Deputy Secretary Work on Third Offset Strategy” (speech, European Policy Committee Meeting, Brussels, April 28, 2016); Lin, Patrick, “Military 2.0: Ethical Blowback from Emerging Technologies,” Journal of Military Ethics 9, no. 4 (December 2010), pp. 313–31.
32 Allhoff, “Alaska, Food Security, and Climate Change.”
37 Clement, Joel P., Bengtson, John L., and Kelly, Brendan P., Managing for the Future in a Rapidly Changing Arctic: A Report to the President (Washington, D.C.: Interagency Working Group on Coordination of Domestic Energy Development and Permitting in Alaska, March 2013), pp. 20–21, 30, www.afsc.noaa.gov/publications/misc_pdf/iamreport.pdf. See also Clark, Dylan and Ford, James D., “Emergency Response in a Rapidly Changing Arctic,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 189, no. 4 (January 2017), pp. E135–36.
38 Allhoff and Golemon, “Bioethics in the Arctic.”
40 Allhoff and Golemon, “Bioethics in the Arctic.”
46 Palma, David and Birkeland, Roger, “Enabling the Internet of Arctic Things with Freely-Drifting Small-Satellite Swarms,” IEEE Access 6 (November 13, 2018), pp. 71435–43, ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8533329.
48 Clement et al., Managing for the Future in a Rapidly Changing Arctic, pp. 18–21.
49 Ronald O'Rourke, Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress [May 24, 2018] (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, 2018), www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=811054.
56 O'Rourke, Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China.
60 Lin, “Moral Gray Space of AI Decisions.”