Hostname: page-component-797576ffbb-k7d4m Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-12-10T15:19:30.983Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Brain imaging findings in children and adolescents with mental disorders: A cross-sectional review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 April 2020

S. Mana*
Service hospitalier central de médecine nucléaire et neurospin, INSERM–CEA, Research Unit 1000 “Neuroimaging & psychiatry”, University Paris Sud and University Paris Descartes, 4, place Gl.-Leclerc, 91401Orsay, France
M.-L. Paillère Martinot
Department of Adolescent Psychopathology and Medicine, maison de Solenn, hôpital Cochin, AP–HP, University Paris Descartes, 75014Paris, France
J.-L. Martinot
Service hospitalier central de médecine nucléaire et neurospin, INSERM–CEA, Research Unit 1000 “Neuroimaging & psychiatry”, University Paris Sud and University Paris Descartes, 4, place Gl.-Leclerc, 91401Orsay, France
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 1 69867757; fax: +33 1 16986 7810. E-mail address: (S. Mana).
Get access



While brain imaging studies of juvenile patients has expanded in recent years to investigate the cerebral neurophysiologic correlates of psychiatric disorders, this research field remains scarce. The aim of the present review was to cluster the main mental disorders according to the differential brain location of the imaging findings recently reported in children and adolescents reports. A second objective was to describe the worldwide distribution and the main directions of the recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron tomography (PET) studies in these patients.


A survey of 423 MRI and PET articles published between 2005 and 2008 was performed. A principal component analysis (PCA), then an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis, were applied on brain regional information retrieved from articles in order to cluster the various disorders with respect to the cerebral structures where alterations were reported. Furthermore, descriptive analysis characterized the literature production.


Two hundred and seventy-four articles involving children and adolescent patients were analyzed. Both the PCA and ALE methods clustered, three groups of diagnosed psychiatric disorders, according to the brain structural and functional locations: one group of affective disorders characterized by abnormalities of the frontal-limbic regions; a group of mental disorders with “cognition deficits” mainly related to cortex abnormalities; and one psychomotor condition associated with abnormalities in the basal ganglia. The descriptive analysis indicates a focus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and autism spectrum disorders, a general steady rise in the number of annual reports, and lead of US research.


This cross-sectional review of child and adolescent mental disorders based on neuroimaging findings suggests overlaps of brain locations that allow to cluster the diagnosed disorders into three sets with respectively marked affective, cognitive, and psychomotor phenomenology. Furthermore, the brain imaging research effort was unequally distributed across disorders, and did not reflect their prevalence.

Brain Anatomy and Imaging
Copyright © Elsevier Masson SAS 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Abelson, RPComputer simulation of “hot cognitions”Tomkins, S, Mesick, S, Computer simulation of personality. New York: Wiley; 1963.Google Scholar
Adler, CM, Adams, J, DelBello, MP, Holland, SK, Schmithorst, V, Levine, Aet al.Evidence of white matter pathology in bipolar disorder adolescents experiencing their first episode of mania: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163(2):322324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amaral, DG, Schumann, CM, Nordahl, CWNeuroanatomy of autism. Trends Neurosci 2008;31:137145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amat, JA, Bronen, RA, Saluja, S, Sato, N, Zhu, H, Gorman, DAet al.Increased number of subcortical hyperintensities on MRI in children and adolescents with tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163(6):11061108.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ashtari, M, Cottone, J, Ardekani, BA, Cervellione, K, Szeszko, PR, Wu, Jet al.Disruption of white matter integrity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus in adolescents with schizophrenia as revealed by fiber tractography. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007;64(11):12701280.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baym, CL, Corbett, BA, Wright, SB, Bunge, SANeural correlates of tic severity and cognitive control in children with tourette syndrome. Brain 2008;131:165179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bigler, ED, Mortensen, S, Neeley, ES, Ozonoff, S, Krasny, L, Johnson, Met al.Superior temporal gyrus, language function, and autism. Dev Neuropsychol 2007;31(2):217238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blumberg, HP, Fredericks, C, Wang, F, Kalmar, JH, Spencer, L, Papademetris, Xet al.Preliminary evidence for persistent abnormalities in amygdala volumes in adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 2005;7(6):570576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boes, AD, McCormick, LM, Coryell, WH, Nopoulos, PRostral anterior cingulate cortex volume correlates with depressed mood in normal healthy children. Biol Psychiatry 2008;63(4):391397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Booth, JR, Burman, DD, Meyer, JR, Lei, Z, Trommer, BL, Davenport, NDet al.Larger deficits in brain networks for response inhibition than for visual selective attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2005;46(1):94111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brieber, S, Neufang, S, Bruning, N, Kamp-Becker, I, Remschmidt, H, Herpertz-Dahlmann, Bet al.Structural brain abnormalities in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2007;48(12):12511258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burke, L, Androutsos, C, Jogia, J, Byrne, P, Frangou, SThe maudsley early onset schizophrenia study: The effect of age of onset and illness duration on fronto-parietal gray matter. Eur Psychiatry 2008;23(4):233236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bush, G, Valera, EM, Seidman, LJFunctional neuroimaging of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a review and suggested future directions. Biol Psychiatry 2005;57:12731284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caetano, SC, Fonseca, M, Olvera, RL, Nicoletti, M, Hatch, JP, Stanley, JAet al.Proton spectroscopy study of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in pediatric depressed patients. Neurosci Lett 2005;384(3):321326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caetano, SC, Fonseca, M, Hatch, JP, Olvera, RL, Nicoletti, M, Hunter, Ket al.Medial temporal lobe abnormalities in pediatric unipolar depression. Neurosci Lett 2007;427(3):142147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cao, Q, Zang, Y, Zhu, C, Cao, X, Sun, L, Zhou, Xet al.Alerting deficits in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Event-related fMRI evidence. Brain Res 2008;1219:159168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carmona, S, Vilarroya, O, Bielsa, A, Tremols, V, Soliva, JC, Rovira, Met al.Global and regional gray matter reductions in ADHD: A voxel-based morphometric study. Neurosci Lett 2005;389(2):8893.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, K, Karchemskiy, A, Barnea-Goraly, N, Garrett, A, Simeonova, DI, Reiss, AReduced amygdalar gray matter volume in familial pediatric bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;44(6):565573.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chiu, S, Widjaja, F, Bates, ME, Voelbel, GT, Pandina, G, Marble, Jet al.Anterior cingulate volume in pediatric bipolar disorder and autism. J Affect Disord 2008;105(1–3):9399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costello, EJ, Mustillo, S, Erkanli, A, Keeler, G, Angold, APrevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60(8):837844.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Courchesne, E, Saitoh, O, Townsend, JP, Yeung-Courchesne, R, Press, GA, Lincoln, AJet al.Cerebellar hypoplasia and hyperplasia in infantile autism. Lancet 1994;343:6364.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dapretto, M, Davies, MS, Pfeifer, JH, Scott, AA, Sigman, M, Bookheimer, SYet al.Understanding emotions in others: Mirror neuron dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorders. Nat Neurosci 2006;9(1):2830.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Bellis, MD, Keshavan, M, Clark, DB, Casey, BJ, Giedd, J, Boring, AMet al.AE Bennett Research Award. Developmental traumatology part II: Brain development. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:12711284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Bellis, MD, Keshavan, M, Shifflett, H, Iyengar, S, Beers, SR, Hall, Jet al.Brain structures in pediatric maltreatment-related PTSD: A sociodemographically matched study. Biol Psychiatry 2002;52:10661078.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Douaud, G, Smith, S, Jenkinson, M, Behrens, T, Johansen-Berg, H, Vickers, Jet al.Anatomically related grey and white matter abnormalities in adolescent-onset schizophrenia. Brain 2007;130(Pt 9):23752386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Faraone, SV, Sergeant, J, Gillberg, C, Biederman, JThe worldwide prevalence of ADHD: Is it an american condition?. World Psychiatry 2003;2:104113.Google ScholarPubMed
Forbes, EE, Christopher May, J, Siegle, GJ, Ladouceur, CD, Ryan, ND, Carter, CSet al.Reward-related decision-making in pediatric major depressive disorder: An fMRI study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006;47(10):10311040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frazier, JA, Chiu, S, Breeze, JL, Makris, N, Lange, N, Kennedy, DNet al.Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging of limbic and thalamic volumes in pediatric bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162(7):12561265.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frazier, JA, Breeze, JL, Papadimitriou, G, Kennedy, DN, Hodge, SM, Moore, CMet al.White matter abnormalities in children with and at risk for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 2007;9(8):799809.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freitag, CM, Konrad, C, Haberlen, M, Kleser, C, von Gontard, A, Reith, Wet al.Perception of biological motion in autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychologia 2008;46(5):14801494.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frey, KA, Albin, RLNeuroimaging of tourette syndrome. J Child Neurol 2006;21(8):672677.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gabbay, V, Hess, DA, Liu, S, Babb, JS, Klein, RG, Gonen, OLateralized caudate metabolic abnormalities in adolescent major depressive disorder: A proton MR spectroscopy study. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164(12):18811889.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gendry Meresse, I, Zilbovicius, M, Boddaert, N, Robel, L, Philippe, A, Sfaello, Iet al.Autism severity and temporal lobe functional abnormalities. Ann Neurol 2005;58(3):466469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gogtay, N, Giedd, JN, Lusk, L, Hayashi, KM, Greenstein, D, Vaituzis, ACet al.Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. PNAS 2004;101:81748179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gogtay, N, Lu, A, Leow, AD, Klunder, AD, Lee, AD, Chavez, Aet al.Three-dimensional brain growth abnormalities in childhood-onset schizophrenia visualized byusing tensor-based morphometry. PNAS 2008;105:1597915984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gomot, M, Bernard, FA, Davis, MH, Belmonte, MK, Ashwin, C, Bullmore, ETet al.Change detection in children with autism: An auditory event-related fMRI study. Neuroimage 2006;29(2):475484.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gomot, M, Belmonte, MK, Bullmore, ET, Bernard, FA, Baron-Cohen, SBrain hyper-reactivity to auditory novel targets in children with high-functioning autism. Brain 2008;131(Pt 9):24792488.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenstein, D, Lerch, J, Shaw, P, Clasen, L, Giedd, J, Gochman, Pet al.Childhood onset schizophrenia: Cortical brain abnormalities as young adults. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006;47(10):10031012.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guyer, AE, Lau, JY, McClure-Tone, EB, Parrish, J, Shiffrin, ND, Reynolds, RCet al.Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function during anticipated peer evaluation in pediatric social anxiety. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65(11):13031312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haenschel, C, Bittner, RA, Haertling, F, Rotarska-Jagiela, A, Maurer, K, Singer, Wet al.Contribution of impaired early-stage visual processing to working memory dysfunction in adolescents with schizophrenia: A study with event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007;64(11):12291240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hajek, T, Carrey, N, Alda, MNeuroanatomical abnormalities as risk factors for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 2005;7:393403.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardan, AY, Minshew, NJ, Harenski, K, Keshavan, MSPosterior fossa magnetic resonance imaging in autism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40:666672.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Insel, TRTranslating scientific opportunity into public health impact. A strategic plan for research on mental illness. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009;66(2):128133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Janssen, J, Reig, S, Parellada, M, Moreno, D, Graell, M, Fraguas, Det al.Regional gray matter volume deficits in adolescents with first-episode psychosis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47(11):13111320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jaracz, JThe anatomy of depression in light of evidence from neuroimaging studies. Psychiatr Pol 2008;42(6):875888.Google ScholarPubMed
Kafantaris, V, Kingsley, P, Ardekani, B, Saito, E, Lencz, T, Lim, Ket al.Lower orbital frontal white matter integrity in adolescents with bipolar I disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009;48(1):7986.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaufmann, WE, Cooper, KL, Mostofsky, SH, Capone, GT, Kates, WR, Newschaffer, CJet al.Specificity of cerebellar vermian abnormalities in autism: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. J Child Neurol 2003;18:463470.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keehn, B, Brenner, L, Palmer, E, Lincoln, AJ, Muller, RAFunctional brain organization for visual search in ASD. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2008;14(6):9901003.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Killgore, WD, Yurgelun-Todd, DASocial anxiety predicts amygdala activation in adolescents viewing fearful faces. Neuroreport 2005;16(15):16711675.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Killgore, WD, Yurgelun-Todd, DAVentromedial prefrontal activity correlates with depressed mood in adolescent children. Neuroreport 2006;17(2):167171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Killgore, WD, Gruber, SA, Yurgelun-Todd, DADepressed mood and lateralized prefrontal activity during a stroop task in adolescent children. Neurosci Lett 2007;416(1):4348.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kobel, M, Bechtel, N, Weber, P, Specht, K, Klarhofer, M, Scheffler, Ket al.Effects of methylphenidate on working memory functioning in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2009;13(6):516523.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Konrad, K, Neufang, S, Hanisch, C, Fink, GR, Herpertz-Dahlmann, BDysfunctional attentional networks in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence from an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 2006;59(7):643651.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krain, AL, Gotimer, K, Hefton, S, Ernst, M, Castellanos, FX, Pine, DSet al.A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of uncertainty in adolescents with anxiety disorders. Biol Psychiatry 2008;63(6):563568.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kyriakopoulos, M, Vyas, NS, Barker, GJ, Chitnis, XA, Frangou, SA diffusion tensor imaging study of white matter in early-onset schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2008;63(5):519523.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laird, AR, Fox, PM, Price, CJ, Glahn, DC, Uecker, AM, Lancaster, JLet al.ALE meta-analysis: Controlling the false discovery rate and performing statistical contrasts. Hum Brain Map 2005;25:155164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, JS, Yoo, SS, Cho, SY, Ock, SM, Lim, MK, Panych, LPAbnormal thalamic volume in treatment-naive boys with tourette syndrome. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;113(1):6467.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ludolph, AG, Juengling, FD, Libal, G, Ludolph, AC, Fegert, JM, Kassubek, JGrey-matter abnormalities in boys with tourette syndrome: Magnetic resonance imaging study using optimised voxel-based morphometry. Br J Psychiatry 2006;188:484485.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacMaster, FP, Mirza, Y, Szeszko, PR, Kmiecik, LE, Easter, PC, Taormina, SPet al.Amygdala and hippocampal volumes in familial early onset major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2008;63(4):385390.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Makki, MI, Behen, M, Bhatt, A, Wilson, B, Chugani, HTMicrostructural abnormalities of striatum and thalamus in children with tourette syndrome. Mov Disord 2008;23(16):23492356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manjaly, ZM, Bruning, N, Neufang, S, Stephan, KE, Brieber, S, Marshall, JCet al.Neurophysiological correlates of relatively enhanced local visual search in autistic adolescents. Neuroimage 2007;35(1):283291.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marquardt, RK, Levitt, JG, Blanton, RE, Caplan, R, Asarnow, R, Siddarth, Pet al.Abnormal development of the anterior cingulate in childhood-onset schizophrenia: A preliminary quantitative MRI study. Psychiatry Res 2005;138(3):221233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marsh, R, Zhu, H, Wang, Z, Skudlarski, P, Peterson, BSA developmental fMRI study of self-regulatory control in tourette's syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164(6):955966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matsuo, K, Rosenberg, DR, Easter, PC, MacMaster, FP, Chen, HH, Nicoletti, Met al.Striatal volume abnormalities in treatment-naive patients diagnosed with pediatric major depressive disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2008;18(2):121131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAlonan, GM, Cheung, V, Cheung, C, Suckling, J, Lam, GY, Tai, KSet al.Mapping the brain in autism. A voxel-based MRI study of volumetric differences and intercorrelations in autism. Brain 2005;128(Pt 2):268276.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McAlonan, GM, Cheung, V, Cheung, C, Chua, SE, Murphy, DG, Suckling, Jet al.Mapping brain structure in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based MRI study of regional grey and white matter volume. Psychiatry Res 2007;154(2):171180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McClure, EB, Monk, CS, Nelson, EE, Parrish, JM, Adler, A, Blair, RJet al.Abnormal attention modulation of fear circuit function in pediatric generalized anxiety disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007;64(1):97106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milham, MP, Nugent, AC, Drevets, WC, Dickstein, DP, Leibenluft, E, Ernst, Met al.Selective reduction in amygdala volume in pediatric anxiety disorders: A voxel-based morphometry investigation. Biol Psychiatry 2005;57(9):961966.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Monk, CS, Nelson, EE, McClure, EB, Mogg, K, Bradley, BP, Leibenluft, Eet al.Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation and attentional bias in response to angry faces in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163(6):10911097.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Monk, CS, Telzer, EH, Mogg, K, Bradley, BP, Mai, X, Louro, HMet al.Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to masked angry faces in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008;65(5):568576.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moreno, D, Burdalo, M, Reig, S, Parellada, M, Zabala, A, Desco, Met al.Structural neuroimaging in adolescents with a first psychotic episode. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;44(11):11511157.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Najt, P, Nicoletti, M, Chen, HH, Hatch, JP, Caetano, SC, Sassi, RBet al.Anatomical measurements of the orbitofrontal cortex in child and adolescent patients with bipolar disorder. Neurosci Lett 2007;413(3):183186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Okugawa, G, Sedvall, GC, Agartz, ISmaller cerebellar vermis but not hemisphere volumes in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:16141617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pauly, K, Seiferth, NY, Kellermann, T, Backes, V, Vloet, TD, Shah, NJet al.Cerebral dysfunctions of emotion-cognition interactions in adolescent-onset schizophrenia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47(11):12991310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pavuluri, MN, O’Connor, MM, Harral, E, Sweeney, JAAffective neural circuitry during facial emotion processing in pediatric bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2007;62(2):158167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pierce, K, Redcay, EFusiform function in children with an autism spectrum disorder is a matter of “who”. Biol Psychiatry 2008;64(7):552560.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Piven, J, Saliba, K, Bailey, J, Arndt, SAn MRI study of autism: the cerebellum revisited. Neurology 1997;49:546551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
R Development Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. 2009. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL Scholar
Redcay, E, Courchesne, EWhen is the brain enlarged in autism? A meta-analysis of all brain size reports. Biol Psychiatry 2005;58:19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Redcay, E, Courchesne, EDeviant functional magnetic resonance imaging patterns of brain activity to speech in 2-3-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2008;64(7):589598.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reig, S, Moreno, C, Moreno, D, Burdalo, M, Janssen, J, Parellada, Met al.Progression of brain volume changes in adolescent-onset psychosis. Schizophr Bull 2009;35(1):233243.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rich, BA, Fromm, SJ, Berghorst, LH, Dickstein, DP, Brotman, MA, Pine, DSet al.Neural connectivity in children with bipolar disorder: Impairment in the face emotion processing circuit. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2008;49(1):8896.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberson-Nay, R, McClure, EB, Monk, CS, Nelson, EE, Guyer, AE, Fromm, SJet al.Increased amygdala activity during successful memory encoding in adolescent major depressive disorder: An FMRI study. Biol Psychiatry 2006;60(9):966973.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roiser, JP, Cannon, DM, Gandhi, SK, Taylor, TJ, Erickson, K, Wood, Set al.Hot and cold cognition in unmedicated depressed subjects with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 2009;11(2):178189.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rojas, DC, Camou, SL, Reite, ML, Rogers, SJPlanum temporale volume in children and adolescents with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2005;35(4):479486.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosenberg, DR, Keshavan, MS, O’Hearn, KM, Dick, E, Bagwell, WW, Seymour, ABet al.Frontostriatal measurement in treatment-naive children with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997;54:824830.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosso, IM, Cintron, CM, Steingard, RJ, Renshaw, PF, Young, AD, Yurgelun-Todd, DAAmygdala and hippocampus volumes in pediatric major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2005;57(1):2126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rotge, JY, Guehl, D, Dilharreguy, B, Tignol, J, Bioulac, B, Allard, Met al.Meta-analysis of brain volume changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2009;65:7583.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salmond, CH, Vargha-Khadem, F, Gadian, DG, de Haan, M, Baldeweg, THeterogeneity in the patterns of neural abnormality in autistic spectrum disorders: Evidence from ERP and MRI. Cortex 2007;43(6):686699.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schneider, M, Retz, W, Coogan, A, Thome, J, Rösler, MAnatomical and functional brain imaging in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – A neurological view. Eur Arch Psych Clin Neurosci 2006;256:3241.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Semrud-Clikeman, M, Pliszka, SR, Lancaster, J, Liotti, MVolumetric MRI differences in treatment-naive vs chronically treated children with ADHD. Neurology 2006;67(6):10231027.Google ScholarPubMed
Shaw, P, Lerch, J, Greenstein, D, Sharp, W, Clasen, L, Evans, Aet al.Longitudinal mapping of cortical thickness and clinical outcome in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006;63(5):540549.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, AB, Taylor, E, Brammer, M, Toone, B, Rubia, KTask-specific hypoactivation in prefrontal and temporoparietal brain regions during motor inhibition and task switching in medication-naive children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163(6):10441051.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stanfield, AC, McIntosh, AM, Spencer, MD, Philip, R, Gaur, S, Lawrie, SMTowards a neuroanatomy of autism: A systematic review and meta-analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies. Eur Psychiatry 2008;23:289299.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steen, RG, Courtney, M, McClure, R, Hamer, RM, Lieberman, JABrain volume in first-episode schizophrenia. Systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. Br J Psychiatry 2006;188:510518.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stein, MB, Stein, DJSocial anxiety disorder. Lancet 2008;371(9618):11151125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stevens, MC, Pearlson, GD, Kiehl, KAAn FMRI auditory oddball study of combined-subtype attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164(11):17371749.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szeszko, PR, MacMillian, S, McMeniman, M, Chen, S, Baribault, K, Lim, KOet al.Brain structural abnormalities in psychotropic drug-naive pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:10491056.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Talairach, J, Tournoux, PCo-planar stereotaxic atlas of the human brain. Germany: Thieme, Stuttgart; 1998.Google Scholar
Tamm, L, Menon, V, Reiss, ALParietal attentional system aberrations during target detection in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Event-related fMRI evidence. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163(6):10331043.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson, PM, Vidal, C, Giedd, JN, Gochman, P, Blumenthal, J, Nicolson, Ret al.Mapping adolescent brain change reveals dynamic wave of accelerated gray matter loss in very early-onset schizophrenia. PNAS 2001;98:1165011655.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tremols, V, Bielsa, A, Soliva, JC, Raheb, C, Carmona, S, Tomas, Jet al.Differential abnormalities of the head and body of the caudate nucleus in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Res 2008;163(3):270278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Turkeltaub, PE, Eden, GF, Jones, KM, Zeffiro, TAMeta-analysis of the functional neuroanatomy of single-word reading: Method and validation. Neuroimage 2002;16:765780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uhlikova, P, Paclt, I, Vaneckova, M, Morcinek, T, Seidel, Z, Krasensky, Jet al.Asymmetry of basal ganglia in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2007;28(5):604609.Google ScholarPubMed
Vaidya, CJ, Bunge, SA, Dudukovic, NM, Zalecki, CA, Elliott, GR, Gabrieli, JDAltered neural substrates of cognitive control in childhood ADHD: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162(9):16051613.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Valera, EM, Faraone, SV, Murray, KE, Seidman, LJMeta-analysis of structural imaging findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2007;61:13611369.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vance, A, Silk, TJ, Casey, M, Rinehart, NJ, Bradshaw, JL, Bellgrove, MAet al.Right parietal dysfunction in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined type: A functional MRI study. Mol Psychiatry 2007: 12(9); 826,32,793.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vidal, CN, Rapoport, JL, Hayashi, KM, Geaga, JA, Sui, Y, McLemore, LEet al.Dynamically spreading frontal and cingulate deficits mapped in adolescents with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006;63(1):2534.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, J, Jiang, T, Cao, Q, Wang, YCharacterizing anatomic differences in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with the use of deformation-based morphometry. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2007;28(3):543547.Google ScholarPubMed
Wang, AT, Lee, SS, Sigman, M, Dapretto, MReading affect in the face and voice: Neural correlates of interpreting communicative intent in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007;64(6):698708.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wellington, TM, Semrud-Clikeman, M, Gregory, AL, Murphy, JM, Lancaster, JLMagnetic resonance imaging volumetric analysis of the putamen in children with ADHD: Combined type versus control. J Atten Disord 2006;10(2):171180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whalley, HC, Simonotto, E, Moorhead, W, McIntosh, A, Marshall, I, Ebmeier, KPet al.Functional imaging as a predictor of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2006;60(5):4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, JH, Waiter, GD, Gilchrist, A, Perrett, DI, Murray, AD, Whiten, ANeural mechanisms of imitation and ‘mirror neuron’ functioning in autistic spectrum disorder. Neuropsychologia 2006;44(4):610621.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woolley, J, Heyman, I, Brammer, M, Frampton, I, McGuire, PK, Rubia, KBrain activation in paediatric obsessive compulsive disorder during tasks of inhibitory control. Br J Psychiatry 2008;192(1):2531.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yang, P, Wang, PN, Chuang, KH, Jong, YJ, Chao, TC, Wu, MTAbsence of gender effect on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as assessed by optimized voxel-based morphometry. Psychiatry Res 2008;164(3):245253.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeargin-Allsopp, M, Rice, C, Karapurkar, T, Doernberg, N, Boyle, C, Murphy, CPrevalence of Autism in a U.S. Metropolitan Area. J Am Med Ass 2003;289(1):4955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zalsman, G, Oquendo, MA, Greenhill, L, Goldberg, PH, Kamali, M, Martin, Aet al.Neurobiology of depression in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2006;15:843868.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Mana et al. supplementary material

Table 3

Download Mana et al. supplementary material(File)
File 15 KB
Submit a response


No Comments have been published for this article.