Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-8kt4b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-19T11:27:37.285Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Diagnostic validity of ICD-10 acute and transient psychotic disorders and DSM-5 brief psychotic disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 March 2020

A.C. Castagnini*
School of Child Neuropsychiatry, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
P. Fusar-Poli
King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, and OASIS Service, South London and the Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
*Corresponding author. E-mail
Get access



Short-lived psychotic disorders are currently classified under “acute and transient psychotic disorders” (ATPDs) in ICD-10, and “brief psychotic disorder” (BPD) in DSM-5. This study's aim is to review the literature and address the validity of ATPDs and BPD.


Papers published between January 1993 and December 2016 were identified through searches in Web of Science. Reference lists in the located papers provided further sources.


A total of 295 articles were found and 100 were included in the review. There were only a few studies about the epidemiology, vulnerability factors, neurobiological correlates and treatment of these disorders, particularly little interest seems to exist in BPD. The available evidence suggests that short-lived psychotic disorders are rare conditions and more often affect women in early to middle adulthood. They also are neither associated with premorbid dysfunctions nor characteristic family predisposition, while there seems to be greater evidence of environmental factors particularly in developing countries and migrant populations. Follow-up studies report a favourable clinical and functional outcome, but case identification has proved difficult owing to high rates of transition mainly either to schizophrenia and related disorders or, to a lesser extent, affective disorders over the short- and longer-terms.


Although the lack of neurobiological findings and little predictive power argue against the validity of the above diagnostic categories, it is important that they are kept apart from longer-lasting psychotic disorders both for clinical practice and research. Close overlap between ATPDs and BPD could enhance the understanding of these conditions.

Copyright © European Psychiatric Association 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Kraepelin, EPsychiatrie Leipzig: Barth; 1896Google Scholar
Castagnini, ACWimmer's concept of psychogenic psychosis revisited. Hist Psychiatry 2010;21:5466.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooper, JEJablensky, ASartorius, NWHO collaborative studies on acute psychoses using the SCAAPS schedule. In: Stefanis, CNRabavilas, ADSoldatos, CR editors. Psychiatry. A World Perspective vol. 1. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica; 1990. p. 185192.Google Scholar
World Health Organization, The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders, clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992Google Scholar
Magnan, VLeçon cliniques sur les maladies mentales Paris: Delahaye & Lecrosnier; 1887Google Scholar
Kleist, KÜber zykloide und epileptoide Psychosen und über die Frage der Degenerationspsychosen (Cycloid, paranoid and epileptoid psychoses and the problem of degenerative psychoses). Schweiz Arch Neurol Psychiatrie 1928;23:337.Google Scholar
Leonhard, KAufteilung der endogenen Psychosen und ihre differenzierte Ätiologie. 8. Aufl Stuttgart: Thieme; 2003Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed., DSM-5) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jørgensen, PBennedsen, BChristensen, JHyllested, AAcute and transient psychotic disorder: a 1-year follow-up study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;96:150154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pitta, JCNBlay, SLPsychogenic (reactive) and hysterical psychoses: a cross-system reliability study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;95:112118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pillmann, FHaring, ABalzuweit, SBloink, RMarneros, AThe concordance of ICD-10 acute and transient psychosis and DSM-IV brief psychotic disorder. Psychol Med 2002;32:525533.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van der Heijden, FTuinier, SKahn, RSVerhoeven, WMANonschizophrenic psychotic disorders: the case of cycloid psychoses. Psychopathology 2004;37:161167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, ABerrios, GEAcute transient psychoses and their differentiation from schizophrenia. Curr Psychiatry Rev 2011;7:248255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nugent, KLPaksarian, DMojtabai, RNon-affective acute psychoses: uncertainties on the way to DSM-V and ICD-11. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2011;13:203210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castagnini, AGaleazzi, GMAcute and transient psychoses: clinical and nosological issues. BJPscyh Adv 2016;22:292300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liberati, AAltman, DGTetzlaff, JMulrow, CGøtzsche, PCIoannidis, JPA, et al.The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Ital J Public Health 2009;6:354391.Google ScholarPubMed
Kendler, KSThe nosologic validity of paranoia (simple delusional disorder). A review. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980;37:699706.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh, SPBurns, TAmin, SJones, PBHarrison, GAcute and transient psychotic disorders: precursors, epidemiology, course and outcome. Br J Psychiatry 2004;185:452459.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, ABertelsen, ABerrios, GEIncidence and diagnostic stability of ICD-10 acute and transient psychotic disorders. Compr Psychiatry 2008;49:255261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, AFoldager, LVariations in incidence and age of onset of acute and transient psychotic disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2013;48:19171922.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jäger, MHintermayr, MBottlender, RStrauss, AMöller, HJCourse and outcome of first-admitted patients with acute and transient psychotic disorders (ICD-10: F23) – Focus on relapses and social adjustment. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2003;253:209215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marneros, APillmann, FHaring, ABalzuweit, SBloink, RIs the psychopathology of acute and transient psychotic disorder different from schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders?. Eur Psychiatry 2005;20:315320.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Queirazza, FSemple, DMLawrie, SMTransition to schizophrenia in acute and transient psychotic disorders. Br J Psychiatry 2014;204:299305.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, AFoldager, LEpidemiology, course and outcome of acute polymorphic psychotic disorder: implications for ICD-11. Psychopathology 2014;47:202206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reay, RMitford, EMcCabe, KPaxton, RTurkington, DIncidence and diagnostic diversity in first-episode psychosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2010;121:315319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sajith, SGChandrasekaran, RUnni, KESSahai, AAcute polymorphic psychotic disorder: diagnostic stability over 3 years. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2002;105:104109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karfo, KKiendrebeogo, JAYaogo, AOuango, JGOuedraogo, ALes troubles psychotiques aigus et transitoires au Burkina Faso : aspects épidémiologiques et cliniques à propos des 188 cas. Ann Med Psychol (Paris) 2011;169:160166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chand, PThirthalli, JMurthy, PSubstance use disorders among treatment naive first-episode psychosis patients. Compr Psychiatry 2014;55:165169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Esan, OFawole, OIAcute and transient psychotic disorder in a developing country. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2014;60:442448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mehta, STyagi, ASwami, MKGupta, SKumar, MTripathi, ROnset of acute and transient psychotic disorder in India: a study of socio-demographics and factors affecting its outcomes. East Asian Arch Psychiatry 2014;24:7580.Google ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, ACBertelsen, AMortality and causes of death of acute and transient psychotic disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2011;46:10131017.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, AFoldager, LBertelsen, AExcess mortality of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;128:370375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pillmann, FBalzuweit, SHaring, ABloink, RMarneros, ASuicidal behavior in acute and transient psychotic disorders. Psychiatry Res 2003;117:199209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rajkumar, RPCorrelates of suicide-related ideations and attempts in patients with acute and transient psychotic disorder. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 2015. Scholar
Kørner, ALopez, AGLauritzen, LAndersen, PKKessing, LVAcute and transient psychosis in old age and the subsequent risk of dementia: a nationwide register-based study. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2009;9:6268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Das, SKMalhotra, SBasu, DFamily study of acute and transient psychotic disorders: comparison with schizophrenia. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 1999;34:328332.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Das, SKMalhotra, SBasu, DMalhotra, RTesting the stress-vulnerability hypothesis in ICD-10-diagnosed acute and transient psychotic disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2001;104:5658.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jørgensen, PBennedsen, BChristensen, JHyllested, AAcute and transient psychotic disorder: comorbidity with personality disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996;94:460464.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pillmann, FBloink, RBalzuweit, SHaring, AMarneros, APersonality and social interactions in patients with acute brief psychoses. J Nerv Ment Dis 2003;191:503508.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marchira, CRSupriyanto, ISubandi, Soewadi, Good, BJThe association between duration of untreated psychosis in first psychotic episode patients and help seeking behaviours in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Int J Cult Ment Health 2016;9:120126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, ACLaursen, TMMortensen, PBBertelsen, AFamily psychiatric morbidity of acute and transient psychotic disorders and their relationship to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychol Med 2013;43:23692375.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Okasha, AEldawla, AKhalil, ASaad, APresentation of acute psychosis in an Egyptian sample – a transcultural comparison. Compr Psychiatry 1993;34:49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chakraborty, RChatterjee, ASingh, ARChakraborty, PKLife events in acute and transient psychotic disorders: a comparison with mania. Ger J Psychiatry 2007;10:3640.Google Scholar
Aadamsoo, KSaluveer, EKueuenarpuu, HVasar, VMaron, EDiagnostic stability over 2 years in patients with acute and transient psychotic disorders. Nord J Psychiatry 2011;65:381388.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, AFoldager, LBertelsen, ALong-term stability of acute and transient psychotic disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2013;47:5964.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rusaka, MRancans, EFirst-episode acute and transient psychotic disorder in Latvia: a 6-year follow-up study. Nord J Psychiatry 2014;68:2429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krahl, WHashim, APsychiatric disorders in ASEAN-migrants in Malaysia – a university hospital experience. Med J Malaysia 1998;53:232238.Google ScholarPubMed
Shaltout, TBener, AAl Abdullah, MAl Mujalli, ZShattout, HTAcute and transient psychotic disorders in a rapidly developing country, State of Qatar. Med-Lith 2007;43:575579.Google Scholar
Lau, PWLCheng, JGYChow, DLYUngvari, GSLeung, CMAcute psychiatric disorders in foreign domestic workers in Hong Kong: a pilot study. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2009;55:569576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alexandre, JRibeiro, RCardoso, GEthnic and clinical characteristics of a Portuguese psychiatric inpatient population. Transcult Psychiatry 2010;47:314321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Esan, OFawole, OComparison of the profile of patients with acute and transient psychotic disorder and schizophrenia in a Nigerian teaching hospital. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2013;25:327334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jäger, MBottlender, RStrauss, AMöller, HJOn the descriptive validity of ICD-10 schizophrenia: empirical analyses in the spectrum of non-affective functional psychoses. Psychopathology 2003;36:152159.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, ACMunk-Jorgensen, PBertelsen, AShort-term course and outcome of acute and transient psychotic disorders: differences from other types of psychosis with acute onset. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2016;62:5156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Linden, SCHarris, MWhitaker, CHealy, DReligion and psychosis: the effects of the Welsh religious revival in 1904–1905. Psychol Med 2010;40:13171323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwartz, JEFennig, STanenberg-Karant, MCarlson, GCraig, TGalambos, N, et al.Congruence of diagnoses 2 years after a first-admission diagnosis of psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57:593600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salvatore, PBaldessarini, RJTohen, MKhalsa H-MK, Sanchez-Toledo, JPZarate, CA, et al.McLean-Harvard International First-Episode Project: two-year stability of DSM-IV diagnoses in 500 first-episode psychotic disorder patients. J Clin Psychiatry 2009;70:458466.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Korver-Nieberg, NQuee, PJBoos, HBSimons, CJKahn, RSCahn, W, et al.The validity of the DSM-IV diagnostic classification system of non-affective psychoses. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2011;45:10611068.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kingston, TScully, PJBrowne, DJBaldwin, PAKinsella, ARussell, V, et al.Diagnostic trajectory, interplay and convergence/divergence across all. Psychol Med 2013;43:25232533.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heslin, MLomas, BLappin, JMDonoghue, KReininghaus, UOnyejiaka, A, et al.Diagnostic change 10 years after a first-episode of psychosis. Psychol Med 2015;45:27572769.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perälä, JSuvisaari, JSaarni, SIKuoppasalmi, KIsometsä, EPirkola, S, et al.Lifetime prevalence of psychotic and bipolar I disorders in a general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007;64:1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ngoma, MVMampunza, MMJoos, SPeuskens, JVansteelandt, KValidité des psychoses fonctionnelles non affectives du DSM-IV dans une population congolaise. Une étude clinique transversale. Encephale 2011;37:101109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, EHMHui, CLMChang, WCChan, SKWLin, JChen, EYHComparison of cognitive functions, premorbid conditions and clinical characteristics between brief psychotic disorder and schizophrenia. Psychol Med 2016;46:20112013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Suda, KHayashi, NHiraga, MPredicting features of later development of schizophrenia among patients with acute and transient psychotic disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005;59:146150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pillmann, FWustmann, TMarneros, AAcute and transient psychotic disorders versus persistent delusional disorders: a comparative longitudinal study. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2012;66:4452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salvatore, PBaldessarini, RJTohen, MKhalsa H-MK, Sanchez-Toledo, JPZarate, CA, et al.McLean-Harvard International First-Episode Project: two-year stability of ICD-10 diagnoses in 500 first-episode psychotic disorder patients. J Clin Psychiatry 2011;72:183193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sartorius, NUstün, TBKorten, ACooper, JEvan Drimmelen, JProgress toward achieving a common language in psychiatry, II: results from the international field trials of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for research for mental and behavioral disorders. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:14271437.Google ScholarPubMed
Kampman, OKiviniemi, PKoivisto, EVaananen, JKilkku, NLeinonen, E, et al.Patient characteristics and diagnostic discrepancy in first-episode psychosis. Compr Psychiatry 2004;45:213218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sahoo, SMalhotra, SBasu, DModi, MAuditory P300 event-related potentials in acute and transient psychosis – Comparison with schizophrenia. Asian J Psychiatry 2016;23:816.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pepplinkhuizen, Lvan der Heijden, FTuinier, SVerhoeven, WMAFekkes, DThe acute transient polymorphic psychosis: a biochemical subtype of the cycloid psychosis. Acta Neuropsychiatr 2003;15:3843.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bach, DRKindler, JStrik, WKElevated bilirubin in acute and transient psychotic disorder. Pharmacopsychiatry 2010;43:1216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rottig, SPillmann, FBloink, RHaring, AMarneros, AIs there evidence in the EEG for increased epileptiform activity in ICD-10 acute and transient psychotic disorder?. Psychopathology 2005;38:281284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanazawa, TIkeda, MGlatt, SJTsutsumi, AKikuyama, HKawamura, Y, et al.Genome-Wide Association study of atypical psychosis. Am J Med Genet Part B-Neuropsychiatr Genet 2013;162:679686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatotani, NThe concept of “atypical psychoses”: special reference to its development in Japan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1996;50:110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lyne, JO’Donoghue, BOwens, ERenwick, LMadigan, KKinsella, A, et al.Prevalence of item level negative symptoms in first-episode psychosis diagnoses. Schizophr Res 2012;135:128133.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ngoma, MVansteelandt, KDelespaul, PKrabbendam, LMiezi, SMMPeuskens, JCognitive deficits in non-affective functional psychoses: a study in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Psychiatry Res 2010;180:8692.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ayesa-Arriola, RRodríguez-Sánchez, JMSuero, ESReeves, LETabarés-Seisdedos, RCrespo-Facorro, BDiagnosis and neurocognitive profiles in first-episode non-affective psychosis patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2016;266:619628.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, PCappucciati, MRutigliano, GHeslin, MStahl, DBrittenden, Z, et al.Diagnostic stability of ICD/DSM first-episode psychosis diagnoses: meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull 2016;42:13951406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, PCappucciati, MBonoldi, IHui, LMCRutigliano, GStahl, DR, et al.Prognosis of brief psychotic episodes: a meta-analysis. Jama Psychiatry 2016;73:211220.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Möller, HJJäger, MRiedel, MObermeier, MStrauss, ABottlender, RThe Munich 15-year follow-up study (MUFUSSAD) on first-hospitalized patients with schizophrenic or affective disorders: assessing courses, types and time stability of diagnostic classification. Eur Psychiatry 2011;26:231243.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Remberk, BBazynska, AKKrempa-Kowalewska, ARybakowski, FAdolescent insanity revisited: course and outcome in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum psychoses in an 8-year follow-up study. Compr Psychiatry 2014;55:11741181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pillmann, FMarneros, ALongitudinal follow-up in acute and transient psychotic disorders and schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 2005;187:286287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, WCPang, SLKChung, DWSChan, SSMFive-year stability of ICD-10 diagnoses among Chinese patients presented with first-episode psychosis in Hong Kong. Schizophr Res 2009;115:351357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Björkenstam, EBjörkenstam, CHjern, AReutfors, JBodén, RA five-year diagnostic follow-up of 1840 patients after a first-episode non-schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. Schizophr Res 2013;150:205210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rusaka, MRancans, EA prospective follow-up study of first-episode acute transient psychotic disorder in Latvia. Ann Gen Psychiatry 2014;13:4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poon, JYKLeung, CMOutcome of first-episode acute and transient psychotic disorder in Hong Kong Chinese: a 20-year retrospective follow-up study. Nord J Psychiatry 2017;71:139144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abe, TOtsuka, KKato, SLong-term clinical course of patients with acute polymorphic psychotic disorder without symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2006;60:452457.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amini, HAlaghband-rad, JOmid, ASharifi, VDavari-Ashtiani, RMomeni, F, et al.Diagnostic stability in patients with first-episode psychosis. Australas Psychiatry 2005;13:388392.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thangadurai, PGopalakrishnan, RKurian, SJacob, KSDiagnostic stability and status of acute and transient psychotic disorders. Br J Psychiatry 2006;188:293.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Narayanaswamy, JCShanmugam, VHRaveendranathan, DViswanath, BMuralidharan, KShort-term diagnostic stability of acute psychosis: data from a tertiary care psychiatric center in South India. Indian J Psychol Med 2012;34:176178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schimmelmann, BGConus, PEdwards, JMcGorry, PDLambert, MDiagnostic stability 18 months after treatment initiation for first-episode psychosis. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66:12391246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rahm, CCullberg, JDiagnostic stability over 3 years in a total group of first-episode psychosis patients. Nord J Psychiatry 2007;61:189193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haahr, UFriis, SLarsen, TKMelle, IJohannessen, JOOpjordsmoen, S, et al.First-episode psychosis: diagnostic stability over one and two years. Psychopathology 2008;41:322329.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rufino, AUchida, RRVilela, JAMarques, JMAZuardi, AWDel-Ben, CMStability of the diagnosis of first-episode psychosis made in an emergency setting. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2005;27:189193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Subramaniam, MPek, EVerma, SChan, YHChong, SADiagnostic stability 2 years after treatment initiation in the Early Psychosis Intervention Programme in Singapore. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2007;41:495500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pillmann, FHaring, ABalzuweit, SMarneros, AA comparison of DSM-IV brief psychotic disorder with “positive” schizophrenia and healthy controls. Compr Psychiatry 2002;43:385392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khanna, ALal, NDalal, PKKhalid, ATrivedi, JKTreatment of acute and transient psychotic disorders with low and high doses of oral haloperidol. Indian J Psychiatry 1997;39:136142.Google ScholarPubMed
Chaudhuri, BPBhagabati, DMedhi, DRisperidone versus haloperidol in acute and transient psychotic disorder. Indian J Psychiatry 2000;42:280290.Google ScholarPubMed
Agarwal, VSitholey, PA preliminary open trial of olanzapine in paediatric acute and transient psychotic disorders. Indian J Psychiatry 2006;48:4346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehlis, ACZielasek, JHerrmann, MJRingel, TJacob, CFallgatter, AJBeneficial effect of atypical antipsychotics on prefrontal brain function in acute psychotic disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005;255:299307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, ABertelsen, AMunk-Jørgensen, PBerrios, GEThe relationship of reactive psychosis and ICD-10 acute and transient psychotic disorders: evidence from a case register-based comparison. Psychopathology 2007;40:4753.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Häfner, HGender differences in schizophrenia. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2003;28(Suppl. 2):1754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Susser, EWanderling, JEpidemiology of non-affective acute remitting psychosis vs. schizophrenia. Sex and sociocultural setting. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1994;51:294301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins, PYVarma, VKWig, NNMojtabai, RDay, RSusser, EFever and acute brief psychosis in urban and rural settings in north India. Br J Psychiatry 1999;174:520524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Susser, EFennig, SJandorf, LAmador, XBromet, EEpidemiology, diagnosis, and course of brief psychoses. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:17431748.Google ScholarPubMed
Susser, EVarma, VMalhotra, SConover, SAmador, XDelineation of acute and transient psychotic disorders in a developing country setting. Br J Psychiatry 1995;167:216219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Susser, EVarma, VKMattoo, SKFinnerty, MMojtabai, RTripathi, BM, et al.Long-term course of acute brief psychosis in a developing country setting. Br J Psychiatry 1998;173:226230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alaghband-Rad, JBoroumand, MAmini, HSharifi, VOmid, ADavari-Ashtiani, R, et al.Non-affective acute remitting psychosis: a preliminary report from Iran. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2006;113:96101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arranz, BSan, LRamirez, NDuenas, RMPerez, VSalavert, J, et al.Clinical and serotonergic predictors of non-affective acute remitting psychosis in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009;119:7177.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mojtabai, RVarma, VKSusser, EDuration of remitting psychoses with acute onset – Implications for ICD-10. Br J Psychiatry 2000;176:576580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mojtabai, RSusser, ESBromet, EJClinical characteristics, 4-year course, and DSM-IV classification of patients with non-affective acute remitting psychosis. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:21082115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dealberto, M.-J.Clinical symptoms of psychotic episodes and 25-hydroxy vitamin D serum levels in black first-generation immigrants. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2013;128:475487.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hopper, KWanderling, JRevisiting the developed versus developing country distinction in course and outcome in schizophrenia: results from ISoS, the WHO collaborative follow-up project. International Study of Schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2000;26:835846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Os, JKenis, GRutten, BPFThe environment and schizophrenia. Nature 2010;468:203212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jäger, MRiedel, MMöller, H.-J.Akute vorübergehende psychotische Störungen (ICD-10: F23): Empirische Befunde und Implikationen für die Therapie. Nervenarzt 2007;78:745752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saha, SChant, DMcGrath, JA systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia: is the differential mortality gap worsening over time?. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007;64:11231131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yung, ARYuen, HPMcGorry, PDPhillips, LJKelly, DDell’Olio, M, et al.Mapping the onset of psychosis: the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2005;39:964971.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, PCappucciati, MDe Micheli, ARutigliano, GBonoldi, ITognin, S, et al.Diagnostic and prognostic significance of brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) in individuals at ultra high risk. Schizophr Bull 2017;43:4856.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gaebel, WZielasek, JCleveland, H.-R.Classifying psychosis – challenges and opportunities. Int Rev Psychiatry 2012;24:538548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pillmann, FHaring, ABalzuweit, SBloink, RMarneros, AConcordance of acute and transient psychoses and cycloid psychoses. Psychopathology 2001;34:305311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peralta, VCuesta, MJCycloid psychosis: a clinical and nosological study. Psychol Med 2003;33:443453.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pillmann, FHaring, ABalzuweit, SBloink, RMarneros, ABouffée délirante and ICD-10 acute and transient psychoses: a comparative study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2003;37:327333.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Castagnini, ABerrios, GEAcute and transient psychotic disorders (ICD-10 F23): a review from a European perspective. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2009;259:433443.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Submit a response


No Comments have been published for this article.