Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression: Does age matter?

  • S. Wassink-Vossen (a1), R.M. Collard (a2), S.A. Hiles (a3), R.C. Oude Voshaar (a4) and P. Naarding (a1)...

Abstract

Background:

The level of physical activity (PA) and the prevalence of depression both change across the lifespan. We examined whether the association between PA and depression is moderated by age. As sense of mastery and functional limitations have been previously associated with low PA and depression in older adults, we also examined whether these are determinants of the differential effect of age on PA and depression.

Methods:

1079 patients with major depressive disorder (aged 18–88 years) were followed-up after two-years; depression diagnosis and severity as well as PA were re-assessed. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to test reciprocal prospective associations between PA and depression outcomes. In all models the interaction with age was tested.

Results:

PA at baseline predicted remission of depressive disorder at follow-up (OR = 1.43 [95% CI: 1.07–1.93], p =.018). This effect was not moderated by age. PA predicted improvement of depression symptom severity in younger (B = −2.03; SE =.88; p =.022), but not in older adults (B = 2.24; SE = 1.48; p =.128) (p =.015 for the interaction PA by age in the whole sample). The level of PA was relatively stable over time. Depression, sense of mastery and functional limitation were for all ages not associated with PA at follow-up.

Conclusions:

Age did not moderate the impact of PA on depressive disorder remission. Only in younger adults, sufficient PA independently predicts improvement of depressive symptom severity after two-year follow-up. Level of PA rarely changed over time, and none of the determinants tested predicted change in PA, independent of age.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression: Does age matter?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression: Does age matter?
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression: Does age matter?
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author at: GGNet Department of Old-Age Psychiatry, P.O. Box 2003, 7230 GC, Warnsveld, The Netherlands. E-mail address: s.wassink@ggnet.nl (S. Wassink-Vossen).

References

Hide All
[1]Bize, R., Johnson, J.A., Plotnikoff, R.C.Physical activity level and health-related quality of life in the general adult population: a systematic review. Prev Med 45(December (6))2007; 401-15.
[2]Beekman, A.T., Copeland, J.R., Prince, M.J.Review of community prevalence of depression in later life. Br J Psychiatry 174(April)1999; 307-11.
[3]Mammen, G., Faulkner, G.Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies. Am J Prev Med 45(November (5))2013; 649-57.
[4]Win, S., Parakh, K., Eze-Nliam, C.M., Gottdiener, J.S., Kop, W.J., Ziegelstein, R.C.Depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and risk of cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Heart 97(March (6))2011; 500-5.
[5]Blake, H., Mo, P., Malik, S., Thomas, S.How effective are physical activity interventions for alleviating depressive symptoms in older people? A systematic review. Clin Rehabil 23(October (10))2009; 873-87.
[6]Sjosten, N., Kivela, S.L.The effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms among the aged: a systematic review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 21(May (5))2006; 410-18.
[7]Boschloo, L., Reeuwijk, K.G., Schoevers, R.A., Penninx B, W.J.H.The impact of lifestyle factors on the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord 159(April)2014; 73-9.
[8]Wassink-Vossen, S., Noorthoorn, E.O., Collard, R.M., Comijs, H.C., Oude Voshaar, R.C., Naarding, P.Value of physical activity and sedentary behavior in predicting depression in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 64(March (3))2016; 647-9.
[9]Wielopolski, J., Reich, K., Clepce, M., Fischer, M., Sperling, W., Kornhuber, J.et al.Physical activity and energy expenditure during depressive episodes of major depression. J Affect Disord 15(March (174))2015; 310-6.
[10]Hiles, S.A., Lamers, F., Milaneschi, Y., Penninx, B.W.J.H.Sit, step, sweat: longitudinal associations between physical activity patterns, anxiety and depression. Psychol Med 47(June (8))2017; 1466-77.
[11]Wassink-Vossen, S., Collard, R.M., Oude Voshaar, R.C., Comijs, H.C., de Vocht, H.M., Naarding, P.Physical (in)activity and depression in older people. J Affect Disord 161(June)2014; 65-72.
[12]Rethorst, C.D., Trivedi, M.H.Evidence-based recommendations for the prescription of exercise for major depressive disorder. J Psychiatr Pract 19(May (3))2013; 204-12.
[13]Krogh, J., Nordentoft, M., Sterne, J.A., Lawlor, D.A.The effect of exercise in clinically depressed adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry 72(April (4))2011; 529-38.
[14]Nguyen, H.Q., Koepsell, T., Unutzer, J., Larson, E., LoGerfo, J.P.Depression and use of a health plan-sponsored physical activity program by older adults. Am J Prev Med 35(August (2))2008; 111-7.
[15]Silveira, H., Moraes, H., Oliveira, N., Coutinho, E.S., Laks, J., Deslandes, A.Physical exercise and clinically depressed patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychobiology 2013;67(2):61-8.
[16]Chi, W.C., Chang, K.H., Escorpizo, R., Yen, C.F., Liao, H.F., Chang, F.H.et al.Measuring disability and its predicting factors in a large database in Taiwan using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11(November (12))2014; 12148-61.
[17]Sargent-Cox, K.A., Butterworth, P., Anstey, K.J.Role of physical activity in the relationship between mastery and functional health. Gerontologist 55(February (1))2015; 120-31.
[18]Penninx, B.W., Nolen, W.A., Lamers, F., Zitman, F.G., Smit, J.H., Spinhoven, P.et al.Two-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders: results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). J Affect Disord 133(September (1–2))2011; 76-85.
[19]Comijs, H.C., Nieuwesteeg, J., Kok, R., van Marwijk, H.W., van der Mast, R.C., Naarding, P.et al.The two-year course of late-life depression; results from the Netherlands study of depression in older persons. BMC Psychiatry 12(February (15))201520-015-0401-5.
[20]Penninx, B.W., Beekman, A.T., Smit, J.H., Zitman, F.G., Nolen, W.A., Spinhoven, P.et al.The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA): rationale, objectives and methods. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2008;17(3):121-40.
[21]Comijs, H.C., van Marwijk, H.W., van der Mast, R.C., Naarding, P., Oude Voshaar, R.C., Beekman, A.T.et al.The Netherlands study of depression in older persons (NESDO); a prospective cohort study. BMC Res Notes 5(December (4))2011524-0500-4-524.
[22]Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., McHugh, P.R.Mini-mental state. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12(November (3))1975; 189-98.
[23]Andrews, G., Peters, L.The psychometric properties of the composite international diagnostic interview. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 33(February (2))1998; 80-8.
[24]Wittchen, H.U., Burke, J.D., Semler, G., Pfister, H., Von Cranach, M., Zaudig, M.Recall and dating of psychiatric symptoms: test-retest reliability of time-related symptom questions in a standardized psychiatric interview. Arch Gen Psychiatry 46(May (5))1989; 437-43.
[25]Wittchen, H.U.Reliability and validity studies of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): a critical review. J Psychiatr Res 28(January–February (1))1994; 57-84.
[26]Rush, A.J., Giles, D.E., Schlesser, M.A., Fulton, C.L., Weissenburger, J., Burns, C.The Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS): preliminary findings. Psychiatry Res 18(May (1))1986; 65-87.
[27]Rush, A.J., Gullion, C.M., Basco, M.R., Jarrett, R.B., Trivedi, M.H.The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS): psychometric properties. Psychol Med 26(May (3))1996; 477-86.
[28]Craig, C.L., Marshall, A.L., Sjostrom, M., Bauman, A.E., Booth, M.L., Ainsworth, B.E.et al.International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35(August (8))2003; 1381-95.
[29]Tomioka, K., Iwamoto, J., Saeki, K., Okamoto, N.Reliability and validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in elderly adults: the Fujiwara-kyo Study. J Epidemiol Japn 2011; 459-65.
[30]Patterson, E.Guidelines for Data Processing and Analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) 2016 Available at: https://sites.google.com/site/theipaq/scoring-protocol [Accessed 19 July, 2017].
[31]Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, W.L., Herrmann, S.D., Meckes, N., Bassett, Jr., Tudor-Locke, C.D.R.et al.Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43(August (8))2011; 1575-81.
[32]Kriegsman, D.M., Penninx, B.W., van Eijk, J.T., Boeke, A.J., Deeg, D.J.Self-reports and general practitioner information on the presence of chronic diseases in community dwelling elderly. A study on the accuracy of patients’ self-reports and on determinants of inaccuracy. J Clin Epidemiol 49(December (12))1996; 1407-17.
[33]Babor, T.F., Kranzler, H.R., Lauerman, R.J.Early detection of harmful alcohol consumption: comparison of clinical, laboratory, and self-report screening procedures. Addict Behav 1989;14(2):139-57.
[34]Chwastiak, L.A., Von Korff, M.Disability in depression and back pain: evaluation of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO DAS II) in a primary care setting. J Clin Epidemiol 56(June (6))2003; 507-14.
[35]Ustun, T.B., Chatterji, S., Kostanjsek, N., Rehm, J., Kennedy, C., Epping-Jordan, J.et al.Developing the world health organization disability assessment schedule 2.0. Bull World Health Organ 88(November (11))2010; 815-23.
[36]Pearlin, L.I., Schooler, C.The structure of coping. J Health Soc Behav 19(March (1))1978; 2-21.
[37]de Beurs, E., Comijs, H., Twisk, J.W., Sonnenberg, C., Beekman, A.T., Deeg, D.Stability and change of emotional functioning in late life: modelling of vulnerability profiles. J Affect Disord 84(January (1))2005; 53-62.
[38]Pearlin, L.I., Nguyen, K.B., Schieman, S., Milkie, M.A.The life-course origins of mastery among older people. J Health Soc Behav 48(June (2))2007; 164-79.
[39]Thombs, B.D., Ziegelstein, R.C., Pilote, L., Dozois, D.J., Beck, A.T., Dobson, K.S.et al.Somatic symptom overlap in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores following myocardial infarction. Br J Psychiatry 197(July (1))2010; 61-6.
[40]Hagstromer, M., Kwak, L., Oja, P., Sjostrom, M.A 6 year longitudinal study of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time in Swedish adults. J Sci Med Sport 18(September (5))2015; 553-7.
[41]Ku, P.W., Fox, K.R., Chen, L.J., Chou, P.Physical activity and depressive symptoms in older adults: 11-year follow-up. Am J Prev Med 42(April (4))2012; 355-62.
[42]Franek, J.Self-management support interventions for persons with chronic disease: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser 13(September (9))2013; 1-60.
[43]Peckham, A.D., McHugh, R.K., Otto, M.W.A meta-analysis of the magnitude of biased attention in depression. Depress Anxiety 27(December (12))2010; 1135-42.
[44]Lee, P.H., Macfarlane, D.J., Lam, T.H., Stewart, S.M.Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF): a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 21(October (8))2011 115-5868-8-115.
[45]Soundy, A., Roskell, C., Stubbs, B., Vancampfort, D.Selection, use and psychometric properties of physical activity measures to assess individuals with severe mental illness: a narrative synthesis. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 28(April (2))2014; 135-51.
[46]Mota-Pereira, J., Silverio, J., Carvalho, S., Ribeiro, J.C., Fonte, D., Ramos, J.Moderate exercise improves depression parameters in treatment-resistant patients with major depressive disorder. J Psychiatr Res 45(August (8))2011; 1005-11.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression: Does age matter?

  • S. Wassink-Vossen (a1), R.M. Collard (a2), S.A. Hiles (a3), R.C. Oude Voshaar (a4) and P. Naarding (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

The reciprocal relationship between physical activity and depression: Does age matter?

  • S. Wassink-Vossen (a1), R.M. Collard (a2), S.A. Hiles (a3), R.C. Oude Voshaar (a4) and P. Naarding (a1)...
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *