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Between the Restoration in 1660 and the Revolution in 1688 the English public abandoned its century-long animus against Spain and began to identify France as its chief enemy. Historians often hold that the most significant intervention in shifting the balance of public opinion was the Dutch-inspired pamphlet, England's appeal from the private cabal at Whitehall (1673), written by the Huguenot Pierre du Moulin. It is argued here that an immensely influential earlier intervention was made by François-Paul de Lisola, in his Buckler of state and justice (1667), which, at a critical juncture, presented a rhetorically powerful body of arguments about the nature of the European state system. A Catholic in the service of the Habsburg emperor, who spent nearly two years in England in 1666–8, Lisola was an accomplished and versatile diplomat and publicist. This article interweaves diplomatic history with the history of geopolitical argument, tracing paths which led to Europe's Grand Alliance against Louis XIV.

Corresponding author
Churchill College, Cambridge, cb3
Université de Paris, 75103
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The authors wish to thank Gabriel Glickman and Jacqueline Rose, as well as the journal's anonymous referees, for advice on earlier drafts.

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1 For the eighteenth century, see Simms, Brendan, Three victories and a defeat: the rise and fall of the first British Empire, 1714–1783 (London, 2007); Scott, Hamish, The birth of a great power system, 1740–1815 (London, 2005); Black, Jeremy, A system of ambition?: British foreign policy, 1660–1793 (Harlow, 1991).

2 Adriaen van der Goes to his brother, 19 July 1667: Gonnet, C. J., ed., Briefwisseling tusschen de gebroeders Van der Goes (2 vols., Amsterdam, 1899), i, p. 328. For a contemporary account of the war, see Dalicourt, Pierre, A relation of the French king's late expedition into the Spanish Netherlands (London, 1669).

3 de Illescas, José Arnolfini, Una mirada a la Monarquía española de finales del reinado de Felipe IV, ed. Espeso, Cristina Hermosa (Valladolid, 2010), p. 100. We have anglicized monarchs’ names, except for Carlos II, to avoid confusion with Charles II.

4 Mahuet to the representatives of the Three Estates of Franche-Comté, 25 June 1667: Besançon, Archives départementales du Doubs, C.277, Fonds de l'Intendance, unfoliated.

5 Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge: CHAR 8/429, fo. 19. Churchill studied this period intensively, in preparation for his multi-volume life of his ancestor, Marlborough, written in the shadow of the rise of Hitler.

6 Lisola, François-Paul de, Bouclier d’état et de justice, contre le dessein manifestement découvert de la monarchie universelle, sous le vain prétexte des prétensions de la reine de France (Brussels, 1667); English translation: The buckler of state and justice (London, 1667); La sauce au Verjus (Strasburg, 1674).

7 Bayle to Minutoli, 1 May 1675, no. 89,, p. 8. For Bayle's admiration, see Dictionnaire historique et critique (15 vols., Geneva, 1969), ix, ‘Lisola’, at p. 283; first edition published in Amsterdam in 1697.

8 The Hague, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Kn.10647: Le dénouement des intrigues du temps (Brussels, 1673), p. 83.

9 Lisola, Buckler, p. 276; Grossmann, Julius, ed., Der kaiserliche Gesandte Franz von Lisola im Haag 1672–1673, Archiv für österreichische Geschichte, li (Vienna, 1873), at p. 81.

10 Haller, Johannes, ‘Franz von Lisola, ein österreichicher Staatsman des 17. Jahrhunderts’, Preußische Jahrbücher, 39 (1892), pp. 516–46, at p. 530.

11 Ibid., pp. 532–3.

12 Pribram, A. F., Franz Paul Freiherr von Lisola (1613–1674) und die Politik seiner Zeit (Leipzig, 1894). But see, more recently, Baumanns, Markus, Das publizistische Werk des kaiserlichen Diplomaten Franz Paul Freiherr von Lisola (1613–1674) Ein Beitrag zum Verhältnis von Absolutistischem Staat, Öffentlichkeit und Mächtepolitik in der frühen Neuzeit (Berlin, 1994). Baumanns is the best existing study on the question of Lisola attributions. The end of the volume includes a reasonably certain list of Lisola's authentic publications.

13 Pribram, Lisola, p. 356.

14 Ibid., ch. 17.

15 Rowen, Herbert, John de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland (1625–1672) (Princeton, NJ, 1978), ch. 33; Haley, K. H. D., An English diplomat in the Low Countries: Sir William Temple and John de Witt, 1665–1672 (Oxford, 1986).

16 Robertson, John, ‘Empire and union: two concepts of the early modern European order’, in idem, ed., A union for empire: political thought of the Union of 1707 (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 336, at p. 21; Schröder, Peter, Trust in early modern international political thought, 1598–1713 (Cambridge, 2017), pp. 143, 167–9.

17 Haley, K. H. D., William of Orange and the English opposition, 1672–1674 (Oxford, 1953); Pincus, Steven, ‘From butterboxes to wooden shoes: the shift in English popular sentiment from anti-Dutch to anti-French in the 1670s’, Historical Journal, 38 (1995), pp. 333–61. See also the Oxford dictionary of national biography article on Pieter du Moulin.

18 Recent exceptions include: Onnekink, David, Reinterpreting the Dutch forty years’ war, 1672–1713 (London, 2016), ch. 3; Marianne Klerk, ‘Reason of state and predatory monarchy in the Dutch Republic, 1638–1675’ (Ph.D. thesis, Rotterdam, 2015), pp. 112–30; van der Steen, Jasper, Memory wars in the Low Countries, 1566–1700 (Leiden, 2015), pp. 233–5; idem, ‘The political rediscovery of the Dutch Revolt in the seventeenth-century Habsburg Netherlands’, Early Modern Low Countries, 1 (2017), at pp. 78–86.

19 Lisola to the father general of Jesuits, 17 Oct. 1670: Romeinsche bronnen voor den kerkelijken toestand der Nederlanden onder der apostolische vicarissen, 1592–1727, ed. R. R. Post (2 vols., The Hague, 1941), ii, p. 557.

20 Arlington to Lisola, 20 Jan. 1671 (OS): British Library (BL): Add. MS 35125, fo. 236.

21 Pincus, Steven, 1688: the first modern revolution (New Haven, CT, 2009), ch. 11; Claydon, Tony, Europe and the making of England, 1660–1760 (Cambridge, 2007), pp. 132–52. For a recent survey, see Glickman, Gabriel, ‘Conflicting versions: foreign affairs in domestic debate, 1660–1689’, in Mulligan, William and Simms, Brendan, eds., The primacy of foreign policy in British history, 1660–2000 (Basingstoke, 2010).

22 Pribram, Lisola, ch. 13. On the factiousness of the Spanish court in the 1660s, see Stradling, R. A., ‘A Spanish statesman of appeasement: Medina de las Torres and Spanish policy, 1639–1670’, Historical Journal, 19 (1976), pp. 131.

23 Castel-Rodrigo to Philip IV, 22 July 1665: Brussels, Archives Générales du royaume (AGR, T 100/279, Secrétairerie d’état et de guerre, fo. 96.

24 ‘Baron de Lisola sobre la paz de Portugal y liga con Francia. Antidoto contro el veneno de un papel che dijen se presento al Rey christianissimo por un ministro francés’, 20 Sept. 1666: BL, Add. MS 14001, fos. 134–5, 146, 159.

25 Lisola, ‘Sobre la paz’, fo. 159.

26 José Arnolfini, ‘Discurso’: BL, Harleian MS 4520, fos. 117, 119.

27 Temple to Arlington, 2 Nov. 1666: The National Archives, Kew (TNA), SP 77/35, fo. 124; Anon. to Arlington, 20 Jan. 1667: TNA, SP 78/123, fo. 11.

28 Temple to Arlington, 2 Nov. 1666: TNA, SP 77/35, fo. 124.

29 Craigwood, Joanna, ‘Diplomats and international book exchange’, in Thomson, Ann, Burrows, Simon, and Dziembowski, Edmond, eds., Cultural transfers: France and Britain in the long eighteenth century (Oxford, 2010), pp. 5769; Hauser, Claude, Loué, Thomas, Mollié, J.-Y., and Valloton, François, eds., La diplomatie par le livre: réseaux et circulation internationale de l'imprimé de 1880 à nos jours (Paris, 2011).

30 Leopold to Pötting, 24 Sept. 1667: Privatbriefe Kaiser Leopold I an den Grafen F. E. Pötting, 1662–1673, ed. A. F. Pribram (2 vols., Vienna, 1903), i, p. 321.

31 New College, SCR/B/OGG. With thanks to Christopher Skelton-Foord, David Parrott, and Jennifer Thorp. Snippets of Molina's New College correspondence are kept under NCA 927. Ogg was a fellow of the college and author of a standard work on the reign of Charles II.

32 Marc Antonio Giustinian to Venice Senate, 1 Feb. 1667 (OS): Calendar of State Papers, Venetian, 1666–1668 (CSPV), p. 125.

33 Ruvigny to Lionne, 26 Sept. 1667 (OS), Paris, Ministère des affaires étrangères, correspondence politique: Angleterre, 89, fo. 99.

34 Lisola to Leopold, 26 Sept. 1667 (OS): New Haven, Beinecke Library (TBL), GEN-MSS-530, Harrach Papers, v, fo. 269. According to Spanish sources, Ruvigny's mission of 1667–8 cost the French crown 200,000 livres tournois, amounting to some £16,000. Clarendon, Charles II's chancellor, was paid an annual fee of 50,000 livres tournois, some £4,000. Richard to Precipiano and Philippe, 7 Sept. 1667: AGR, I 074/614, Secrétairerie d’état allemande, fo. 107.

35 Lisola to Leopold, 26 Sept. 1667 (OS): Vienna, Haus-, Hof- under Staatsarchiv (HhstA), Staatenabteilung, Großbritannien, Diplomatische Korrespondenz, 9, fo. 24.

36 Lisola to Anon., 21 Feb. 1667: Simancas, Archivo General, Estado 2382, unfoliated.

37 Lisola to Leopold, 12 Mar. 1668 (OS): TBL, GEN-MSS-530, Harrach papers, v, fo. 707.

38 ‘Cuentas de embajadores y ministros en Inglaterra’, 18 Oct. 1669: AGS, Estado 3972, unfoliated.

39 TNA, Williamson papers, SP 9/43, Broquel de Estado, p. 8. For a recent study of Williamson's continental networks, see Tessier, Alexandre, Réseaux diplomatiques et République des Lettres: les correspondants de Sir Joseph Williamson (Paris, 2015).

40 Lisola to Leopold, 26 Sept. 1667: TBL, GEN-MSS-530, Harrach papers, v, fo. 254.

41 CSPV, 20 Sept. 1667 (OS), p. 184; BL, Egerton MS 2539, fos. 135–6; ‘Vaughan, John’, History of Parliament: the House of Commons, 1660–1690:; Roberts, Clayton, ‘The impeachment of the earl of Clarendon’, Cambridge Historical Journal, 13 (1957), pp. 1314.

42 Lisola to Leopold, 20 Aug. 1667 (OS), HhstA, Staatenabteilung, Spanien, Diplomatische Korrespondenz, 51/1, fos. 126–7.

43 CSPV, 23 Aug. 1667 (OS), p. 180.

44 Dalicourt, A relation of the French king's late expedition, p. 5. St Albans to Arlington, 11 May 1667: TNA, SP 78/123, fo. 80. George Digby, earl of Bristol, a Catholic courtier, owned a copy of the pro-Aubery Dialogue au sujet des droits de l'actuelle reine de France (Dialogue on the rights of the present queen of France) (Paris, 1667): Bibliotheca Digbeiana (London, 1680), p. 112.

45 See Tagliabracci, Michele, ‘L'avventurosa vita di Domenico Federici’, Nuovi Studi Fanesi, 24–5 (2010–11), pp. 27103.

46 French (Brussels, 1667, 1668; n.p., 1701), Spanish (Madrid, 1667; Brussels, 1667), Italian (Madrid, 1667), Dutch (Amsterdam, 1667; ?1702), German (Frankfurt, 1667), English (London, 1667, 1673, 1677).

47 Lisola to Precipiano and Philippe, 24 Feb. 1668: AGR, I 074/614, fo. 294.

48 The imprint now: ‘for Richard Royston, and are to be sold by Richard Chiswell’; the two items priced separately at 2s 6d and 1s, according to Chiswell's catalogue in William Cave, Primitive Christianity (London, 1675).

49 A single copy of the 1701 edition has been traced in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris: 8-OC-504 (G).

50 Lisola, Buckler, p. 275.

51 Robert Latham and William Matthews, eds., The diary of Samuel Pepys (11 vols., 1971–83), ix, p. 61 (10 Feb. 1668); Knighton, C. S., ed., Catalogue of the Pepys Library: census of printed books (Cambridge, 2004), no. 841.

52 Within the history of political thought, the theme of ‘universal monarchy’ would need to place Lisola in relation to such authors as Francis Bacon, Christoph Besold, Giovanni Botero, Tommaso Campanella, the duc de Sully, and Andrew Fletcher. For England, see Steven Pincus, ‘The English debate over universal monarchy’, in Robertson, ed., Union for empire.

53 Lisola, Buckler, pp. 15, 276.

54 Ibid., pp. 278–80.

55 Ibid., sig. A8r.

56 Ibid., pp. 73–92.

57 Ibid., pp. 19–20, 26.

58 Ibid., pp. 13, 294.

59 A free conference touching the present state of England (London, 1673), pp. 8–9, 20, 32.

60 Ibid., pp. 25–7.

61 See Pincus, Steven, Protestantism and patriotism: ideologies and the making of English foreign policy, 1650–1688 (Cambridge, 1996), ch. 14.

62 A free conference, pp. 33, 39, 43, 50, 58. The treaties are of Madrid (1667) and Paris (1657).

63 Lettres et autres pièces curieuses sur les affaires du temps (Amsterdam, 1672); Letters and other curious pieces, relating to the present state of Europe (London, 1672).

64 Lisola, Traité politique (Villefranche, 1672), p. 16. Curtius to Arlington, 20 Jan. 1672: TNA, SP 81/59, fo. 121. Lisola made this argument as early as 1644, during the siege of Gravelines, in a tract now surviving only in manuscript: ‘Discours de Lisola, résident de l'Empereur à Londres, concernant l'intérêt que l'Angleterre a au sujet de Gravelines, June 1644’: Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Institut, MS Godefroy 326, fos. 189–92.

65 Lisola, Traité politique, p. 28.

66 Lisola, The French politician found out (London, 1680), part ii.

67 Council of state, 29 Sept. 1670: AGR, I 112/253, unfoliated. The tract was published in The Hague by Jean Laurent, who also published Lisola's Discours touchant les prétentions de la France sur les places de Condé (1670). See Kossmann, E. F., De Boekhandel te ’s-Gravenhage tot het eind van de 18de eeuw (The Hague, 1937), p. 230.

68 Lindenov to Christian V, 9 Sept. 1670: Westergaard, Waldemar, ed., The first Triple Alliance: the letters of Christopher Lindenov, Danish envoy to London, 1668–1672 (New Haven, CT, 1947), p. 298.

69 Haley, William of Orange, pp. 107–10.

70 Bethel, Slingsby, The world's mistake in Oliver Cromwell (London, 1668), pp. 34, 6, 10, and passim. The trans-Pyrenean provinces of Catalonia, now Roussillon, were transferred to France by the treaty.

71 Bethel, Slingsby, An account of the French usurpation upon the trade of England (London, 1679), and The interest of princes and states (London, 1680).

72 The Observations (London, 1673) critiques the duke of Buckingham's anti-Dutch Letter to Sir Thomas Osborn (London, 1672), which in turn answered Bethel's Present interest (London, 1671). A second edition of Observations (1689) includes a reprint of The world's mistake.

73 Bethel, Observations, pp. 16–17; idem, Present interest, preface, and pp. 29, 33.

74 Pierre du Moulin (?), England's appeal (n.p., 1673), pp. 7, 8, 10, 11.

75 Patterson, Annabel, Dzelzainis, Martin, Keeble, N. H., and von Maltzahn, Nicholas, eds., The prose works of Andrew Marvell (2 vols., New Haven, CT, 2003), ii, pp. 242, 250. At p. 276, Marvell cited Lisola's La politique du temps (1671), which rehearsed many of the arguments of the Buckler.

76 Elias, A. C., Swift at Moor Park (Philadelphia, PA, 1982).

77 Coke, Roger, A detection of the court and state of England (London, 1697), p. 421; Jones, David, The secret history of Whitehall (London, 1697), sig. A5v; Toland, John, The art of governing by parties (London, 1701), pp. 142–3.

78 Too numerous to list and readily traceable in Early English Books Online.

79 Harrison, John and Laslett, Peter, The library of John Locke (Oxford, 1971), nos. 71, 402, 1763a, 2556.

80 Locke, ‘1661 notebook’: Bodleian Library, Oxford: microfilm 77, pp. 180–214; Thomas Leng, Benjamin Worsley (1618–1677): trade, interest, and the spirit of revolutionary England (Woodbridge, 2008), p. 161.

81 Evelyn's library catalogue: BL, Add. MS 78632, fo. 176; Bibliotheca Hookeriana (London, 1703), p. 48; Willems, J. M., ed., Bibliotheca Fletcheriana (Wassenaar, 1999), p. 130.

82 Hampshire County Probate Records, 148/18/5. With thanks to Carl Hammer for this information.

83 A third collection of papers relating to the present juncture of affairs (London, 1688), pp. 1, 4.

The authors wish to thank Gabriel Glickman and Jacqueline Rose, as well as the journal's anonymous referees, for advice on earlier drafts.

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