Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

THE FRENCH IN EXILE AND POST-WAR INTERNATIONAL RELIEF, c. 1941–1945

  • LAURE HUMBERT (a1)

Abstract

This article explores Free French responses to Allied planning for post-war international relief in Europe. A number of French experts in exile, often veterans of the League of Nations, advocated international co-operation with the nascent United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA). For such figures, participating in the UNRRA could bring critical knowledge, political legitimacy, experience, and funds. They also hoped that this participation could bolster French prestige in the wake of the recent experience of defeat and foreign occupation. Their efforts had little impact on the early development of international relief, yet the contacts and exchanges between French and Allied planners resulted in a political imperative that gave a new impetus to the post-war restructuring of French relief abroad. Studying the complex inter-relationship between French foreign policy and humanitarian efforts during the Second World War can offer historians a framework through which to reconsider French attempts to reassert their power globally. Crucially, this article argues that the UNRRA was used by a number of French expert planners as a platform from which to pursue broader political aims, notably the reassertion of republican legitimacy and the re-establishment of national sovereignty.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      THE FRENCH IN EXILE AND POST-WAR INTERNATIONAL RELIEF, c. 1941–1945
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      THE FRENCH IN EXILE AND POST-WAR INTERNATIONAL RELIEF, c. 1941–1945
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      THE FRENCH IN EXILE AND POST-WAR INTERNATIONAL RELIEF, c. 1941–1945
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Department of History, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, m139pllaure.humbert@manchester.ac.uk

Footnotes

Hide All
*

The author would like to thank Martin Thomas, Charlotte Faucher, Jean-Marc Dreyfus, Craig Griffiths, James Connolly, and the anonymous readers of the Historical Journal for their instructive comments on earlier drafts of this article. I have given a version of this article at the Institute of Historical Research and Aberystwyth: thanks to all who attended for their helpful comments.

Footnotes

References

Hide All

1 The literature on the UNRRA is vast. See for example Woodbridge, George, UNRRA: the history of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (3 vols., New York, NY, 1950); Borgwardt, Elizabeth, A new deal for the world: America's vision for human rights (Cambridge, MA, 2005); Williams, Andrew, Liberalism and war: the victors and the vanquished (London, 2006); Armstrong-Reid, Susan and Murray, David, Armies of peace: Canada and the UNRRA years (Toronto, ON, 2008); Reinisch, Jessica, ‘Introduction: relief in the aftermath of war’, Journal of Contemporary History, 43 (2008), pp. 371404; Reinisch, Jessica, ‘“Auntie UNRRA” at the crossroads’, Past and Present, 8 (2013), pp. 7097; Mitter, Rana, ‘Imperialism, transnationalism, and the reconstruction of post-war China: UNRRA in China, 1944–1971’, Past and Present, 8 (2013), pp. 5169; Tournès, Ludovic, ‘The Rockefeller Foundation and the transition from the League of Nations to the UN (1939–1946)’, Journal of Modern European History, 12 (2014), pp. 323–41; Porter, Stephen, ‘Humanitarian diplomacy after World War II: the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration’, in Hutchings, Robert and Suri, Jeremi, eds., Foreign policy breakthroughs: cases in successful diplomacy (Oxford, 2015), pp. 2146.

2 Reinisch, Jessica, ‘Internationalism in relief: the birth (and death) of UNRRA’, Past and Present, 6 (2011), pp. 258–89, at p. 279.

3 Nye, Joseph, Soft power: the means to success in world politics (New York, NY, 2004), p. x. The literature on the international networks of the French resistance is vast. See for example Loyer, Emmanuelle, Paris à New York: intellectuels et artistes français en exil, 1940–1947 (Paris, 2005); Cornil-Frerrot, Sylvain and Oulmont, Philippe, eds., Les Français Libres et le monde: actes du colloque international au Musée de l'Armée, 22–23 novembre 2013 (Paris, 2015); Leroux, Bruno, ‘Comités de la France Libre dans le monde’, in Muracciole, Jean-François and Piketty, Guillaume, eds., Encyclopédie de la Seconde Guerre mondiale (Paris, 2015), pp. 234–6; Charlotte Faucher and Laure Humbert, ‘Introduction – beyond de Gaulle and beyond London: the French external resistance and its international networks’, European Review of History (forthcoming, Apr. 2018).

4 Crémieux-Brilhac, Jean Louis, ‘La France Libre et l’état républicain’, in Baruch, Marc Olivier and Duclert, Vincent, eds., Serviteurs de l’état: une histoire politique de l'administration française, 1875–1945 (Paris, 2000), pp. 539–49, at p. 546.

5 Duroselle, Jean-Baptiste, L'abîme (Paris, 1982), p. 477.

6 Sluga, Glenda and Clavin, Patricia, ‘Rethinking the history of internationalism’, in Sluga, Glenda and Clavin, Patricia, eds., Internationalism: a twentieth-century history (Cambridge, 2016), pp. 314, at p. 9; Ghebali, Victor-Yves, Organisation internationale et guerre mondiale: le cas de la Société des nations et de l'Organisation international du travail pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale (Brussels, 2013); on the relations between the Vichy government and the League, the resistance, and nascent international organizations, see for example Ghebali, Victor-Yves, La France en guerre et les organisations internationales, 1939–1945 (Paris, 1969); Smouts, Marie Claude, La France à l'ONU (Paris, 1979); Mylonas, Denis, La Conférence des Ministres alliés de l'Education, Londres, 1942–1945 (Brussels, 1976); Renoliet, Jean-Jacques, L'UNESCO oubliée: la Société des nations et la cooperation intellectuelle, 1919–1946 (Paris, 1999).

7 Iriye, Akira, Cultural internationalism and world order (Baltimore, MD, 1970); Sunil Amrith, ‘Internationalising health in the twentieth century’, in Sluga and Clavin, eds., Internationalisms, pp. 245–64.

8 See n. 1.

9 See for example Reinisch, Jessica, ‘Introduction: agents of internationalism’, Contemporary European History, 25 (2016), pp. 195205; Prott, Volker, ‘Tying up the loose ends of national self-determination: British, French and American experts in peace planning, 1917–1919’, Historical Journal, 57 (2014), pp. 727–50; Jackson, Peter, Beyond the balance of power: France and the politics of national security in the era of the First World War (Cambridge, 2014).

10 Kohlrausch, Martin, Steffen, Katrin, and Wiederkehr, Stefan, eds., Expert cultures in Central Eastern Europe: the internationalization of knowledge and the transformation of nation states since World War I (Osnasbrück, 2010); Rodogno, Davide, Struck, Bernhard, and Vogel, Jakob, eds., Shaping the transnational sphere: experts, networks and issues from the 1840s to the 1930s (New York, NY, 2015).

11 Chauliac, Guy, Le service de santé de la France Libre (Paris, 1994), pp. 21–2.

12 Alphand, Hervé, L’étonnement d’être: journal, 1939–1973 (Paris, 1977), p. 171.

13 See for example Harrison, Mark, ‘Disease, diplomacy and international commerce: the origins of international sanitary regulation in the nineteenth century’, Journal of Global History, 2 (2006), pp. 197217; Borowy, Iris, Coming to terms with world health: the League of Nations Health Organisation, 1921–1946 (Berlin, 2009).

14 Ghebali, Organisation internationale et guerre mondiale, p. 285.

15 See for example Kott, Sandrine, ‘Fighting the war or preparing for peace? The ILO during the Second World War’, Journal of Modern European History, 12 (2014), pp. 359–76; Eisenberg, Jaci, ‘Laquelle était la vraie France? France and the ILO during the Second World War’, in van Daele, J., García, M. R., Van Goethem, G., and van der Linden, M., eds., ILO histories (Bern, 2010), pp. 341–64.

16 Winter, Jay and Prost, Antoine, René Cassin and human rights: from the Great War to the Universal Declaration (Cambridge, 2013), pp. 134–5.

17 Thomas, Martin, The French empire at war, 1940–1945 (Manchester, 2007), pp. 134–9.

18 Archives Nationales, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine (AN), papiers de Gaulle, 3/AG1/262, note de Dejean, 26 Sept. 1943; note de Massigli au Général de Gaulle, 20 Oct. 1943.

19 On the history of this Inter-Allied Committee, see Steinert, Johannes-Dieter, ‘British humanitarian assistance: wartime planning and postwar realities’, Journal of Contemporary History, 43 (2008), pp. 421–35; Bossuat, Georges, La France, l'aide américaine et la construction européenne, 1944–1954 (Vincennes, 1997); Lynch, Frances, France and the international economy: from Vichy to the Treaty of Rome (London, 2006), pp. 1719.

20 Guillaume Piketty, ‘Les voies douloureuses de la reconquête: les négociations militaires et diplomatiques de la France Libre avec le géant américain en devenir, 1942–1943’, in Cornil-Frerrot and Oulmont, eds., Les Français Libres et le monde, pp. 51–64.

21 Alphand, L’étonnement d’être, p. 124.

22 Duroselle, Jean-Baptiste, ‘Une création ex nihilo: le ministère des Affaires étrangères du Général de Gaulle (1940–1942)’, Relations Internationales, 31 (1982), pp. 313–32; Raphaële Ulrich-Pier, ‘Rebatir un réseau diplomatique: les délégués de la France Libre à l’étranger’, in Cornil-Frerrot and Oulmont, eds., Les Français Libres et le monde, pp. 109–23.

23 AN, 457/AP/1, papiers Georges Bidault, ‘Le 1er Mars 1943 La France adhère à la charte de l'Atlantique’.

24 Maga, Timothy P., America, France and the European refugee problem, 1933–1947 (New York, NY, 1985), p. 247.

25 A representative of the IGCR was nevertheless accredited in Algiers. Archives de la Fondation Jean Monnet pour l'Europe, Lausanne (AFJME), AME 45/3/2, lettre de Georges Coulon à Monsieur Jean Monnet, 30 Oct. 1943; MAE, Alger, Comité Français de Libération Nationale – Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Française (CFLN-GPRF), 694, Dejean à Massigli, Londres, 14 Dec. 1943. Also see Kévonian, Dzovinar, ‘Diplomates et juristes face à la question de la protection des réfugiés en France du Bureau chargé des intérêts des apatrides de Vichy à la mise en place de l'OFPRA’, in Angoustures, A., Kévonian, D., and Mouradian, C., eds., Refugiés et apatrides: administrer l'asile en France, 1920–1960 (Paris, 2017), pp. 95113.

26 Poznanski, Renée, Propagandes et persecutions: la résistance et le ‘problème juif’, 1940–1944 (Paris, 2008), pp. 139, 143; Dreyfus, Jean-Marc, L'impossible reparation: déportés, biens spoliés, or nazi, comptes bloqués, criminels de guerre (Paris, 2015), p. 33.

27 AFJME, AME 45/1/37, agreement for UNRRA, draft, 15 May 1943; AME 45/1/42, Dean Acheson to Dr Wei Tao-Ming, Chinese ambassador, 9 June 1943.

28 See n. 1.

29 C. W. Sharpe ‘The origins of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, 1939–1943’ (D.Phil. thesis, Pennsylvania, 2012), pp. 537–653.

30 AFJME, AME 45/1/16, memorandum of discussion in Mr Acheson's office, 11 Jan. 1943.

31 Clavin, Patricia, Securing the world economy: the reinvention of the League of Nations, 1920–1946 (Oxford, 2013), p. 298.

32 AFJME, AME 45/1/10 and 11, ‘Memorandum’ with Mr Liu Chieh's compliments (undated); AME 45/1/16, memorandum of discussion in Mr Acheson's office, Department of State, 11 Jan. 1943; AME/45/1/22, memorandum of discussion in Mr Acheson's office, Department of State, 17 Feb. 1943; AME/45/1/25, memorandum of discussion in Mr Acheson's office, Department of State, 27 Feb. 1943; AME/45/1/27, memorandum of discussion in Mr Acheson's office, Department of State, 24 Mar. 1943; AME/45/1/28, UNRRA minutes of discussion, 24 Mar. 1943. According to Sharpe, the Chinese ambassador to the United States Wei Tao-Ming leaked the documents: Sharpe, ‘The origins of UNRRA’, p. 540.

33 AFJME, AME 45/1/56, memorandum of discussion in Mr Acheson's office, Department of State, 21 July 1943; letter from Alberto Echandi to D. Fay Allen, 16 July 1943.

34 AFJME, AME 45/1/46, lettre de A. Loudon à Cordell Hull, 28 June 1943; MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 689, traduction de la note que le gouvernement norvégien a chargé son ambassadeur à Washington de remettre au secrétaire d’état au affaires étrangères, 17 July 1943. Also see Sharpe ‘The origins of the UNRRA’, pp. 692–734.

35 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 689, copy of the letter of the Czechoslovak government, 10 Aug. 1943.

36 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 689, copie de la lettre du MAE et du Commerce Extérieur de Belgique à l'ambassadeur des États-Unis, 19 July 1943.

37 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 689, copy of the Polish letter, 24 July 1943.

38 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 689, télégramme d'Alphand à Monnet, no. 614, 11 Aug. 1943; Halecki, Oskar, ‘East Central Europe in postwar organization’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 228 (1943), pp. 52–9.

39 Duroselle, L'abîme, pp. 413–46; Thomas, Martin, ‘The discarded leader: General Henri Giraud and the Foundation of the French Committee of National Liberation’, French History, 10 (1996), pp. 86111, at p. 109.

40 AN, papiers de Gaulle, 3/AG1/262, lettre du cabinet civil du Général Giraud à Monsieur le commissaire aux affaires étrangères, a/s du projet d'accord relatif à l'administration des Nations Unies pour l'assistance et la reconstruction; MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 689, note sur l'organisation du relief, 7 July 1943.

41 Lorentz, Claude, La France et les resistitutions allemandes au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale (Paris, 1998), p. 15.

42 Gerbet, Pierre, ‘Jean Monnet – Charles de Gaulle: deux conceptions de la construction européenne’, in Bossuat, Gérard and Wilkens, Andreas, eds., Jean Monnet, l'Europe et les chemins de la paix (Paris, 1999), pp. 411–34.

43 Jackson, Beyond the balance of power, p. 178.

44 Fransen, Frederic, The supranational politics of Jean Monnet: ideas and origins of the European Community (Westport, CT, 2001), p. 80.

45 Duchêne, François, Jean Monnet: the first statesman of interdependence (New York, NY, 1994), p. 127; Kaspi, André, La mission de Jean Monnet à Alger, mars – octobre 1943 (Paris, 1971), p. 217.

46 Rousseau, Guy, ‘Etienne Clémentel, un inspirateur méconnu de Jean Monnet’, Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, 186 (1997), pp. 315; Jackson, Beyond the balance of power, pp. 254, 515.

47 Mouton, Marie-Renée, La Société des Nations et les intérêts de la France, 1920–1924 (Berlin, 1995); Antoine Fleury, ‘Jean Monnet au Secrétariat des Nations’, in Bossuat and Wilkens, eds., Jean Monnet, pp. 31–41; Lubor Jilek, ‘Rôle de Jean Monnet dans les règlements d'Autriche et de Haute-Silésie’, in Bossuat and Wilkens, eds., Jean Monnet, pp. 43–61; Isoni, Alessandro, ‘Jean Monnet, the UN administrative system and the creation of the ECSC high authority’, in Petrini, Francesco, ed., Networks of global governance: international organisations and European integration in an historical perspective (Cambridge, 2014), pp. 6175; Wolf D. Gruner, ‘La place de l'Allemagne dans l'Europe d'après-guerre selon Jean Monnet (1940–1952)’, in Bossuat and Wilkens, eds., Jean Monnet, pp. 112–46, at p. 126.

48 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, papiers Alphand, 1536, organisation du ‘secours immédiat’ (relief) et de la ‘Reconstruction économique’ (Rehabilitation) à prévoir pour les territoires occupés, 28 July 1943, p. 9.

49 Ibid.

50 Philippe Mioche, Le plan Monnet: genèse et élaboration, 1941–1947 (Paris, 1987), p. 75.

51 AFJME, AME 35/3/4, Secretariat du Comité, no. 26, resumé des decisions prises au cours de la séance du 5 août 1943.

52 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 689, lettre de Pierre Viénot à René Massigli, Londres, 1 juillet 1943; conversation de M. Viénot avec M. Dalton a/s du relief, 3 July 1943; note confidentielle de R. Marjolin, la participation de la France à l'organisation du ‘relief’, 17 juin 1943; AN, 457/AP/1, papiers Georges Bidault, note pour le Général de Gaulle, 8 Oct. 1943.

53 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 689, conversation de M. Viénot avec M. Dalton a/s du relief, 3 July 1943.

54 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, papiers Alphand, 1536, réponse du CFLN à la note du gouvernement des États-Unis d'Amérique, 12 Aug. 1943.

55 AFJME, AME 45/1/65, memorandum of discussion in Mr Acheson's office, Department of State, 19 Aug. 1943; MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, papiers Alphand, 1536, étude des différences existant entre le projet du 15 mai et celui du 20 septembre, Alger, 11 Oct. 1943.

56 AFJME, AME 35/3/22, résumé des decisions prises au cours de la séance du 14 octobre 1943; MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 693, lettre de l'ambassadeur de France à Monnet, 18 Oct. 1943.

57 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 696, note pour le CFLN sur le ravitaillement des enfants du territoire métropolitain, Alger, le 17 Novembre 1943; Dougherty, James, The politics of wartime aid: American economic assistance to France and French northwest Africa, 1940–1946 (London, 1978), pp. 45.

58 See for example Le Crom, Jean Pierre, ‘Lutter contre la faim: le rôle du Secours National’, in von Bueltzingsloewen, Isabelle, ed., Morts d'inanition: famine et exclusions en France sous l'occupation (Rennes, 2005), pp. 249–62; Grenard, Fabrice, ‘Les implications politiques du ravitaillement en France sous l'occupation’, Vingtième siècle, 94 (2007), pp. 199215; AFJME, AME 45/1/76, télégramme no. 26 pour M. Monnet, 29 Dec. 1943.

59 Archives of the League of Nations, R.1752/47/21350, Norwegian government proposal concerning a Commission of Enquiry into the Russian Famine, note on conversation between Monsieur Monnet, Professor Attolico, and Mr Baker, 6 June 1922.

60 Marjolin, Robert, Le travail d'une vie: mémoires, 1911–1986 (Paris, 1986), p. 120.

61 Letter from Massigli to Monnet, 30 Oct. 1943, quoted in Roussel, Eric, Jean Monnet (Paris, 1996), p. 4.

62 AFJME, AME 35/4/9, lettre de Massigli à Monnet, 25 Nov. 1943.

63 AFJME, AME 45/3/7, Monnet à René Mayer, nos. 2709 à 2718, 7 Nov. 1943; AFJME, AME 45/3/40, Monnet à Mayer et Massigli, ‘Question du débarquement’, 24 Nov. 1943.

64 Brinkley, Douglas, ‘Dean Acheson and Jean Monnet: on the path to Atlantic partnership’, in Hackett, Clifford P., ed., Monnet and the Americans: the father of a united Europe and his US supporters (Washington, WA, 1995), pp. 71101, at p. 79; Monnet, Jean, Mémoires (Paris, 2014), pp. 301–21.

65 AFJME, AME 45/3/15, Monnet à René Mayer, 12 Nov. 1943; AFJME, AME 45/3/43, Monnet à Mayer, no. 2868, 25 Nov. 1943.

66 AFJME, AME 45/4/6, Dean Acheson to Jean Monnet, 21 Nov. 1943; AME 45/4/7, letter of M. Monnet, chairman, Dr Tsiang (China), Mr Kerstens (Netherlands), and Mr Sergeev (USSR), to Dean Acheson, 22 Nov. 1943.

67 Verbatim minutes of the final plenary meeting 1 Dec. 1943, First session of the Council of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, Atlantic City, New Jersey, November 10–December 1, 1943 (US Government printing, 1944), p. 200.

68 AFJME, AME 45/3/9, télégramme de Monnet à Diplo-France Alger, no. 2738, 10 Nov. 1943; MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 690, note sur les derniers télégrammes reçus de M. Jean Monnet, 30 Nov. 1943; AFJME, AME 35/2/17, René Mayer, note sur l’état des négociations menées par M. Monnet à Washington et à Atlantic City, Alger, 22 Nov. 1943.

69 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 690, télégramme secret de Washington, no. 2942, sent on 4 décembre 1943.

70 AN, F/9/3305, note établie par les affaires étrangères sur les resolutions du premier conseil de l'UNRRA, Jan. 1944.

71 See n. 77.

72 AFJME, AME 45/1/69, Monnet à Meyer, pour les presidents et les membres du CFLN, 10 Nov. 1943; AFJME, AME 45/3/1, télégramme de Hoppenot, nos. 2549–51, 21 Oct. 1943.

73 AFJME, AME 45/3/55, télégramme no. 3006, Monnet à Mayer [signé Hoppenot], 14 Dec. 1943; MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 693, affaires étrangères à l'attention de Monnet et Alphand, 6 Nov. 1943.

74 AFJME, AME 45/4/16, ‘Décisions à prendre et tâches à executer’, conférences dans le bureau de Monnet, 8–9 Dec. 1943; MAE, papiers Massigli, PAAP-217, vol. 42, note du commissaire aux affaires étrangères, conversation avec M. Van Zeeland, 2 Mar. 1944.

75 AN, F/9/3116, Monnet à Mayer pour le Président Massigli et les membres du Comité, 19 Feb. 1944.

76 AFJME, AME 45/3/48, Monnet à Mayer, no. 23, 14 Dec. 1943; MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 689, télégramme Alphand à Monnet et Massigli, 15 Aug. 1943.

77 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 690, traduction d'un télégramme chiffré, 14 Decembre 1943; Guillen, Pierre, ‘La France Libre et le projet de fédération ouest européenne 1943–1944’, in Dumoulin, M., ed., Plans des temps de guerre pour l'Europe d'après-guerre 1940–1947 (Brussels, 1995), pp. 153–73.

78 AFJME, AME 45/4/46, Monnet à Meyer pour le président et les membres du Comité, nos. 2411–15, 27 Apr. 1944; MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 692, commissaire des finances à monsieur l'ambassadeur de France, 27 Apr. 1944.

79 MAE, papiers Massigli, 42, débats de l'Assemblée consultative provisoire, séance du vendredi 12 Mai 1944.

80 MAE, Alger, 692, ambassade de France au Maroc à commissaire aux affaires sociales, 20 May 1944; AN, F/9/31116, lettre secrète du commissaire aux PDR à monsieur le président de l'entr'aide française, 1 Apr. 1944 [signed Frenay].

81 AFJME, AME 45/4/46, Jean Monnet à René Meyer pour le président et membres du Comité, 27 Apr. 1944.

82 UNA, UNRRA, ERO files, S–0523–0012, bulletin, UNRRA plans and operations France, series 1, Bureau of Area Operations, no. 1, Apr. 1945.

83 AN, F/9/3116, extrait d'une lettre d'André Mayer à Lt. Jean Mayer – resumé: situation de la France dans l'UNRRA, date du doc intercepté: 5 May 1944, date de l'interception: 26 May 1944; extrait d'une lettre d'André Mayer à Lt. Jean Mayer – resumé: commentaires sur l'activité de l'UNRRA – découverte scientifique, date du doc intercepté: 9 May 1944, date de l'interception: 26 May 1944.

84 UNA, UNRRA, ERO files, S–0523–0012, N. M. Goodman, 29 June 1944.

85 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 691, activités américaines en Egypte, coopération de l'UNRRA aux travaux sanitaires, 26 June 1944.

86 UNA, UNRRA, ERO files, S–0523–0012, R. Herbert to Mr Feonov, [June 1944?]; Sir Frederick Leith-Ross to Mr Lithgow Osborne, 22 June 1944.

87 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, 691, Alphand pour le Comité économique, no. 3255, 21 June 1944.

88 UNA, UNRRA, ERO files, S–0523–0012, Col. Delahaye to Mr Osborne, 24 June 1944.

89 AFJME, AME 47/2/25, lettre de Jean Monnet [report on his meeting with Lehman], Washington, 2 June 1944.

90 ‘UNRRA recognizes French Committee’, New York Times, 16 July 1944.

91 MAE, Alger, CFLN-GPRF, papiers Alphand, 1537, direction des affaires économiques, 15 Sept. 1944.

92 AFJME, AME 45/4/61, Jean Monnet, 13 Sept. 1944.

93 UNA, UNRRA, S–0523–0650–10, John Alexander to Mr Hoehler, 18 Oct. 1944.

94 UNA, UNRRA, S–0523–0650–10, office of the UNRRA to ministère des PDR, 31 Oct. 1944.

95 See for example Lagrou, Pieter, The legacy of Nazi occupation: patriotic memory and national recovery in Western Europe, 1945–1965 (Cambridge, 2000).

96 Fondation pour la mémoire de la deportation, Livre-Mémorial, www.fmd.asso.fr/web/index.php?id_contenu=52 (last accessed 19 Apr. 2017).

97 Humbert, Laure, ‘French politics of relief and international aid: France, UNRRA and the rescue of European displaced persons in postwar Germany, 1945–1947’, Journal of Contemporary History, 51 (2016), pp. 606–34.

98 Ulrich-Pier, Raphaële, René Massigli (1888–1988): une vie de diplomate tome (2 vols., Paris, 2006), ii, pp. 882–7, 937, 974; MAE, NUOI, 7, direction des conventions administratives, réunion à Londres du Conseil de l'UNRRA, 16 Aug. 1945.

99 Bezias, Jean-Rémy, Georges Bidault et la politique étrangère de la France: Europe, États-Unis, Proche-Orient, 1944–1948 (Paris, 2006), pp. 165–77.

100 AN, papiers de Gaulle, 3/AG1/262, René Cassin sur une conversation confidentielle avec M. Leo Gerstenzang, Algiers, 3 Sept. 1943.

101 AN, papiers de Gaulle, 3/AG1/262, Jean Monnet à mon general, 10 Aug. 1943.

102 AN, papiers Bidault, 457/AP/1, instructions du gouvernement à la délégation de San Francisco, Apr. 1945.

* The author would like to thank Martin Thomas, Charlotte Faucher, Jean-Marc Dreyfus, Craig Griffiths, James Connolly, and the anonymous readers of the Historical Journal for their instructive comments on earlier drafts of this article. I have given a version of this article at the Institute of Historical Research and Aberystwyth: thanks to all who attended for their helpful comments.

THE FRENCH IN EXILE AND POST-WAR INTERNATIONAL RELIEF, c. 1941–1945

  • LAURE HUMBERT (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed