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ISLAM AND THE EUROPEAN EMPIRES*

  • DAVID MOTADEL (a1)
Abstract

This essay surveys literature on the engagement of different European empires, including the French, British, Dutch, Russian, and German, with Islam. While the history of Islam and empire has attracted the attention of scholars for decades, most of their studies have been written primarily as contributions to the historiography of a specific empire or a distinct geographic region and rarely refer to research on other imperial powers, even though the questions and themes raised are remarkably similar. The article brings together these studies, exploring the following topics: Islam and imperial rule and, in particular, the ways in which religious institutions were accommodated and controlled in the colonial state; Islam and anti-imperial resistance; and the relationship between Islam, information, and colonial knowledge. It assesses the dominant themes in the field and points to a number of questions that remain to be studied.

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Gonville and Caius College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TAdm408@cam.ac.uk
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The author wishes to thank Rachel G. Hoffman, Sujit Sivasundaram, John P. Slight, and the anonymous referees for their comments on earlier versions of this article.

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1 Hobson, J. A., Imperialism: a study (London, 1902), p. 215, quoting Ching, Wen, The Chinese crisis from within (London, 1901), p. 12.

2 Porter, A. N., Religion versus empire? British Protestant missionaries and overseas expansion, 1700–1914 (Manchester, 2004); and idem, ‘Religion and empire: British expansion in the long nineteenth century, 1780–1914’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 20 (1992), pp. 370–90; Stanley, Brian, The Bible and the flag: Protestant missions and British imperialism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (Leicester, 1990); see also Norman Etherington, ‘Missions and empire’, in Robin W. Winks and Alaine Low, eds., Oxford history of the British empire, v: Historiography (Oxford, 1999), pp. 303–14.

3 Norman Etherington, ‘Introduction’, in idem, ed., Missions and empire (Oxford, 2005).

4 Bayly, Susan, Saints, goddesses and kings: Muslims and Christians in south Indian society 1700–1900 (Cambridge, 1989), gives a fascinating account of the religious heterogeneity colonial officials encountered overseas.

5 Robinson, Francis, ed., The new Cambridge history of Islam, v: The Islamic world in the age of Western dominance (Cambridge, 2010), is a general history of the Muslim world in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, although a number of authors mention or discuss the relationship between religion and European imperialism.

6 Courbage, Youssef and Fargues, Philippe, Christians and Jews under Islam (London and New York, NY, 1997).

7 Cherfils, Christian, Bonaparte et l'Islam d'après les documents français arabes (Paris, 1914); see also Herold, Christopher J., Bonaparte in Egypt (New York, NY, 1962); Thiry, Jean, Bonaparte en Égypte Décembre 1797–24 Août 1799 (Paris, 1973); and Cole, Juan, Napoleon's Egypt: invading the Middle East (New York, NY, 2007), esp. pp. 123–42; see also Frémeaux, Jacques, La France et l'Islam depuis 1789 (Paris, 1991), pp. 3554; and the articles in Luizard, Pierre-Jean, ed., Le choc colonial et l'Islam: les politiques religieuses des puissance coloniales en terres d'Islam (Paris, 2006), which mainly focus on French colonial policies towards Islam.

8 Christelow, Allan, Muslim law courts and the French colonial state in Algeria (Princeton, NJ, 1985).

9 Green, Arnold H., The Tunisian ulama 1873–1915: social structure and response to ideological currents (Leiden, 1978), pp. 129230; and Gershovich, Moshe, French military rule in Morocco: colonialism and its consequences (London and Portland, OR, 2000), pp. 63121.

10 Harrison, Christopher, France and Islam in West Africa, 1860–1960 (Cambridge, 1988). On the question of the coherence of French policies towards Islam in nineteenth-century West Africa, see O'Brien, Donal Cruise, ‘Towards an “Islamic policy” in French West Africa’, Journal of African History, 8 (1967), pp. 303–16; and, in response, Robinson, David, ‘French “Islamic” policy and practice in late nineteenth-century Senegal’, Journal of African History, 29 (1988), pp. 415–35; see also Jean-Louis Triaud, ‘Islam in Africa under French colonial rule’, in Nehemia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels, eds., The history of Islam in Africa (Athens, OH, 2000), pp. 169–88; Mann, Gregory, ‘Fetishizing religion: Allah Koura and French “Islamic policy” in late colonial French Soudan (Mali)’, Journal of African History, 44 (2003), pp. 263–82; and Grandhomme, Hélène, ‘La politique Musulmane de la France au Sénégal (1936–1964)’, Canadian Journal of African Studies, 38 (2004), pp. 237–78.

11 Robinson, David, Paths of accommodation: Muslim societies and French colonial authorities in Senegal and Mauritania, 1880–1920 (Oxford and Athens, OH, 2000); see also idem, ‘France as a Muslim power in West Africa’, Africa Today, 46 (1999), pp. 105–27; idem, ‘The Murids: surveillance and accommodation’, Journal of African History, 40 (1999), pp. 193–213; the articles in idem and Triaud, Jean-Louis, eds., Le temps des Marabouts: itinéraires et stratégies Islamiques en Afrique Occidentale française v. 1880–1960 (Paris, 1997); the articles of David Robinson in idem and Triaud, Jean-Louis, eds., La Tijâniyya: une confrérie Musulmane à la conquête de l'Afrique (Paris, 2000); and Lucy Behrman, ‘French Muslim policy and the Senegalese brotherhoods’, in Daniel F. McCall, ed., Aspects of West African Islam (Boston, MA, 1971), pp. 185–208.

12 Launay, Robert and Soares, Benjamin F., ‘The formation of an “Islamic Sphere” in French colonial West Africa’, Economy and Society, 28 (1999), pp. 497519.

13 Mann, Gregory and Lecocq, Baz, ‘Between empire, Umma, and the Muslim third world: the French Union and African pilgrims to Mecca, 1946–1958’, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 27 (2007), pp. 167–81.

14 Klein, Martin A., Islam and imperialism in Senegal: Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914 (Stanford, CA, 1968); and Babou, Cheikh Anta, Fighting the greater Jihad: Amadu Bamba and the founding of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1853–1913 (Athens, OH, 2007); see also part II of this article.

15 Crowder, Michael, West Africa under colonial rule (London, 1968); and Miles, William F. S., Hausaland divided: colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger (Ithaca, NY, 1994); see also Miles, William F. S., ‘Partitioned royalty: the evolution of Hausa chiefs in Nigeria and Niger’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 25 (1987), pp. 233–58.

16 Ibid. The foundational text is Lugard, Frederick D., The dual mandate in British tropical Africa (Edinburgh and London, 1922); see also Perham, Margery, Lugard (2 vols., London, 1956–60), ii, pp. 1280 and 375–638. Scholars have long questioned Lugard's alleged policy of indirect rule, see Deschamps, Hubert, ‘Et maintenant, Lord Lugard?’, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 33 (1963), pp. 293306; and, in response, Crowder, Michael, ‘Indirect rule: French and British style’, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 34 (1964), pp. 197205; and Nicolson, I. F., The administration of Nigeria, 1900–1960: men, methods, and myths (Oxford, 1969), pp. 124–79; on the spread of Islam under British rule, see Ubah, C. N., ‘Colonial administration and the spread of Islam in Northern Nigeria’, Muslim World, 81 (1991), pp. 133–48; on the conflict been missionaries and colonial authorities over Islam, see Barnes, Andrew E., ‘“Religious insults”: Christian critiques of Islam and the government in colonial Northern Nigeria’, Journal of Religion in Africa, 34 (2004), pp. 6281.

17 Umar, Muhammad Sani, Islam and colonialism: intellectual responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British colonial rule (Leiden, 2006). On British interference in Muslim matters, see also idem, ‘The Tijâniyya and British colonial authorities in Northern Nigeria’, in Triaud and Robinson, eds., La Tijâniyya, pp. 327–55; Tibenderana, Peter Kazenga, ‘The role of the British administration in the appointment of the emirs of Northern Nigeria, 1903–1931: the case of Sokoto Province’, Journal of African History, 28 (1987), pp. 231–57; idem, ‘The irony of indirect rule in Sokoto Emirate, Nigeria, 1903–1944’, African Studies Review, 31 (1988), pp. 67–92; Yadudu, Auwalu Hamsxu, ‘Colonialism and the transformation of the substance and form of Islamic law in the Northern states of Nigeria’, Journal of Law and Religion, 9 (1991), pp. 1747; and Reynolds, Jonathan, ‘Good and bad Muslims: Islam and indirect rule in Northern Nigeria’, International Journal of African Historical Studies, 34 (2001), pp. 601–18.

18 Hardy, P., The Muslims of British India (Cambridge, 1972); Robinson, Francis, Separatism among Indian Muslims: the politics of the United Provinces’ Muslims, 1860–1923 (Cambridge, 1975); and, more recently, idem, ‘The British empire and Muslim identity in South Asia’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6 (1998), pp. 271–89; see also the more recent studies David Page, Prelude to partition: the Indian Muslims and the imperial system of control, 1920–1932 (Delhi, 1982); and Shaikh, Farzana, Community and consensus in Islam: Muslim representation in colonial India, 1860–1947 (Cambridge, 1989). Shaikh gives a good overview of the complex historiographical debate about Islam, British rule and communalism in India (pp. 1–9).

19 Kugle, Scott Alan, ‘Framed, blamed and renamed: the recasting of Islamic jurisprudence in colonial South Asia’, Modern Asian Studies, 35 (2001), pp. 257313; and Zaman, Muhammad Qasim, The ulama in contemporary Islam: custodians of change (Princeton, NJ, 2002), pp. 1737; for a comparison with the droit musulman algérien in French Algeria, see Powers, David S., ‘Orientalism, colonialism, and legal history: the attack on Muslim family endowments in Algeria and India’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 31 (1989), pp. 535–71.

20 John P. Slight, ‘The British empire and the hajj, 1865–1956’ (Ph.D., Cambridge, 2011); see also Roff, William R., ‘Sanitation and security: the imperial powers and the nineteenth century hajj’, Arabian Studies, 6 (1982), pp. 143–60; Takashi Oishi, ‘Friction and rivalry over pious mobility: British colonial management of the hajj and the reaction to it by Indian Muslims, 1870–1920’, in Kuroki Hidemitsu, ed., The influence of human mobility in Muslim societies (London, 2003), pp. 151–79; Miller, Michael B., ‘Pilgrims’ progress: the business of the hajj’, Past and Present, 191 (2006), pp. 189228; Low, Michael Christopher, ‘Empire and the hajj: pilgrims, plagues, and pan-Islam under British surveillance, 1865–1908’, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 40 (2008), pp. 269–90; and Mishra, Saurabh, Pilgrimage, politics and pestilence: the haj from the Indian subcontinent, 1860–1920 (Delhi, 2011).

21 Green, Nile, Islam and the army in colonial India: Sepoy religion in the service of empire (Cambridge, 2009); see also idem, ‘The faqir and the subalterns: mapping the holy man in colonial South Asia’, Journal of Asian History, 41 (2007), pp. 57–84; and idem, ‘Jack Sepoy and the dervishes: Islam and the Indian soldier in princely Hyderabad’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 18, 1 (2008), pp. 31–46.

22 Steenbrink, Karel, Dutch colonialism and Indonesian Islam: contacts and conflicts, 1596–1950 (Amsterdam et al., 1993).

23 Robert J. Donia, Islam under the double eagle: the Muslims of Bosnia and Hercegovina, 1878–1914 (New York, NY, 1981); and Ferdinand Hauptmann, ‘Die Mohammedaner in Bosnien-Hercegovina’, in Adam Wandruzka and Peter Urbanitsch, eds., Die Habsburgmonarchie 1848–1918, iv (Vienna, 1985), pp. 670–701; see also Rupert Klieber, Jüdische – Christliche – Muslimische Lebenswelten der Donaumonarchie, 1848–1918 (Vienna, 2010).

24 Crews, Robert D., For Prophet and tsar: Islam and empire in Russia and Central Asia (Cambridge, MA, and London, 2006); see also idem, ‘Empire and the confessional state: Islam and religious politics in nineteenth-century Russia’, American Historical Review, 108 (2003), pp. 50–83; and idem, ‘Islamic law, imperial order: Muslims, Jews, and the Russian state’, Ab Imperio, 3 (2004), pp. 467–90; other important works which stress the accommodation of Islam in the tsarist empire are Frank, Allen J., Muslim religious institutions in imperial Russia: the Islamic world of Novouzensk district and the Kazakh Inner Horde, 1780–1910 (Leiden, 2001); and Vladimir Bobrovnikov, ‘Islam in the Russian empire’, in Dominic Lieven, ed., Cambridge history of Russia, ii: Imperial Russia, 1689–1917 (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 202–23; and Paolo Sartori, ‘An overview of tsarist policy on Islamic courts in Turkestan: its genealogy and its effects’, in Svetlana Gorshenina and Sergey Abashin, eds., Le Turkestan russe: une colonie comme les autres? (Paris, 2009), pp. 477–507.

25 Mostashari, Firouzeh, On the religious frontier: tsarist Russia and Islam in the Caucasus (London, 2006). On the limits of accommodation in the Crimea, see Kelly O'Neill, ‘Between subversion and submission: the integration of the Crimean Khanate into the Russian empire, 1783–1853’ (Ph.D., Harvard University, 2006); and idem, ‘Constructing Russian identity in the imperial borderland: architecture, Islam, and the transformation of the Crimean landscape’, Ab Imperio, 2 (2006), pp. 163–92.

26 Morrison, A. S., Russian rule in Samarkand, 1868–1910: a comparison with British India (Oxford, 2008), esp. pp. 5187.

27 Roff, William R., ed., Islam and the political economy of meaning: comparative studies of Muslim discourse (London, 1987), and other works have stressed the importance of specific social and political contexts in shaping Islamic movements and discourses across the world, although the emphasis on diversity bears the risk of overlooking crucial similarities.

28 Edmund Burke iii, ‘Islam and social movements: methodological reflections’, in idem and Ira M. Lapidus, eds., Islam, politics, and social movements (Berkeley, CA, et al., 1988), pp. 17–35.

29 For a comparison between various Islamic anti-colonial movements, see Peters, Rudolph, Islam and colonialism: the doctrine of Jihad in modern history (The Hague et al., 1979), pp. 39104; and Keddie, Nikki, ‘The revolt of Islam, 1700 to 1993: comparative considerations and relations to imperialism’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 36 (1994), pp. 463–87, esp. pp. 481–5. Peters (pp. 41–4) and Keddie (pp. 466–7, 481) mainly distinguish between ‘messianic’ and ‘Wahhabi type’ revolts.

30 For the general context, see Adas, Michael, Prophets of rebellion: millenarian protest movements against the European colonial order (Chapel Hill, NC, 1979).

31 Green, Dominic, Armies of God: Islam and empire on the Nile, 1869–1899 (London, 2007); Nicoll, Fergus, Mahdi of Sudan and the death of General Gordon (London, 2005); Asher, Michael, Khartoum: the ultimate imperial adventure (London, 2005); and Neillands, Robin, The Dervish wars: Gordon and Kitchener in the Sudan, 1880–1898 (London, 1996). Popular fascination with the Mahdiyya goes back to the times of the revolt itself. Famous contemporary accounts are Wingate, F. R., Mahdism and the Egyptian Sudan (London, 1891); and Churchill, Winston S., The river war: an historical account of the reconquest of the Soudan (London, 1899).

32 Voll, John Obert, ‘The Sudanese Mahdi: frontier fundamentalist’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 10 (1979), pp. 145–66; and David Steele, ‘Lord Salisbury, the “false religion” of Islam, and the reconquest of the Sudan’, in Edward M. Spiers, ed., Sudan: the reconquest reappraised (London, 1998), pp. 11–34.

33 Moore-Harell, Alice, Gordon and the Sudan: prologue to the Mahdiyya, 1877–1880 (London and Portland, OR, 2001).

34 Holt, P. M., Mahdist state in the Sudan, 1881–1898: a study of its origins, development and overthrow (Oxford, 1958); see also Theobald, A. B., The Mahdīya: a history of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1881–1899 (London et al., 1951).

35 Searcy, Kim, The formation of the Sudanese Mahdist state: ceremony and symbols of authority: 1882–1898 (Leiden, 2011).

36 Lovejoy, Paul E. and Hogendorn, J. S., ‘Revolutionary Mahdism and resistance to colonial rule in the Sokoto Caliphate, 1905–1906’, Journal of African History, 31 (1990), pp. 217–44; Thea Büttner, ‘Social aims and earlier anti-colonial struggles: the Satiru Rising of 1906’, in Thea Büttner and Gerhard Brehme, eds., African Studies (Berlin, 1973), pp. 1–18; Adeleye, R. A., ‘Mahdist triumph and British revenge in Northern Nigeria: Satiru, 1906’, Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 6 (1972), pp. 193214; Ubah, C. N., ‘British measures against Mahdism in Dumbulwa in Northern Nigeria, 1923: a case of colonial overreaction’, Islamic Culture, 50 (1976), pp. 169–83; Saeed, Asma'u G., ‘The British policy towards the Mahdiyya in Northern Nigeria: a study of the arrest, detention and deportation of Shaykh Sa'id b. Hayat, 1923–1959’, Kano Studies, 2 (1982–5), pp. 95119; Fisher, John, ‘British responses to Mahdist and other unrest in North and West Africa, 1919–1930’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, 52 (2006), pp. 347–61; Umar, Muhammad S., ‘Muslims’ eschatological discourses on colonialism in Northern Nigeria’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 67 (1999), pp. 5984; and Clarke, Peter B., Mahdism in West Africa: the Ijebu Mahdiyya movement (London, 1995), pp. 3544.

37 Thea Büttner, ‘Die Mahdi-Erhebungen 1907 in Nordkamerun im Vergleich mit antikolonialen islamischen Bewegungen in anderen Regionen West- und Zentralafrikas’, in Peter Heine and Ulrich van der Heyden, eds., Studien zur Geschichte des deutschen Kolonialismus in Afrika (Pfaffenweiler, 1995), pp. 147–59; see also Martin Z. Njeuma, ‘The foundation of radical Islam in Ngaoundere, 1835–1907’, in Jean Boutrais, ed., Peuples et cultures de l'Adamaoua (Cameroun) (Paris, 1993), pp. 87–101.

38 Carey, Peter, The power of prophecy: Prince Dipanagara and the end of an Old Order in Java, 1785–1855 (Leiden, 2007). Dipanagara's millenarianism was based on a syncretism of various strains of centuries-old Javanese folkloric eschatology, most importantly the idea of the prophet Ratu Adil, and newer ideas of the Islamic Mahdi, see Adas, Prophets of rebellion, pp. 93–9; and van der Kroef, Justus M., ‘Javanese Messianic expectations: their origin and cultural context’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1 (1959), pp. 299323, esp. pp. 308–9.

39 For the general context, see Abun-Nasr, Jamil M., Muslim communities of grace: the Sufi brotherhoods in religious life (London, 2007), pp. 200–35, esp. pp. 202–14.

40 Danziger, Raphael, Abd al-Qadir and the Algerians: resistance to the French and internal consolidation (New York 1977); see also the classic by Azan, Colonel Paul, L’Émir Abd El Kader, 1808–1883: du fanatisme Musulman au patriotisme français (Paris, 1925); and articles published in Émérit, Marcel, ed., L'Algérie à l’époque d'Abd-El-Kader (Paris, 1951); on the pre-colonial roots of al-Qadir's jihad, see Bennison, Amira K., Jihad and its interpretations in pre-colonial Morocco: state–society relations during the French conquest of Algeria (London and New York, NY, 2002).

41 Brower, Benjamin, A desert named peace: the violence of France's empire in the Algerian Sahara, 1844–1902 (New York, NY, 2009); see also the articles in part ii of Burke and Lapidus, eds., Islam, politics, and social movements; and, more generally, Colonna, Fanny, ‘Cultural resistance and religious legitimacy in colonial Algeria’, Economy and Society, 3 (1974), pp. 233–52.

42 Clancy-Smith, Julia, Rebel and saint: Muslim notables, populist protest, colonial encounters (Berkeley, CA, 1994).

43 Triaud, Jean-Louis, La légende noire de la Sanûsiyya: une confrérie Musulmane saharienne sous le regard français (1840–1930) (2 vols., Paris, 1995), esp. ii; idem, Tchad 1900–1902: une guerre Franco-Libyenne oubliée? Une confrerie Musulmane, la Sanusiyya, face à la France (Paris, 1987); see also the classic of Evans-Pritchard, E. E., The Sanusi of Cyrenaica (Oxford, 1949).

44 Vikør, Knut S., Sufi and scholar on the desert edge: Muhammad b. ‘Ali al-Sanusi and his brotherhood (London, 1995).

45 Robinson, David, The holy war of Umar Tal: the Western Sudan in the mid-nineteenth century (Oxford, 1985); see also idem, Chiefs and clerics: Abdul Bokar Kan and Futa Toro 1853–1891 (Oxford, 1975), esp. pp. 28–53; Dumont, Fernand, L'anti-Sultan, ou Al-Hajj Omar Tal du Fouta, combattant de la foi (1794–1864) (Paris, 1971); Murray Last, ‘Reform in West Africa: the Jihād movement of the nineteenth century’, in J. F. A. Ajayi and Michael Crowder, eds., History of West Africa, ii (London, 1974), pp. 1–29, esp. pp. 17–23; and Christian Coulon, ‘Prophets of God or of history? Muslim messianic movements and anti-colonialism in Senegal’, in Wim van Binsbergen and Matthew Schoffeleers, eds., Theoretical explorations in African religion (London, 1985), pp. 346–66.

46 Babou, Fighting the Greater Jihad; see also idem, ‘Contesting space, shaping places: making room for the Muridiyya in colonial Senegal, 1912–1945’, Journal of African History, 46 (2005), pp. 405–26.

47 Sheik-Abdi, Abdi, Divine madness: Mohammed Abdulle Hassan (1856–1920) (London and Atlantic Highlands, NJ, 1993); for contemporary interpretations see Swayne, H. G. C., Seventeen trips through Somaliland and a visit to Abyssinia: with supplementary preface on the ‘Mad Mullah’ risings (London, 1903), and Jardine, Douglas J., The mad Mullah of Somaliland (London, 1923).

48 Martin, B. G., ‘Muslim politics and resistance to colonial rule: Shaykh Uways B. Muhammed Al-Barawi and the Qadiriya brotherhood in East Africa’, Journal of African History, 10 (1969), pp. 471–86; and Michael Pesek, ‘Islam und Politik in Deutsch-Ostafrika, 1905–1919’, in Albert Wirz, Katrin Bromber, and Andreas Eckert, eds., Alles unter Kontrolle: Disziplinierungsverfahren im Kolonialen Tanzania (1850–1960) (Cologne, 2003), pp. 99–140.

49 Gammer, Moshe, Muslim resistance to the tsar: Shamil and the conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan (London, 1994); see also idem, ‘Shamil's most successful offensive: Daghestan 1843’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 12 (1991), pp. 41–54.

50 Zelkina, Anna, In quest of God and freedom: Sufi responses to the Russian advance in the North Caucasus (London, 2000).

51 Knysh, Alexander, ‘Sufism as an explanatory paradigm: the issue of the motivations of Sufi resistance movements in Western and Russian scholarship’, Die Welt des Islams, 42 (2002), pp. 139–73.

52 Kemper, Michael, Herrschaft, Recht und Islam in Daghestan: von den Khanaten und Gemeindebünden zum ğihād-Staat (Wiesbaden, 2005).

53 Idem, ‘Adat against Shari'a: Russian approaches toward Daghestani “customary law” in the nineteenth century’, Ab Imperio, 3 (2005), pp. 147–74.

54 Sidorko, Clemens P., Dschihad im Kaukasus: antikolonialer Widerstand der Dagestaner und Tschetschenen gegen das Zarenreich (18. Jahrhundert bis 1859) (Wiesbaden, 2007). Sidorko gives an excellent historiographical overview on pp. x–vii.

55 Kemper, Herrschaft; idem, ‘The changing images of Jihad leaders: Shamil and Abd al-Qadir in Daghestani and Algerian historical writing’, Nova Religio: Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, 11 (2007), pp. 28–58; and Knysh, ‘Sufism as an explanatory paradigm’.

56 Danziger, Abd al-Qadir, pp. 195–7.

57 Sheik-Abdi, Divine madness, pp. 56–61.

58 Last, ‘Reform in West Africa’, pp. 17–23.

59 Bayly, C. A., The birth of the modern world, 1780–1914: global connections and comparisons (Oxford, 2004), pp. 325–65, esp. pp. 333–43.

60 Lelyveld, David, Aligarh's first generation (Princeton, NJ, 1978); Troll, C. W., Sayyid Ahmad Khan (New Delhi, 1978); Faruqi, Ziya-ul-Hasan, The Deoband School and the demand for Pakistan (Bombay, 1963); and Metcalf, Barbara, Islamic revival in British India: Deoband, 1860–1900 (Princeton, NJ, 1982); see also idem, ‘Islam and power in colonial India: the making and unmaking of a Muslim princess’, American Historical Review, 116 (2011), pp. 1–30, on the intersection of Islamic reformism (Siddiq Hasan Khan's Ahl-i Hadith movement) and British imperialism in Shah Jahan Begum's Bhopal.

61 Metcalf, Islamic revival.

62 Ibid.; see also Francis, Robinson, ‘Technology and religious change: Islam and the impact of print’, Modern Asian Studies, 27 (1993), pp. 229–51.

63 Khalid, Adeeb, The politics of Muslim cultural reform: Jadidism in Central Asia (Berkeley, CA, 1998); for an earlier perspective, see d'Encausse, Hélène Carrère, Réforme et révolution chez les Musulmans de l'empire russe (Paris, 1966).

64 Ahmad, Qeyamuddin, The Wahabi movement in India (Calcutta, 1966); Elliott, J. G., The frontier 1839–1947: the story of the North-West Frontier of India (London, 1968); Beattie, Hugh, Imperial frontier: tribe and state in Wazirisan (London, 2001); and Warren, Alan, Waziristan, the faqir of Ipi, and the Indian army: the North-West Frontier revolt of 1936–1937 (Oxford, 2000). Popular accounts include Barthorp, Michael, The North-West Frontier: British India and Afghanistan: a pictorial history, 1839–1947 (Poole, 1982); idem, Afghan wars and the North-West Frontier, 1839–1947 (London, 2002); and Stewart, Jules, The savage border: the story of the North-West Frontier (Stroud, 2007). Popular contemporary accounts include Hobday, E. A. P., Sketches on service during the Indian frontier campaigns of 1897 (London, 1898); and Churchill, Winston Spencer, The story of the Malakand field force: an episode of frontier war (London et al., 1898); on Churchill's views of the Northwest Frontier, see Edwards, David B., ‘Mad mullahs and Englishmen: discourse in the colonial encounter’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 31 (1989), pp. 649–70.

65 Laffan, Michael Francis, Islamic nationhood and colonial Indonesia: the umma below the winds (London and New York, NY, 2003).

66 Landau, Jacob M., The politics of pan-Islam: ideology and organization (Oxford, 1990); Adeeb Khalid, ‘Pan-Islamism in practice: the rhetoric of Muslim unity and its uses’, in Elisabeth Özdalga, Late Ottoman society: the intellectual legacy (Abingdon, 2005), pp. 201–24; Farooqi, Naimur Rahman, ‘Pan-Islamism in the nineteenth century’, Islamic Culture, 57 (1983), pp. 283–96; Keddie, Nikki R., ‘Pan-Islam as proto-nationalism’, Journal of Modern History, 41 (1969), pp. 1728; Reid, Anthony, ‘Nineteenth-century pan-Islam in Indonesia and Malaysia’, Journal of Asian Studies, 26 (1967), pp. 275–6; and Kramer, Martin, Islam assembled: the advent of the Muslim congresses (New York, NY, 1986); see also the classic by Lee, Dwight E., ‘The origins of pan-Islamism’, American Historical Review, 47 (1942), pp. 278–87. On the Khalifat movement, see Qureshi, M. Naeem, Pan-Islam in British Indian politics: a study of the Khalifat Movement, 1918–1924 (Leiden, 1999); Özcan, Azmi, Pan-Islamism: Indian Muslims, the Ottomans and Britain, 1877–1924 (Leiden, 1997); Minault, Gail, The Khalifat movement: religious symbolism and political mobilisation in India (New York, NY, 1982); Niemeijer, Albert Christiaan, The Khilafat movement in India, 1919–1924 (The Hague, 1972); and Mushirul, Hasan and Pernau, Margrit, eds., Regionalizing pan-Islamism: documents on the Khilafat movement (New Delhi, 2005). On the imperial fears of pan-Islam, see in particular Darwin, John, The empire project: the rise and fall of the British world system, 1830–1970 (Cambridge, 2009), pp. 295–7.

67 Keddie, Nikki R., Sayyid Jamāl ad-Dīn ‘al-Afghānī’: a political biography (Berkeley, CA, 1972); idem, An Islamic response to imperialism: political and religious writings of Sayyid Jamāl ad-Dīn 'al-Afghānī’ (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA, 1968), pp. 1–97; Pakdaman, Homa, Djemal-ed-Din Assad Abadi dit Afghani (Paris, 1966); Mark Sedgwick, Muhammad Abduh (Oxford, 2009); see also Kerr, Malcolm, Islamic reform: the political and legal theories of Muḥammad ʿAbduh and Rashīd Riḍā (Berkeley, CA, 1966).

68 Ryad, Umar, Islamic reformism and Christianity: a critical reading of the works of Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā and his associates (1898–1935) (Leiden, 2009).

69 Aydin, Cemil, The politics of anti-Westernism in Asia: visions of world order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian thought (New York, NY, 2007). On the Ottoman sponsorship of pan-Islamism, see also Karpat, Kemal H., The politicization of Islam: reconstructing identity, state, faith, and community in the late Ottoman state (Oxford, 2001); and Deringil, Selim, The well-protected domains: ideology and legitimation of power in the Ottoman empire, 1876–1909 (London, 1998).

70 Note pour le moniteur, Pultusk, 30 Décembre 1806, in Correspondance de Napoléon Ier, publiée par ordre de l'Empereur Napléon III, xiv (Paris, 1863), pp. 123–4.

71 Orlando Figes, Crimea (London, 2010), passim.

72 Fischer, Fritz, Germany's aims in the First World War (New York, NY, 1967), pp. 120–31, first explored this campaign; Lüdke, Tilman, Jihad made in Germany: Ottoman and German propaganda and intelligence operations in the First World War (Münster, 2005); Müller, Herbert Landolin, Islam, Gihâd (‘Heiliger Krieg’) und Deutsches Reich: ein Nachspiel zur Wilhelminischen Weltpolitik im Maghreb, 1914–1918 (Frankfurt am Main, 1992); Oberhaus, Salvador, ‘Zum wilden Aufstande entflammen’: die deutsche Propagandastrategie für den Orient im Ersten Weltkrieg am Beispiel Ägypten (Saarbrücken, 2007); Osuntokun, Jide, ‘Nigerias's colonial government and the Islamic insurgency in French West Africa, 1914–1918’, Cahiers d'Études Africaines, 15 (1975), pp. 8593; Höpp, Gerhard, Muslime in der Mark: als Kriegsgefangene und Internierte in Wünsdorf und Zossen, 1914–1924 (Berlin, 1997); Reynolds, Michael, Shattering empires: the clash and collapse of the Ottoman and Russian empires, 1908–1918 (Cambridge, 2011), pp. 82139; Hopkirk, Peter, On secret service east of Constantinople: the plot to bring down the British empire (London, 1994); McKale, Donald, War by revolution: Germany and Great Britain in the Middle East in the era of World War I (Kent, OH, 1998); and McMeekin, Sean, The Berlin–Baghdad express: the Ottoman empire and Germany's bid for world power, 1898–1918 (London, 2010).

73 David Motadel, ‘Germany's policy towards Islam, 1941–1945’ (Ph.D., Cambridge, 2010); and Benda, Harry J., The crescent and the rising sun (The Hague, 1958).

74 Starting points remain Peters, Islam and colonialism, pp. 39–104; and Keddie, ‘The revolt of Islam’, pp. 481–5.

75 General studies about European perceptions of the Muslim faith in the imperial age are Daniel, Norman, Islam, Europe and empire (Edinburgh, 1966); and, more generally, idem, Islam and the West: the making of an image (Edinburgh, 1960); see also Hourani, Albert, Islam in European thought (Cambridge, 1991).

76 For an overview, see Tony Ballantyne, ‘Colonial knowledge’, in Sarah Stockwell, ed., The British empire: themes and perspectives (Oxford, 2008), pp. 177–98; Cohn, Bernard, Colonialism and its forms of knowledge (Princeton, NJ, 1996); Bayly, C. A., Empire and information: intelligence gathering and social communication in India, 1780–1870 (Cambridge, 1997); and Dubow, Saul, A commonwealth of knowledge: science, sensibility, and white South Africa, 1820–2000 (Oxford, 2006).

77 Ballantyne, ‘Colonial knowledge’, pp. 190–2.

78 Edward Said, Orientalism (London, 2003 (1978)), pp. 80–7.

79 Christelow, Muslim law courts; Harrison, France and Islam; Robinson, Paths of accommodation.

80 IV, George Trumbull, An empire of facts: colonial power, cultural knowledge, and Islam in Algeria, 1870–1914 (Cambridge, 2009).

81 Weiss, Holger, ‘Variations in the colonial representation of Islam and Muslims in Northern Ghana, Ca. 1900–1930’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 25 (2005), pp. 7395. For a comparison between British, French, and German colonial conceptions of Islam in West Africa, see idem, ‘European images of Islam in the northern hinterlands of the Gold Coast through the early colonial period’, Sudanic Africa, 12 (2001), pp. 83–110; and Seesemann, Rüdiger, ‘“Ein Dialog der Taubstummen”: französische vs. britische Wahrnehmungen des Islam im spätkolonialen Westafrika’, Africa Spectrum, 37 (2002), pp. 109–39.

82 For the first group, see Pandey, Gyanendra, The construction of communalism in colonial North India (Delhi, 1990); for the second group see Bayly, C. A., ‘The pre-history of “Communalism”? Religious conflict in India 1700–1860’, Modern Asian Studies, 19 (1985) pp. 177203; Prior, Katherine, ‘Making history: the state's intervention in urban religious disputes in the North-Western provinces in the early nineteenth century’, Modern Asian Studies, 27 (1993), pp. 179203; and Talbot, Cynthia, ‘Inscribing the other, inscribing the self: Hindu-Muslim identities in pre-colonial India’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 37 (1995), pp. 692722.

83 Padamsee, Alex, Representations of Indian Muslims in British colonial discourse (New York, NY, 2005).

84 Watt, Katherine, ‘Thomas Walker Arnold and the re-evaluation of Islam, 1864–1930’, Modern Asian Studies, 36 (2002), pp. 198.

85 Almond, Philip C., Heretic and hero: Muhammad and the Victorians (Wiesbaden, 1989); Bennett, Clinton, Victorian images of Islam (London, 1992); and Khan Khattak, Shahin Kuli, Islam and the Victorians: nineteenth-century perceptions of Muslim practices and beliefs (London, 2008).

86 Benda, Harry J., ‘Christian Snouck Hurgronje and the foundation of Dutch Islamic policy in Indonesia’, Journal of Modern History, 30 (1958), pp. 338–47; van Koningsveld, P. S., Snouck Hurgronje alias Abdoel Ghaffar: Enige Historisch-Kritische Kanttekeningen (Leiden, 1982); idem, Snouck Hurgronje's ‘Izhaar oel-Islam’: een veronachtzaamd Aspect van de Koloniale Geschiedenis (Leiden, 1982); idem, ed., Snouck Hurgronje dan Islam (Jakarta, 1989); Freitag, Ulrike, ‘Der Orientalist und der Mufti: Kulturkontakt im Mekka des 19. Jahrhunderts’, Die Welt des Islams, 43 (2003), pp. 3760; Eric Tagliacozzo, ‘The skeptic's eye: Snouck Hurgronje and the politics of pilgrimage from the Indies’, in idem, ed., Southeast Asia and the Middle East: Islam, movement, and the longue durée (Stanford, CA, 2009), pp. 135–55; and Laffan, Michael, The makings of Indonesian Islam: orientalism and the narration of a Sufi past (Princeton, NJ, 2011).

87 Weiss, Holger, ‘German images of Islam in West Africa’, Sudanic Africa, 11 (2000), pp. 5393; on the role of missionaries in German colonial debates about Islam, see also Hassing, Per, ‘Islam at the German Colonial Congresses’, Muslim World, 67 (1977), pp. 165–74.

88 Robinson, Ronald and Gallagher, John with Alice Denny, Africa and the Victorians: the official mind of imperialism (London, 1961).

* The author wishes to thank Rachel G. Hoffman, Sujit Sivasundaram, John P. Slight, and the anonymous referees for their comments on earlier versions of this article.

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