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Politics and Religion in Modern France

  • James F. McMillan (a1)

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1 For examples of these preoccupations, see two recent works of synthesis: Delumeau, J. (ed.),Histoire vécut dupeuple chrétien (2 vols. Toulouse, 1979): and Lebrun, F. (ed.), Histoire des catholiques “i en France (Toulouse, 1980).

2 See in particular Cholvy, G., Religion et société au xixe sékle: le dioclse de Montpellier (2 vols. Lille, 1973): Corbin, A., Archaisme et modemitt en Limousin au xixe siécle, 1845—1880 (2 vols. Paris, 1975): Lagrée, M., Mentalités, religion et histoire en Haute-Bretagne au xixe siécle. Le diocése de Remus, 1815–1848 (Paris, 1977): and Hilaire, Y.M., Une chrétienté au xixe siécle? La vie religituse des populations du diocése d’Arras (1840–1914) (2 vols. Lille, 1977).

3 Siegfried, A., Tableau politique de la France de Fouest (Paris, 1913), p. 390.

4 Mayeur, J. M., Les débuts de la Hie République, 1871–1898 (Paris, 1973), p. 11.

5 Remond, R., L’anticléricalisme en France de 1815 à nos jours (Paris, 1975) anthologizes some of the more important texts, without replacing Weill, G., Histoire de Fidée laïque en France au xixe siécle (Paris, 1929). American scholars have helped to clarify the nature of anticlericalism. See Bertocci, P. A., Jules Simon. Republican anticlericalism and cultural politics in France, 1848–1886 (Missouri, 1978); Moody, J. N., ‘French antidericalism: image and reality’, Catholic Historical Review, LVI (1971), 630–48; and idem, The Church as enemy. Antidericalism in nineteenth century French literature (Washington/Cleveland, 1968).

6 Ward, J. E., ‘Leo XIII: the diplomat pope’, Review of Politics, xxviii (1966), 4761; Poulat, E., Eglise contre bourgeoisie (Paris, 1977), p. 72. Chevallier’s picture of Leo and of his nuncio Mgr Czacki differs markedly from that in Marchasson, Y., La diplomatic romainc et la République française: à la recherche d’une conciliation 1879–1880 (Paris, 1974).

7 Denis, M., L’Eglise et la République en Mayenne 1896–1906 (Rennes, 1968).

8 On the passage of the Separation Law see Larkin, M., Church and state after the Dreyfus affair: the separation issue in France (London, 1974) and Mayeur, J. M., La séparation de l'Eglise et de Tital (1905) (Paris, 1966).

9 Maritain, J., ‘Religion and politics in France’, Foreign Affairs, xx (1942), 271.

10 E. Poulat, Eglise contre bourgeoisie and idem, Catholicisme, démocratie el socialisme. Le movement catnolique et Mgr Benigni de la naissance du socialisme à la victoire du fascisme (Paris, 1977).

11 The transformation is spelled out in the penetrating article of Mayeur, J. M., ‘Catholicisme intransigéant, catholicisme social, démocratic chrétienne’, Armales ESC, xxvii, 1 (1972), 483–99. R. Rémond has explained the change in the Church’s attitude to laïcité in ‘Evolution de la notion de laïcité entre 1919 et 1939’, Cahiers d’Histoire, iv (1959), 7187.

12 Cf. Faury, J., ‘Les curés et la danse dans le Tarn au xixe siécle’. 102e Congrés National des Sociétés Savantts, Limoges, 1977. Section d’histoire modeme (2 vols. Paris, 1978), 1, 331–49.

13 McLaren, A., ‘ Sex and socialism: the opposition of the French Left to birth control in the nineteenth century’, Journal of the History of Ideas, xxxvii (1976), 475–92; McMillan, J. F., House wife or harlot: the place of women in French society 1870–1940 (Brighton, 1981), p. 16.

14 Paul, H. W., The second ralliement: the rapprochement between Church and state in France in the twentieth century (Washington, 1967).

15 See J. F. Kesler, ‘La Jeune République, desa naissance au Tripartisme (1912–1947)’, Revue d’histoire modeme el contemporaine (1978); Mayeur, J. M., Des partis cathoiiques à la démocratic chrétienne, xixe-xxe siédes (Paris, 1980) is a useful general survey of the growth of Christian democracy.

16 See Mayeur, F., L’aube, 1932–1940, étude dun journal dopihion (Paris, 1966);Coutrot, A., Un courant de la pensée catholique: l’hebdomadaire Sept, mars 1934-aoüt 1937 (Paris, 1961).

17 Duquesne, J., Les catholiques français sous toccupation (Paris 1966).

18 Goguel, F., ’Religion et politique en France’, Revue Française de science politique, xvi (1966), 1179.

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