Skip to main content
×
×
Home

RAJAH BROOKE AND THE VICTORIANS*

  • ALEX MIDDLETON (a1)
Abstract

This article examines British attitudes towards the career of Sir James Brooke, the English rajah of Sarawak, between 1846 and 1851. It argues that Brooke's early reception as a hero, and the succeeding debates over the principles of his enterprise, were important for three reasons. First, they suggest that the domestic negotiation of imperial issues was influenced much more profoundly by contextual anxieties about the nature of British politics and character, than by considered engagement with conditions overseas and the character of dependent peoples. Secondly, they demonstrate the continued significance of Britain's ‘civilizing mission’, variously defined, as part of a politics of national identity in this period. Finally, the rejection of the radical challenge to Brooke's suppression of ‘piracy’ in the Eastern seas underscores the increasing dominance at this time of a more pragmatic, self-interested conception of how native peoples should be handled.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Pembroke College, Cambridge, CB2 1RFajm234@cam.ac.uk
Footnotes
Hide All
*

I am very grateful to Professor Jon Parry and Dr Michael Ledger-Lomas for supervising the AHRC-funded M.Phil. dissertation on which this article is based, and for their comments on earlier drafts. Thanks are also due to Naomi Imms, Andy Jones, Edward McNeilly, and the two anonymous referees for their input. I am obliged to the Sarawak Foundation for granting permission to cite from the Brooke papers at Rhodes House.

Footnotes
References
Hide All

1 Parry, J. P., ‘Disraeli and England’, Historical Journal, 43, (2000), pp. 699728, at p. 706.

2 Jonathan Parry, The politics of patriotism: English liberalism, national identity and Europe, 1830–1886 (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 172–3.

3 Brooke usually merits only a brief mention in general histories of the empire; Kathryn Tidrick, Empire and the English character (London, 1990), pp. 34–9, is the sole representative of the new wave of imperial historians to allot him much attention. On his role in Sarawak and the Eastern archipelago there is, however, a large literature: see e.g. Nicholas Tarling, Britain, the Brookes, and Brunei (Kuala Lumpur, 1971); J. H. Walker, Power and prowess: the origins of Brooke kingship in Sarawak (Honolulu, 2002).

4 Times, 26 May 1859, p. 8; Margaret Oliphant, The Athelings: or, the three gifts (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1857), i, p. 70.

5 The most scholarly biography of Brooke is Nicholas Tarling, The burthen, the risk, and the glory: a biography of Sir James Brooke (Kuala Lumpur, 1982).

6 ‘In boyhood days … ’, c. 1830, Oxford, Rhodes House (RH), Basil Brooke papers, MSS Pac.s 90, box 1, file 1, fos. 2–4.

7 Brooke had been instrumental in winning its cession. On these negotiations see J. Ingleson, Expanding the empire: James Brooke and the Sarawak lobby, 1839–1868 (Nedlands, Western Australia, 1979).

8 Brooke to Major Stuart, 15 Feb. 1850, in John C. Templer, ed., The private letters of Sir James Brooke, K. C. B., Rajah of Sarawak: narrating the events of his life, from 1838 to the present time (3 vols., London, 1853), ii, p. 261.

9 For a good outline of the literature on this theme see Catherine Hall and Sonya Rose, ‘Introduction: being at home with the empire’, in their eds., At home with the empire: metropolitan culture and the imperial world (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 1–31.

10 See e.g. Antoinette Burton, ed., After the imperial turn: thinking with and through the nation (Durham, NC, 2003); Frederick Cooper and Anne Laura Stoler, eds., Tensions of empire: colonial cultures in a bourgeois world (Berkeley, CA, 1997); Kathleen Wilson, ed., A new imperial history: culture, identity and modernity in Britain and the empire, 1660–1840 (Cambridge, 2004).

11 E.g. Catherine Hall, ‘The rule of difference: gender, class, and empire in the making of the 1832 Reform Act’, in Ida Blom, Karen Hagemann, and Catherine Hall, eds., Gendered nations: nationalisms and gender order in the long nineteenth century (Oxford, 2000); idem, ‘The nation without and within’, in Catherine Hall, Keith McClelland, and Jane Rendall, eds., Defining the Victorian nation: class, race, gender and the British Reform Act of 1867 (Cambridge, 2000).

12 Bernard Porter, The absent-minded imperialists: empire, society, and culture in Britain (Oxford, 2006 edn), passim.

13 Peter Burroughs, ‘The Canadian rebellions in British politics’, in John Flint and Glyndwr Williams, eds., Perspectives of empire: essays presented to Gerald S. Graham (London, 1973); Marshall, Peter, ‘Imperial Britain’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 23, (1995), pp. 379–94; Duncan Bell, The idea of greater Britain: empire and the future of world order, 1860–1900 (Princeton, NJ, 2007).

14 Miles Taylor, ‘Empire and parliamentary reform: the 1832 Reform Act revisited’, in R. Arthur Burns and Joanna Innes, eds., Rethinking the age of reform: Britain, 1780–1850 (Cambridge, 2003); idem, ‘Joseph Hume and the reformation of India, 1819–1833’, in Glenn Burgess and Matthew Festenstein, eds., English radicalism, 1550–1850 (Cambridge, 2007).

15 Parry, Politics of patriotism, passim.

16 See Taylor, Miles, ‘Imperium et libertas? Rethinking the radical critique of imperialism during the nineteenth century’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 19, (1991), pp. 123.

17 See below, p. 392.

18 Geoffrey Cubitt, ‘Introduction: heroic reputations and exemplary lives’, in Geoffrey Cubitt and Allen Warren, eds., Heroic reputations and exemplary lives (Manchester, 2000), p. 20.

19 John Galbraith, S., ‘Myths of the “Little England” era’, American Historical Review, 67, (1961), pp. 3448.

20 Numerous books about the region were published in these years, including Frank Marryat, Borneo and the Indian archipelago (London, 1848); J. A. St John, Views in the Eastern archipelago: Borneo, Sarāwak, Labuan, &c. &c. &c. (London, 1847).

21 Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 18 (1848), pp. xxvi–xxix; Times, 30 Oct. 1847, p. 7; Times, 26 Nov. 1847, p. 3. At Oxford, Brooke was cheered loud enough ‘to deafen any decent hearing man’: Charles Grant to Mary Grant, 28 Nov. 1847, RH, Brooke papers, MSS Pac.s 90, vol. 10, fo. 20.

22 Times, 26 Mar. 1849, p. 9.

23 Henry Keppel, A sailor's life under four sovereigns (London, 1899), pp. 58–9, 65, 70; [Blanche Clough], The poetry and prose remains of Arthur Hugh Clough (2 vols., London, 1869), i, p. 117; G. O. Trevelyan, The life and letters of Lord Macaulay (2 vols., London, 1878), i, pp. 310–11; Samuel Wilberforce, Speeches on missions, ed. Henry Rowley (London, 1874), p. 243.

24 Henry Keppel, ed., The expedition to Borneo of H. M. S. Dido for the suppression of piracy: with extracts from the journal of James Brooke esq. of Sarāwak (2 vols., London, 1846). The journals reached their third edition early in 1847.

25 For later mercantile opinion see e.g. Bristol Mercury, 11 Dec. 1858, p. 2.

26 Though for some indications of working-class support for Hume's campaign, see Reynolds's Newspaper, 13 Mar. 1853, p. 1; Lloyd's Weekly London Newspaper, 27 Mar. 1853, p. 6.

27 Brooke to Templer, 21 Oct. 1845, in Templer, ed., Brooke letters, ii, pp. 107–8.

28 Brooke to Templer, 22 Aug. 1842, and 12 Oct. 1842, in Ibid., i, pp. 209–10, 217–18.

29 Brooke to Templer, 13 Apr. 1843, in Ibid., i, pp. 249–51.

30 Though most of the editing was done by William Jerdan, proprietor of the Literary Gazette: R. H. W. Reece, Introduction to Henry Keppel, The expedition to Borneo of HMS Dido (Oxford, 1991 edn), p. xiii; Brooke to Templer, 2 Jan. 1845, Brooke to Keppel, 4 Jan. 1845, in Templer, ed., Brooke letters, ii, pp. 49–52.

31 Reece, Introduction to Dido, pp. xiii–xiv. The second instalment of the journals did include the excised passages, which in the event raised little comment: Rodney Mundy, ed., Narrative of events in Borneo and Celebes, down to the occupation of Labuan: from the journals of James Brooke esq., rajah of Sarāwak, and governor of Labuan (2 vols., London, 1848).

32 Journal of the Indian Archipelago (Singapore, 1848), p. 496; Tarling, The burthen, pp. 107–8.

33 Hansard, 21 Aug. 1848, ci, 311–14, 1 June 1849, cv, 1065–73.

34 E.g. Mundy, ed., Borneo and Celebes, i, pp. 195–6, 238, 265–6, 272, 325; e.g. Keppel, Dido, pp. 262–4; e.g. Mundy, ed., Borneo and Celebes, i, p. 276, ii, pp. 7, 26. In his private correspondence, however, Brooke was open about the possibility of applying to other European countries for aid: Brooke to Templer, 22 Mar. 1843, in Templer, ed., Brooke letters, i, pp. 239–41.

35 J. St John, A., ‘Mr. Brooke, governor of Labuan, and Rajah of Sarawak’, Bentley's Miscellany, 22, (1847), pp. 580–99, at p. 594.

36 Charles Brereton, An address with a proposal for the foundation of a church mission-house, and school, at Sarāwak (London, 1846), p. 16.

37 E.g. [H. St John], ‘Dangers of our new settlement in the Indian archipelago’, Tait's Edinburgh Magazine, 15, (1848), pp. 650–8, at p. 651.

38 Times, 19 Feb. 1846, p. 5.

39 Brereton, An address, p. 7.

40 [St John, J. A.], ‘The diffusion of Christianity’, Foreign Quarterly Review, 37, (1846), pp. 494528., at p. 505.

41 [Phillips, Samuel], ‘Mr Brooke of Borneo’, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 59, (1846), pp. 356–66, at p. 347.

42 Colonial Church Chronicle, Nov. 1847, p. 166.

43 Marryat, Borneo, p. 95; [Anon.], ‘Borneo’, British Quarterly Review, 14, (1848), pp. 261–92, at p. 262.

44 Chambers' Edinburgh Journal, 21 Mar. 1846, p. 180; [Egerton, Francis], ‘Borneo and Celebes’, Quarterly Review, 86, (1848), pp. 340–59, at p. 344.

45 [Croly, George], ‘The navigation of the Antipodes’, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 62, (1847), pp. 515–33, at p. 515; [Egerton, Francis], ‘Borneo – Eastern archipelago, &c.’, Quarterly Review, 78, (1846), pp. 123, at p. 3.

46 Harriet Martineau, The history of England during the thirty years' peace: 1816–1846 (2 vols., London, 1849), ii, pp. 514–15. See also [Harriet Martineau], ‘Rajah Brooke’, Westminster Review, n.s. 6 (1854), pp. 381–419.

47 Henry Richard, Memoirs of Joseph Sturge (London, 1864), pp. 529–30; [Brewster, David], ‘Mr. Brooke's Journals of a residence in Borneo’, North British Review, 9, (1848), pp. 432–71, at p. 471.

48 On this theme see Stanley, Brian, ‘“Commerce and Christianity”: providence theory, the missionary movement, and the imperialism of free trade, 1842–1860’, Historical Journal, 26, (1983), pp. 7194; Porter, Andrew, ‘“Commerce and Christianity”: the rise and fall of a nineteenth-century missionary slogan’, Historical Journal, 28, (1985), pp. 597621.

49 [Ainsworth, W. Francis], ‘James Brooke, rajah of Sarawak’, New Monthly Magazine and Humorist, 81, (1847), pp. 474–83, at p. 483.

50 [Egerton], ‘Borneo – Eastern archipelago’, pp. 3, 14.

51 [Anon.], ‘Commercial relations of the Indian archipelago’, Fraser's Magazine, 34, (1846), pp. 379–91, at p. 379; Peter Laurie, City of London meeting, report in Times, 30 Oct. 1847, p. 7; G. F. Davison, Trade and travel in the Far East (London, 1846), pp. 293–7.

52 E.g. [Ainsworth, W. Francis], ‘The expedition to Borneo’, New Monthly Magazine and Humorist, 76, (1846), pp. 365–9, at p. 368; Brereton, An address, p. 15; [Croly], ‘Navigation of the Antipodes’, p. 523.

53 Brooke to Lord Palmerston, 13 Sept. 1848, 6 Mar. 1849, in Piracy (Borneo): copies or extracts of any despatches relating to the suppression of piracy off the coast of Borneo, Parliamentary Papers (PP), 1850 (122) [1197] [1265], fos. 5–7.

54 Times, 26 Nov. 1849, p. 4.

55 Joseph Hume, in Hansard, 12 July 1850, cxii, 1301.

56 Oliver MacDonagh, ‘The anti-imperialism of free trade’, Economic History Review, n.s. 14 (1962), pp. 489–501, at pp. 493–4; Norman McCord, ‘Cobden and Bright in politics, 1846–1857’, in Robert Robson, ed., Ideas and institutions of Victorian Britain: essays in honour of George Kitson Clarke (London, 1967).

57 For T. P. Thompson and the pirates see Michael J. Turner, Independent radicalism in early Victorian Britain (Westport, CT, 2004), p. 6; for Thompson's views of the empire see Ibid., ch. 7.

58 Miles Taylor, The decline of British radicalism, 1847–1860 (Oxford, 1995), pp. 173–5.

59 Imperial experience influenced the views of Hume and T. P. Thompson – both had spent time in India, while Hume had been to the Ionian Islands and Thompson governed Sierra Leone.

60 Molesworth, in Hansard, 25 July 1848, c, 828.

61 Spectator, 17 Aug. 1850, p. 783.

62 After Hume had prompted them via a letter in the Daily News: Tarling, The burthen, p. 124.

63 ‘Sarebas’, letter in Daily News, 11 Feb. 1850, p. 5.

64 Henry Wise to the earl of Malmesbury, 26 Apr. 1852, RH, Brooke papers, MSS Pac.s 66, fo. 3; Brooke to Mundy, 18 Feb. 1850, in Templer, ed., Brooke letters, ii, pp. 264–8.

65 See e.g. Printed extracts of letters between James Brooke and Henry Wise, for the use of members only, 1851, RH, Brooke papers, MSS Pac.s 66, fos. 1–2.

66 For the Ionian Islands, see Hansard, 23 July 1850, cxiii, 175–83, 9 Aug. 1850, cxiii, 976–1005; for Ceylon see (among other debates) Ibid., 27 May 1851, cxvii, 6–98.

67 Cf. Kostal, R. W., ‘A jurisprudence of power: martial law and the Ceylon controversy of 1848–1851’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 28, (2000), pp. 134, who sees the debates as more about fundamental principles of legalism and political philosophy.

68 Christian Times, 14 Dec. 1849, p. 1193.

69 Joseph Hume, A letter to the Rt. Hon. The Earl of Malmesbury relative to the proceedings of Sir James Brooke, K. C. B., in Borneo (London, 1853), pp. 16–17.

70 Cobden, in Hansard, 11 Feb. 1850, cviii, 665, 23 May 1850, cxi, 302.

71 Hume, in Ibid., 22 July 1850, cxiii, 109.

72 Christian Times, 21 Dec. 1849, p. 1209; ‘An East Indian’, letter in Daily News, 11 Feb. 1850, p. 3; Daily News, 13 Dec. 1849, p. 4.

73 [Anon.], ‘The Borneo slaughterings’, Eclectic Review, n.s. 26 (1850), pp. 137–57, at p. 138.

74 Herald of Peace, Feb. 1850, p. 435.

75 Cobden at the Peace Congress, report in Times, 29 Nov. 1850, p. 3; cf. [Ainsworth, W. Francis], ‘Mr Brooke's latest journals’, New Monthly Magazine and Humorist, 82, (1848), pp. 512–15, at p. 512. One of the results of the radical campaign was a reform of the head-money legislation.

76 Peter Mandler, The English national character: the history of an idea from Edmund Burke to Tony Blair (Cambridge, 2006), pp. 59–69.

77 Colonial Intelligencer, n.s. 2 (1850), p. 364; David Urquhart, in Hansard, 10 July 1851, cxviii, 474; Cobden, in Ibid., 10 July 1851, cxviii, 499; quotation from Henry Richard, in Herald of Peace, Mar. 1850, pp. 461–2.

78 Herald of Peace, Jan. 1850, p. 432.

79 At the Peace Congress, report in Times, 29 Nov. 1850, p. 3; Examiner, 13 Sept. 1851, p. 577.

80 John Bright, in Hansard, 23 May 1850, cxii, 299; Gladstone, in Ibid., 10 July 1851, cxviii, 490.

81 Hume in Ibid., 10 July 1851, cxviii, 439.

82 Colonial Intelligencer, n.s. 2 (1850), p. 350; [Anon.], ‘Events of the month’, Eclectic Review, n.s. 27 (1850), pp. 105–117, at p. 115.

83 Daily News, 7 Jan. 1850, p. 4; Christian Times, 18 Jan. 1850, p. 41.

84 Hansard, 12 July 1850, cxii, 1326, 10 July 1851, cxviii, 503–4. For cheering see Horace St John, The Indian archipelago; its history and present state (2 vols., London, 1853), ii, p. 340.

85 Colonial Intelligencer, n.s. 3 (1852), p. 362; Times, 5 June 1851, p. 4; Templer, ed., Brooke letters, iii, pp. 300–41.

86 John Grant to Charles Grant, 18 Feb. 1850, 20 May 1850, RH, Brooke papers, MSS Pac.s 90, vol. 13, fos. 1–2, 34–5; Brooke sent Templer ‘many crushing Cobden documents’: Brooke to Templer, 29 Apr. 1850, in Templer, ed., Brooke letters, ii, p. 289.

87 For ministerial approval, see Lord Palmerston to Brooke, 23 Apr. 1850, in Correspondence respecting piracy in the Eastern archipelago, and the proceedings of Sir J. Brooke, PP, 1852–3 [1599], fo. 3.

88 Henry Drummond, in Hansard, 22 July 1850, cxiii, 117–18; Alexander Baillie Cochrane, in Ibid., 10 July 1851, cxviii, 483.

89 E.g. Alexander Baillie Cochrane, in Ibid., 12 July 1850, cxii, 1314–15; Henry Drummond, in Ibid., 23 May 1850, cxi, 296, 12 July 1850, cxii, 1310–14.

90 Ibid., Lords, 18 Apr. 1850, cx, 489.

91 Henry Keppel, A visit to the Indian archipelago, in H. M. ship Maeander: with portions of the private journal of Sir James Brooke, K. C. B. (2 vols., London, 1853), ii, p. 40.

92 Record, 24 Dec. 1849, [p. 4], 7 Feb 1850, [p. 8].

93 Thomas Carlyle, Latter-day pamphlets (London, 1850), p. 46.

94 Brooke, quoted in Daily News, 21 Dec. 1849, p. 4; Captain Alexander Campbell, letter in Times, 2 Feb. 1850, p. 6.

95 Times, 3 Apr. 1850, p. 5.

96 [Anon.], ‘Rajah Brooke and Borneo’, Chambers' Papers for the People, 5 (1850), p. 26.

97 Atlas, 2 Feb. 1850, p. 73.

98 Times, 31 Jan. 1850, p. 8; and leading article, 2 Feb. 1850, p. 5.

99 E.g. Thomas Headlam in Hansard, 10 July 1851, cxviii, 464; J. St John, A., ‘Defence of Sir James Brooke's policy’, Bentley's Miscellany, 27, (1850), pp. 286–97, at pp. 286–7.

100 [Anon.], ‘Rajah Brooke and Borneo’, p. 7.

101 Lord Ellesmere, in Hansard, Lords, 18 Apr. 1840, cx, 485–6.

102 Daniel Wilson, quoted by Thomas Headlam, in Ibid., 10 July 1851, cxviii, 466–8; Colonial Church Chronicle, Aug. 1851, p. 46; reports of the meetings of the Borneo Church Mission, Times, 22 June 1850, p. 6, 25 July 1851, p. 8.

103 Singapore Free Press, 10 Sept. 1849, quoted in Colonial Intelligencer, n.s. 2 (1850), p. 365; dinner at Fishmonger's Hall, report in Times, 5 June 1851, p. 4.

104 Hansard, 10 July 1851, cxviii, 490–4.

105 Templer, ed., Brooke letters, iii, p. 322.

106 Standard, 19 Apr. 1850, [p. 2].

107 Atlas, 27 July 1850, p. 472.

108 Walter E. Houghton, The Victorian frame of mind, 1830–1870 (New Haven, CT, 1957), pp. 212–14; Ronald Hyam, Britain's imperial century, 1815–1914: a study of empire and expansion (London, 1976), p. 350.

109 Charles Kingsley to Thomas Hughes, 30 June 1853, 14 July 1853, in F. E. Kingsley, ed., Charles Kingsley: his letters and memoires of his life (2 vols., London, 1877), i, pp. 369–70; Charles Kingsley to John Ludlow, 14 Dec. 1849, Cambridge University Library (CUL), John Ludlow papers, Add. MSS 7348/5.

110 Ludlow to Kingsley, 15 Dec. 1849, CUL, Ludlow papers, Add. MSS 7348/6.

111 Ludlow to Kingsley, 21 Dec. 1849, in Ibid.

112 Ludlow's response was the more intense in 1865 because he knew of black Jamaicans who were forming co-operatives: N. Masterman, John Malcolm Ludlow: the builder of Christian Socialism (Cambridge, 1963), p. 195.

113 Disraeli had wanted to grant the commission during Derby's ministry to secure the radicals, and Aberdeen carried out his plan: Tarling, The burthen, pp. 152, 170–1.

114 Earl Grey to Templer, 24 Jan. 1854, RH, Brooke papers, MSS Pac.s 90, vol. 16, fos. 9–10.

115 Brooke to Templer, 6 Jan. 1855, RH, Brooke papers, MSS Pac.s 90, box 1, file 2, fo. 12.

116 Report of a deputation to Lord Derby, Times, 1 Dec. 1858, p. 12.

117 See e.g. Henry Labouchere, in Hansard, 3 July 1857, cxlvi, 907–9.

118 Times, 9 May 1859, p. 5, 11 May 1859, p. 5, 26 May 1859, p. 8.

119 Spectator, 18 July 1868, p. 846; A. R. Wallace, Australasia (London, 1879), pp. 367–76; J. A. Froude, The English in the West Indies (London, 1888), p. 154.

120 Hansard, 7 May 1877, ccxxxiv, 428, 11 May 1877, ccxxxiv, 727–8; W. Gladstone, E., ‘Piracy in Borneo and the operations of July, 1849’, Contemporary Review, 30, (1877), pp. 181–98.

121 Boyd Hilton, A mad, bad, and dangerous people? England, 1783–1846 (Oxford, 2006), pp. 566, 572; Porter, The absent-minded imperialists, pp. 107–8, 112–13.

122 See e.g. [St John, J. A.], ‘The English in Borneo’, Foreign Quarterly Review, 37, (1846), pp. 63105, at p. 70.

123 John MacKenzie, ‘Heroic myths of empire’, in his ed., Popular imperialism and the military (Manchester, 1992).

124 Spectator, 21 June 1845, p. 589.

125 For the early decline of the ‘old’ humanitarianism see Andrew Bank, ‘Losing faith in the civilizing mission: the premature decline of humanitarian liberalism at the Cape, 1840–1860’, in Martin Daunton, ed., Empire and others: British encounters with indigenous peoples, 1600–1850 (London, 1999), pp. 364–7 and passim; for the older view see Christine Bolt, Victorian attitudes to race (London, 1971).

126 Parry, Politics of patriotism.

127 See e.g. Turner, Independent radicalism, ch. 7.

128 George Foggo, Life and adventures of Sir James Brooke, K. C. B. (London, 1853), p. 5.

* I am very grateful to Professor Jon Parry and Dr Michael Ledger-Lomas for supervising the AHRC-funded M.Phil. dissertation on which this article is based, and for their comments on earlier drafts. Thanks are also due to Naomi Imms, Andy Jones, Edward McNeilly, and the two anonymous referees for their input. I am obliged to the Sarawak Foundation for granting permission to cite from the Brooke papers at Rhodes House.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Historical Journal
  • ISSN: 0018-246X
  • EISSN: 1469-5103
  • URL: /core/journals/historical-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed