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  • Cited by 7
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Talbott, Siobhan 2014. ‘Such unjustificable practices’?: Irish trade, settlement, and society in France, 1688-1715. The Economic History Review, Vol. 67, Issue. 2, p. 556.

    Guasco, Michael 2008. ‘Free from the tyrannous Spanyard’? Englishmen and Africans in Spain's Atlantic World. Slavery & Abolition, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    HIPKIN, STEPHEN 2008. The structure, development, and politics of the Kent grain trade, 155216471. The Economic History Review, Vol. 61, p. 99.

    Jowitt, Claire 2007. Pirates? The Politics of Plunder, 1550–1650.

    Beecher, Donald 2006. The legacy of John Frampton: Elizabethan trader and translator. Renaissance Studies, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 320.

    Milton, Anthony 1999. Catholicism and Anti-Catholicism in Early Modern English Texts.

    1991. Reviews. The Economic History Review, Vol. 44, Issue. 1, p. 137.


Trading with the Enemy 1585–1604*

  • Pauline Croft (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 February 2009

It has been the standard wisdom of historians that whereas the rebel Dutch continued to trade with Spain and the Spanish possessions throughout the Armada war, the English did not. As the letter-writer John Chamberlain resentfully complained, ‘We for their sake and defence entering into the war, and being barred from all commerce and intercourse of merchandise, they in the meantime thrust us out of all traffic to our utter undoing’. The evidence assembled here suggests instead that English trafficking with the enemy was much greater than has been assumed, although it probably never reached the huge proportions of the Dutch effort. Moreover the substantial volume of illicit trade should point to a re-consideration of some important Elizabethan attitudes to Anglo-Spanish relations both before and during the war, and hence also more generally to religious attitudes.

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  • ISSN: 0018-246X
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