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URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER, 1918–1939*

  • CHARLOTTE WILDMAN (a1)
Abstract
ABSTRACT

Liverpool and Manchester have come to typify twentieth-century urban decay and their demise is strongly associated with the perceived decline of local government after 1918. By the 1930s, contemporaries had stereotyped northern cities as places of poverty and deprivation, in comparison to the prosperous south. The divide was reinforced by economic historians who focused on regional variations in unemployment and economic depression. This article challenges stereotypical images of interwar Liverpool and Manchester by illustrating the ambitious programmes of urban redevelopment implemented by their Corporations in response to political and economic instability. Grandiose projects such as the Wythenshawe Estate, Mersey Tunnel and Manchester Central Library aimed to stimulate employment and to boost local economies and morale. Redevelopment was promoted heavily to present new images of Liverpool and Manchester. Crucially, urban transformation was marketed as a way to communicate with the newly enfranchised, classless citizen and suggests similarities with broader strategies employed by the Conservative party to engage with the mass electorate. The level of ambition and innovation demonstrates that local municipal culture thrived and Liverpool (with close American links) is shown to have been at the forefront of innovations in civic design and urban planning.

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School of Arts, Histories, and Cultures, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PLcharlotte.wildman@manchester.ac.uk
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*

I would like to thank Max Jones, Bertand Taithe, Hannah Barker, Simon Gunn, Matt Houlbrook, Frank Mort, Christopher Otter, Julie-Marie Strange, and the two anonymous referees for their thoughts and feedback on various drafts of this article.

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1 Marriner Sheila, The economic and social development of Merseyside (London, 1982), p. 1.

2 Haslam Dave, Manchester, England: the story of a pop cult city (London, 2000), pp. viiiix.

3 Orwell George, The road to Wigan pier (London, 1989); Greenwood Walter, Love on the dole (London, 2004).

4 O'Mara Pat, The autobiography of a Liverpool Irish slummy (London, 1934); Forrester Helen, Twopence to cross the Mersey (London, 1974).

5 See Priestley J. B., English journey: being a rambling but truthful account of what one man saw and heard and felt and thought during a journey through England during the autumn of the year 1933 (London, 1977).

6 Aldcroft Derek, The inter-war economy: Britain, 1919–1939 (London, 1970), pp. 7994; Stevenson John and Cook Chris, The slump: society and politics during the Depression (London, 1977), pp. 4850.

7 Couch Chris, City of change and challenge: urban planning and regeneration in Liverpool (Aldershot, 2003); Peck Jamie and Ward Kevin, eds., City of revolution: restructuring Manchester (Manchester, 2002).

8 See Belchem John, ed., Liverpool 800: culture, character and history (Liverpool, 2006), and Caruana Viv and Simmons Colin, ‘The promotion and development of Manchester airport, 1929–1974: the local authority initiative’, Local Historian, 30 (2000), pp. 165–77.

9 Gunn Simon, The public culture of the Victorian middle class: ritual and authority and the English industrial city, 1840–1914 (Manchester, 2000), pp. 190–1.

10 R. J. Morris, ‘Structure, culture and society in British towns’, in Martin Daunton, ed., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, iii: 1840–1950 (3 vols., Cambridge, 2000), iii. pp. 417 and 426.

11 Richard Trainor, ‘The “decline” of British urban governance since 1850: a reassessment’, in Robert J. Morris and Richard H. Trainor, Urban governance: Britain and beyond since 1750 (Aldershot, 2000), p. 37.

13 Divall Colin and Bond Winstan, eds., Suburbanizing the masses: public transport and urban development in historical perspective (Aldershot, 2003).

14 Whitehand J. W. R. and Carr C. M. H., Twentieth-century suburbs: a morphological approach (London, 2001).

15 Mort Frank, ‘Fantasies of metropolitan life: planning London in the 1940s’, Journal of British Studies, 43 (2004), pp. 120–52.

16 John Davis, ‘The government of London’, in Duncan Tanner, Wil Griffith, Chris Williams, and Andrew Edwards, eds., Debating nationhood and governance in Britain, 1885–1945: perspectives from the ‘four nations.’ (Manchester, 2006), pp. 211–32.

17 Joyce Patrick, The rule of freedom: liberalism and the modern city (London, 2003).

18 Houlbrook Matt, Queer London: perils and pleasures in the sexual metropolis, 1918–1957 (Bristol, 2005); Nead Lynda, Victorian Babylon: people, streets and images in nineteenth-century London (London, 2000).

19 Richmond Peter, Marketing modernisms: the architecture and influence of Charles Reilly (Liverpool, 2001), and Crouch Christopher, Design culture in Liverpool, 1880–1914: the origins of the Liverpool School of Architecture (Liverpool, 2001).

20 Ultimately, such an approach adds to the study of English modernity, which Martin Daunton and Bernhard Rieger suggest should be understood ‘through close readings within specific locales and venues’. Martin J. Daunton and Bernhard Reiger, ‘Introduction’, in Martin J. Daunton and Bernhard Rieger, eds., Meanings of modernity: Britain from the late Victorian era to World War II (Oxford, 2001), p. 3.

21 The fatality was a young black sailor, Charles Whootton, who jumped or was pushed into the docks as the crowd shouted ‘Let him drown!’. Rowe Michael, ‘Sex, “race” and riot in Liverpool, 1919’, Immigrants and Minorities, 19 (2000), pp. 5370, at p. 55.

22 Bean Ron, ‘Police unrest, unionization and the 1919 strike in Liverpool’, Journal of Contemporary History, 15 (1980), pp. 633–53.

23 Duncan Tanner, ‘Electing the governors/the governance of the elect’, in Keith Robbins, ed., The British Isles, 1901–1951 (Oxford, 2002), pp. 43–71.

24 Beers Laura, ‘Education or manipulation? Labour, democracy and the popular press in inter-war Britain’, Journal of British Studies, 48 (2009), pp. 129–52; Jarvis David, ‘Mrs Maggs and Betty: the Conservative appeal to women voters in the 1920s’, Twentieth Century British History, 5 (1994), pp. 129–52; Hollins T. J., ‘The Conservative party and film propaganda between the wars’, English Historical Review, 96 (1981), pp. 359–69.

25 There is some work on urban governance that includes the interwar period, but this does not directly address the issue of mass suffrage. See Morris, ‘Structure, culture and society in British towns’.

26 Liverpool hosted Civic Week exhibitions annually, 1924–8. Manchester hosted a Civic Week in 1926 and more extensive celebrations in 1938, the centenary anniversary of the city's incorporation.

27 Aldcroft, Inter-war, p. 41.

28 Tim Hatton, ‘Unemployment and the labour market in inter-war Britain’, in Roderick Floud and Deirdre McCloskey, eds., The economic history of Britain since 1700 (3 vols., Cambridge, 1994), ii, pp. 359–85.

29 Davies Sam, Gill Pete, Grant Linda, Nightingale Martin, Noon Ron, and Shallice Andy, Genuinely seeking work: mass unemployment on Merseyside in the 1930s (Birkenhead, 1992), p. 13.

30 Dudley Baines, ‘Merseyside in the British economy: the 1930s and the Second World War’, in Richard Lawton and Catherine M. Cunningham, eds., Merseyside: social and economic studies (London, 1970), p. 60.

31 Marriner, Merseyside, pp. 98–9.

32 Marriner suggests Liverpool maintained its relative position as a port in the UK. Ibid., p. 99.

33 Kidd Alan, Manchester (Edinburgh, 2002), p. 187.

34 Aldcroft, Inter-war, p. 95.

35 Kidd, Manchester, p. 219.

36 Ibid., p. 188.

37 In the early 1920s, around 90 council members in Liverpool were Conservatives, 25 each of Liberals and Independents, and around 6 members of the Labour party. In 1936, there were 78 Conservatives, 14 Liberals, 7 Independents, 12 Protestants, and 53 Labour. In Manchester, the gap between the number of Conservative and Labour council members also narrowed: in 1936, there were 62 Conservatives, 25 Liberals, 3 Independents, and 52 Labour.

38 For an overview of these developments in national politics see Davis John, A history of Britain, 1885–1939 (Basingstoke, 1999).

39 The Liberal party never seriously challenged the Conservatives in interwar municipal elections, but consistently held around 15 seats in Liverpool and 25 seats in Manchester throughout the period.

40 Waller P. J., Democracy and sectarianism: a political and social history of Liverpool, 1868–1939 (Liverpool, 1981), p. 325; Belchem John, Irish, Catholic and Scouse: the history of the Liverpool Irish, 1800–1939 (Liverpool, 2007), p. 297.

41 In Manchester, they included the Manchester Guardian's Commercial yearbook, published from 1921, which also aimed to ensure that citizens ‘become more familiar with the progress which the city is making’, Manchester Guardian, Commercial yearbook 1921 (Manchester, 1921), p. 1. In Liverpool, the corporation published the City of Liverpool official handbook from 1924.

42 Town Planning Special Committee, 7 Oct. 1925, Manchester Central Library Local Studies Collection (MCL LSC).

43 McKibbin Ross, The ideologies of class: social relations in Britain, 1880–1950 (Oxford, 1990); Lawrence Jon, ‘The transformation of British public politics after the First World War’, Past and Present, 190 (2006), pp. 185216; Jarvis David, ‘British Conservatism and class politics in the 1920s’, English Historical Review, 111 (1996), pp. 5984.

44 Lord Simon was the Liberal MP for Withington, 1923–4, and again, 1929–31, and parliamentary secretary for the Ministry of Health in 1931. Simon was also a member of Manchester City Council, 1911–25 and chairman of the Housing Committee, 1919–23. He became lord mayor of Manchester in 1921 and chairman of Manchester University Council, 1941–57.

45 E. D. Simon, as quoted, Manchester Guardian (MG), 4 Sept. 1937.

46 27 Jan. 1930. Manchester Council Meetings, vol. 2, p. 212.

47 See Joseph Sharples, Alan Powers, and Michael Shippobottom, Charles Reilly and the Liverpool School of Architecture, 1904–1933 (Liverpool, 1996).

48 In 1910, he wrote: ‘This interest by the general public … is very striking. New buildings … are objects of intense public curiosity; the daily papers not only illustrate them profusely, but gave the careers of their designers, treating them as public benefactors, or the reverse, with highly salutary frankness.’ As quoted, Richmond, Marketing modernisms, pp. 38–9.

49 Reilly Charles, Some Liverpool streets and buildings in 1921 (Liverpool, 1921), and idem, Some Manchester streets and buildings (Liverpool, 1924).

50 Abercrombie championed a threefold approach to planning: urban improvement, external growth of towns, and country planning. Abercrombie Patrick, ‘Clearance and planning: the re-modelling of towns and their external growth’, Town Planning Review, 16 (1935), p. 196.

51 Brodie's work has largely gone under-acknowledged and there is no entry for him in the Dictionary of National Biography, for instance. ‘Obituary: John Alexander Brodie’, Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, 240 (1935), pp. 787–9.

52 Waller, Democracy, pp. 290–7.

53 Liverpool Conservative Party Conference Minutes, 3 May 1926, Liverpool Local Studies Collection (LCL LSC).

54 Wallas Graham, preface, E. D. Simon, A city council from within (London, 1926), p. xvi.

55 £5,366,155 would have been worth £5,801,349 in 1935, based on a calculation using the GDP. Lawrence H. Officer, ‘Five ways to compute the relative value of a UK pound amount, 1830–2005’, MeasuringWorth.Com, 2006. www.measuringworth.com calculator (accessed 27 Feb. 2011.)

56 £4,947,920 was worth £5,349,195 in 1935, using the GDP. Ibid.

57 Rates were 8s 8d, 1910–15, and 15s by 1921–2. Redford Arthur, The history of local government in Manchester, iii: The last half century (London, 1940), p. 359.

58 Statistics collated from the Annual Local Taxation Returns published by the Ministry of Health, 1925–35 editions used.

59 McKenna Madeline, ‘The suburbanisation of the working-class population of Liverpool between the wars’, Social History, 16 (1991), pp. 173–90.

60 See Pooley Colin G. and Irish Sandra, ‘Housing and health in Liverpool, 1870–1940’, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 143 (1994), pp. 193219, and Parkinson-Bailey John, Manchester: an architectural history (Manchester, 2000), pp. 39–45.

61 McKenna, ‘Suburbanisation’, p. 173.

62 Jones David Caradog, ed., The social survey of Merseyside (3 vols., London, 1934), i, p. 262.

63 Liverpool Housing Committee (LHC) minutes, 19 July 1928, 352 MIN/HOU 1/10, LCL LSC.

64 Scotland Road was described as ‘inhabited by the very lowest and worst population in the whole city. Disorder is perpetual, and disease is never absent’. As quoted in Belchem, Irish, p. 63.

65 McKenna Madeline, ‘Municipal suburbia in Liverpool, 1919–1939’, Town Planning Review, 60 (1989), pp. 298–9.

66 In 1934, a large number of shopkeepers in the Walton, Norris Green, and Dovecot Estates applied for a reduction in rent because of affordability. LHC minutes, 13 Sept. 1934, 352 MIN/HOU 1/10, LCL LSC. McKenna suggests some suburban dwellers preferred to return to town for their shopping. McKenna, ‘Municipal suburbia’, p. 310. In 1935, the Housing Committee rejected Woolworth's second application to open in Norris Green due to restrictions on the kinds of trades shops could have; however, they accepted that some tenants believed it would bring more customers to the area. LHC minutes, 11 Feb. 1935, 352 MIN/HOU 1/10, LCL LSC.

67 Liverpool promotional map, Civic Week, 18–25 Sept. 1924, LCL LSC.

68 Thompson Edwin, ‘Merseyside and its industrial potentialities’, Liverpool Post and Mercury (LPM), 1 June 1931, p. 1.

69 Morrison William, ‘Liverpool's architectural development’, LPM, 1 June 1931, p. 23.

70 Manchester Corporation, How Manchester is managed: a record of municipal activities (Manchester, 1933), pp. 138, 140–1. This number excludes those in areas beyond the corporation's jurisdiction including Sale and Stockport; and Manchester Corporation's boundary was extended in 1926 to include Wythenshawe, and again in 1931 to include Northenden and Baguley.

71 Financial burden was expressed by a significant proportion of a survey undertaken of 304 families living in housing estates in Manchester by the Manchester Evening News (MEN) in 1935. MEN, 16 Nov. 1935, MCL LSC cuttings: box 421: Architecture: housing, planning, Manchester Corporation.

72 Parkinson-Bailey, Manchester, p. 158.

73 MG, 16 May 1938, p. 15.

74 Brian Rodgers, ‘Manchester: metropolitan planning by collaboration and consent; or civic hope frustrated’, George Gordon, ed., Regional cities in the UK, 1890–1980, (London, 1986), p. 44.

75 Barker William, ed., Your city: Manchester, 1838–1938 (Manchester, 1938), pp. 8 and 16.

76 For further examples, see also, Manchester Corporation, How Manchester is managed: a record of municipal activities (Manchester, 1935), p. 7. Progress from the Victorian era was also the key theme to the 1938 centenary celebrations of the city's incorporation; see Manchester City Council, Centenary celebration of Manchester's incorporation, May 2–7 1938 (Manchester, 1938).

77 ‘Hulme Vs Wilbraham Estate’, Manchester City News, 26 Oct. 1933, MCL LSC cuttings: box 421.

78 Manchester Corporation Housing Committee minutes, 1930–1, p. 481, MCL LSC.

79 ‘The housing problem in Manchester: facts and figures, 1931’, Report for Manchester and Salford Housing Week, 18–25 Oct, 1931, M383/8 2/5, MCL LSC.

80 Manchester Corporation minutes, 1932–3, vol. 2, p. 652, MCL LSC.

81 Manchester, Salford, and Counties Property Owner's Association, ‘The Hulme clearance area. Memorandum on the treatment of the area, 1932’, MCL LSC.

83 Architect's report on the City of Manchester Hulme clearance area, 1932, MCL LSC.

84 Liverpool Corporation, City of Liverpool official handbook 1924 (Liverpool, 1924), p. 25.

85 Liverpool Corporation, City of Liverpool official handbook 1939 (Liverpool, 1939), p. 95.

86 de Figueiredo Peter, ‘Symbols of empire: the buildings of the Liverpool waterfront’, Architectural History, 46 (2003), p. 249.

87 Liverpool Corporation, Liverpool 1924, p. 61.

88 For a detailed account of the design and aesthetic style of St George's Hall, see Salmon Frank and Figueiredo Peter De, ‘The south front of St George's Hall, Liverpool’, Architectural History, 43 (2000), pp. 195218.

89 Sharples, Powers, and Shippobottom, Liverpool, p. 50.

90 Salvidge Stanley, Salvidge of Liverpool: behind the political scene, 1890–1928 (London, 1934), p. 283. The Tunnel cost 26 per cent more than original estimates allowed and a further £1,369,044 had to be borrowed from the Ministry of Health. White Thomas, Memorandum of the chairman of the Mersey Tunnel Joint Committee on the present financial position (Liverpool, 1932).

92 John Belchem, ‘Celebrating Liverpool’, in Belchem, ed., Liverpool, p. 36.

93 LPM, 1 June 1931, p. 7.

94 Ibid., p. 1.

95 Yearsley Ian and Graves Philip, The Manchester tramways (Glossop, 1988), pp. 98 and 108.

96 Manchester Council Records, 1928–9, 15 Aug. 1929, p. 547, MCL LSC.

97 Manchester Guardian, Commercial yearbook 1925 (Manchester, 1925), p. 19.

98 MG, 21 Sept. 1926, MCL LSC: Civic Week, 1926.

99 Manchester Corporation Transport Department, A hundred years of road passenger transport in Manchester (Manchester, 1935), pp. 25–6.

100 Ibid., p. 31.

101 MG, 16 May 1938, p. 25.

102 Manchester Corporation Transport Department, General statistical information and descriptions of depots (Manchester, 1928), p. 11.

103 The poster also depicts the Manchester Cenotaph, designed by Edwin Lutyens, which was opposite the front of Central Library. Terry Wyke charts the controversy around the memorial as there were many disagreements about its location and form: ‘some reacted to its modernity’. It eventually found popularity after its completion in 1924, perhaps partly as a result of the corporation's investment in transforming the area into the city's Civic Centre. Wyke Terry J., Public sculpture of Greater Manchester (Liverpool, 2004), pp. 130–1.

104 Town Hall Committee Council Minutes (TH CM) 1924–5, vol. 2, p. 439, MCL LSC.

105 Reilly, Manchester, p. 47. The Manchester Guardian Yearbook of 1921 also complained that Portland Street, though one of the richest thoroughfares in the world, was ‘one of the blackest … Manchester does not rank highly among the world's beauty spots … What is wrong with Manchester as a town … it has no organic plan … (Manchester) is a conglomeration of architectural accidents that sprang up as commercial interests of the moment dictated.’ Manchester Guardian, Commercial yearbook 1921 (Manchester, 1921), pp. 3 and 213.

106 Development of Manchester: report of Town Hall clerk on Regional Planning Conference, New York City, 20–5 Apr. 1925. TH CM 1924–5 E, p. 766, MCL LSC.

107 TH CM 1924–5, vol. 2, p. 439, MCL LSC.

108 TH CM 1930–1 E, p. 766, MCL LSC.

109 Parkinson-Bailey, Manchester, pp. 148–9.

110 In 1937, there were 7,407,910 visits to Manchester libraries and 4,609,872 books were issued. Manchester City Council, Centenary, p. 71.

111 Manchester Corporation, How Manchester is managed: a record of municipal activities (Manchester, 1939), p. 113.

112 Anne Clendinning claims the gas showroom was ‘a public gathering place’, thus suggesting the showroom in the Town Hall Extension reflected a specifically female form of citizenship. Clendinning Anne, Demons of domesticity: women and the English gas industry, 1889–1939 (Aldershot, 2004), p. 230. It was decided in 1924, however, that showrooms would be situated in the basement of the extension as ‘anything in the nature of shop windows would detract from the general appearance of the building, and would not be a desirable feature.’ TH CM 1924–5, vol 2, p. 444, MCL LSC.

113 Manchester Corporation, How Manchester is managed: a record of municipal activities (Manchester, 1932), p. 39.

114 Manchester Corporation, How Manchester is managed: a record of municipal activities (1933 edn), p. 46 and Manchester Corporation, How Manchester is managed: a record of municipal activities (1939 edn), p. 41.

115 British Medical Association, The book of Manchester and Salford (Manchester, 1929), p. 14.

116 Parkinson-Bailey, Manchester, p. 143.

117 Ibid., p. 144.

118 See Helen B. Bertramsen, ‘Remoulding commercial space: municipal improvements and the department store in late Victorian Manchester’, in John Benson and Laura Ugolini, eds., A nation of shopkeepers: five centuries of British retailing (London, 2003), pp. 206–25.

119 MG, 8 Nov. 1927, p. 14.

120 Daily Dispatch, 4 Oct. 1926, MCL LSC: Civic Week, 1926, Volume 1.

121 MG, 1 Mar. 1926, p. 7, and MG, 18 Nov. 1937, p. 13.

122 MG, 9 Dec. 1927, p. 14.

123 MG, 31 Oct. 1930, p. 4.

124 MG, 18 Nov. 1937, p. 13.

125 Figueiredo, ‘Symbols of empire’, pp. 229–54.

126 Crouch, Design culture, p. 152.

127 On the contemporary power of the ‘American sublime’, see Gilbert David and Hancock Claire, ‘New York and the transatlantic imagination: French and English tourism and the spectacle of the modern metropolis, 1893–1939’, Journal of Urban History, 33 (2006), pp. 77107.

128 Reilly Charles, Scaffolding in the sky: a semi-architectural autobiography (London, 1938), p. 128.

129 Richmond, Marketing modernisms, p. 39.

130 Sharples, Powers, and Shippobottom, Liverpool, p. 31.

131 Morrison William, ‘The ambassador of Merseyside's industry and commerce’, LPM, 1 June 1931, p. 23.

132 Liverpool, the mart of nations, Promotional Map, 1924, LCL LSC.

133 LPM, 6 May 1931, LCL LSC: Visit of the lord mayor of Liverpool to the mayor of New York City, May 1931.

134 Wyke, Public Sculpture, pp. 148–9 and James O'Keefe, ‘First World War memorials and the Liverpool Cenotaph, 1917–1934’ (MA thesis, Manchester, 2004).

135 In 1932, Liverpolitan, a middle-brow monthly periodical, complained, ‘local municipal politics have reached a crisis requiring statesmanlike handling … Financially, the city is suffering from the same complaint as the nation – over-spending.’ Liverpolitan, May 1932, p. 1.

136 MEN, 1 Sept. 1926, MCL LSC cuttings: Civic Week 1926. Northern Voice, a self-styled working-class periodical went further and complained about the selective nature of the celebrations: ‘amongst the junketing and chronicling of Civic Week … I have seen no reference to one little island near the heart of the city’, referring to Ancoats. Northern Voice, 8 Oct. 1926, p. 2.

137 Daily Dispatch, 4 Oct. 1926, MCL LSC cuttings: Civic Week 1926; LPM, 23 Sept. 1924, LCL LSC cuttings: Liverpool Civic Week, Wembley, 1924.

138 ‘Civic Week trail of triumph’, Evening Chronicle, 8 Oct. 1926, MCL LSC cuttings: Civic Week 1926.

139 LPM, 23 Sept. 1924, LCL LSC cuttings: Liverpool Civic Week, Wembley 1924.

140 Mulhern Francis, Culture/metaculture (London, 2000), p. 13; Grimley Matthew, Citizenship, community, and the Church of England: liberal Anglican theories of the state between the wars (Oxford, 2004), p. 1.

141 Lesley Whitworth, ‘Men, women, shops and “little shiny homes”: the consuming of Coventry, 1930–1939’ (Ph.D. thesis, Warwick, 1997).

142 Saler Michael, ‘Making it new: visual modernism and the “myth of the north” in inter-war England’, Journal of British Studies, 37 (1998), pp. 419–40.

143 Barry M. Doyle, ‘The changing functions of urban government: councillors, officials and pressure groups’, in Daunton, ed., Cambridge, p. 295.

144 Manchester's population had fallen to 404,861 in 1991, barely half the 1931 peak, and unemployment rates reached 58 per cent in some parts of the city during the 1980s. Kidd, Manchester, pp. 215 and 224. By the 1970s and 1980s, Liverpool ‘assumed the status of a post-industrial pariah’. Jon Murden, ‘“City of change and challenge”: Liverpool since 1945’, in Belchem, ed., Liverpool, p. 394.

145 Liverpool promotional map, 1924, LCL LSC.

* I would like to thank Max Jones, Bertand Taithe, Hannah Barker, Simon Gunn, Matt Houlbrook, Frank Mort, Christopher Otter, Julie-Marie Strange, and the two anonymous referees for their thoughts and feedback on various drafts of this article.

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