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Nkrumah, Nationalism, and Pan-Africanism: The Bureau of African Affairs Collection


The article describes the Bureau of African Affairs Collection. First it introduces the history of the archive by examining the crucial events that influenced its state and accessibility. Then, it describes the contents of the collection, underlying its importance for the study of Kwame Nkrumah’s domestic and foreign policies and African nationalism at a continental level. The documents included in the Bureau of African Affairs Collection provide unique insights into both Nkrumah’s foreign and domestic policies. In particular, they include invaluable information on his Pan-African policy. Moreover, the documents shed new light on the presence of African liberation movements in Ghana in the period 1957 to 1966. Thus, this Collection can attract scholars interested in both Ghanaian history as well as the history of Pan-Africanism and African nationalism at a continental level.


Cet article présente les archives du Bureau of African Affairs du Ghana. Il introduit tout d’abord l’histoire de ces archives en examinant les événements cruciaux qui ont influencé son état et accessibilité actuels. L’article se penche ensuite sur le contenu de la collection et montre son importance pour l’étude des politiques nationales et étrangères de Kwame Nkrumah et le nationalisme africain au niveau continental. Les documents inclus dans les archives du Bureau of African Affairs fournissent un point de vue unique sur les politiques nationales et étrangères de Nkrumah. En particulier, ils contiennent des informations précieuses sur sa politique panafricaine. De plus, les documents apportent une nouvelle lumière sur la présence des mouvements de libération de l’Afrique au Ghana entre 1957 et 1966. Ainsi, ces archives peuvent attirer des chercheurs intéressés à la fois par l’histoire ghanéenne mais aussi par l’histoire du panafricanisme et du nationalisme africain au niveau continental.

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Agyeman Kofi D., Ideological Education and Nationalism in Ghana under Nkrumah and Busia (Accra: Ghana Universities Press, 1988).
Ahlman Jeffrey S., “The Algerian Question in Nkrumah’s Ghana, 1958–1960: Debating ‘Violence’ and ‘Nonviolence’ in African Decolonization,” Africa Today 57–2 (2010), 6784.
Ahlman Jeffrey S., Living with Nkrumahism: Nation, State, and Pan-Africanism in Ghana (Athens OH: Ohio University Press, forthcoming).
Ahlman Jeffrey S., “Road to Ghana: Nkrumah, Southern Africa and the Eclipse of a Decolonizing Africa,” Kronos 37–1 (2011), 2340.
Ahlman Jeffrey S., “Managing the Pan-African Workplace: Discipline, Ideology, and the Cultural Politics of the Ghanaian Bureau of African Affairs,” Ghana Studies 15 (2012), 337371.
Allman Jean, “Nuclear Imperialism and the Pan-African Struggle for Peace and Freedom: Ghana, 1959–1962,” Souls 10–2 (2008), 83102.
Apter David E., Ghana in Transition (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972).
Armah Kwesi, Peace Without Power: Ghana’s Foreign Policy, 1957–1966 (Accra: Ghana University Press, 2004).
Connelly Matthew J., A Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria’s Fight for Independence and the Origins of the Post-cold War Era (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).
Ellis Stephen, External Mission: the ANC in Exile, 1960–1990 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013).
Gerits Frank, “The Ideological Scramble for Africa: The US, Ghanaian, French and British Competition for Africa’s Future, 1953–1963,” PhD thesis, European University Institute (Florence, 2014).
Gerits Frank, “‘When the Bull Elephants Fight:’ Kwame Nkrumah, Non-Alignment, and Pan-Africanism as an Interventionist Ideology in the Global Cold War (1957–1966),” The International History Review 37–5 (2015), 951969.
Grilli Matteo, “Support to African Nationalist Movements by Nkrumah’s Ghana,” in: African Dynamics in a Multipolar World – Conference Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on African Studies (Lisboa: CEI, 2014), 10181030.
Grilli Matteo, “African Liberation and Unity in Nkrumah’s Ghana: a Study of the Role of ‘Pan-African Institutions’ in the Making of Ghana’s Foreign Policy, 1957–1966,” PhD thesis, University of Leiden/University of Pavia (Leiden/Pavia, 2015).
James Leslie, George Padmore and Decolonization from Below: Pan-Africanism, the Cold War, and the End of Empire (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).
Kondlo Kwandiwe, In the Twilight of the Revolution: The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (South Africa) 1959–1994 (Basel: Basler Afrika Bibliographien, 2009).
Makonnen Ras, and King Kenneth, Pan-Africanism from Within (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973).
Mazrui Ali, “Nkrumah: The Leninist Czar,” Transition 26 (1966), 917.
Mensah Joseph J.T., “The Bureau of African Affairs in the Kwame Nkrumah Administration from 1951–1966 with a (Descriptive) Guide to its Archives,” MPhil thesis, University of Ghana at Legon (Accra, 1990).
Mohan Jitendra, “Nkrumah and Nkrumahism,” Socialist Register 4–4 (1967), 817.
Nkrumah Kwame, “The Kwame Nkrumah Institute,” in: Nkrumah Kwame, Selected Speech of Kwame Nkrumah (compiled by S. Obeng), volume 1 (Accra: Afram Publication Ltd., 2009), 273274.
NLC [National Liberation Council], Nkrumah’s Subversion in Africa, Documentary Evidences of Nkrumah’s Interference in the Affairs of Other African States (Accra: Ministry of Information, 1966).
NLC [National Liberation Council], Nkrumah’s Deception of Africa (Accra: Ministry of Information, 1966).
Terretta Meredith, Nation of Outlaws, State of Violence: Nationalism, Grassfields Tradition, and State Building in Cameroon (Athens OH: Ohio University Press, 2013).
Thompson Scott W., Ghana’s Foreign Policy, 1957–1966: Diplomacy, Ideology, and the New State (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969).
Williams Christian A., National Liberation in Post-Colonial Southern Africa: A Historical Ethnography of SWAPO’s Exile Camps (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015).
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History in Africa
  • ISSN: 0361-5413
  • EISSN: 1558-2744
  • URL: /core/journals/history-in-africa
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