Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Blurring Public and Private: The Pragmatic Desegregation Politics of an Elite Private School in Atlanta

  • Michelle A. Purdy (a1)
Abstract

The school desegregation narrative often references historically white public schools as sites of massive resistance and historically white private schools as segregationist academies. Yet some historically white elite private schools or independent schools, such as The Westminster Schools (plural in name only), established in 1951 in Atlanta, Georgia, chose to desegregate. Such elite institutions, which have served as one catalyst for the creation and maintenance of social and cultural capital, became more accessible after Brown v. Board of Education through a combination of private and public decisions galvanized by larger social, political, and federal forces. Westminster's 1965 decision to consider all applicants regardless of race was emblematic of the pragmatic desegregation politics of Atlanta's city leaders during the civil rights movement and a national independent school agenda focused on recruiting black students. Drawing on institutional, local, regional, and national archival records and publications, this article examines the import of schools like Westminster to civic and business leaders, to the politics of race and desegregation occurring in large cities, and to the range of educational opportunities available in metropolitan areas. This examination yields an analysis of the leadership and politics of a southern historically white elite private school that black students desegregated in 1961.

Copyright
References
Hide All

1 Hall, Diane M. and Stevenson, Howard C., “Double Jeopardy: Being African-American and ‘Doing Diversity’ in Independent Schools,” Teachers College Record 109, no. 1 (2007): 2. Note that some historically black K–12 private schools are also independent schools.

2 Bourdieu, Pierre, “The Forms of Capital,” trans. Richard Nice in Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, ed. Richardson, John G. (New York: Greenwood, 1985), 241–58.

3 National Association of Independent Schools. “NAIS Independent School Facts at a Glance,” http://www.nais.org/Statistics/Pages/NAIS-Independent-School-Facts-at-a-Glance.aspx (accessed October 5, 2015). For public and private school statistics, see The Center for Education Reform, “K-12 Facts,” https://www.edreform.com/2012/04/k-12-facts/ (accessed October 5, 2015); National Center for Education Statistics, “Digest of Education Statistics,” http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_205.10.asp?current=yes.

4 I thank the anonymous reviewer for suggesting this sentence.

5 Fabrikant, Geraldine, “At Elite Prep Schools, College-Size Endowments,” New York Times, 26 January 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/26/business/26prep.html?ref=business.

6 Wilson, Zebulon Vance and Frank, J. Russell, They Took Their Stand: The Integration of Southern Private Schools (Atlanta: Mid-South Association of Independent Schools, 1983), 9.

7 Dandridge, William, interview with author, December 11, 2008.

8 Ibid.

9 The historiography on Southern black education in public and private schools following the Civil War is a robust field of study; this note provides a limited number of examples. On public and private segregated black schooling, see Anderson, James, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988). On public segregated black schooling that exhibited exemplar educational environments despite the realities of Crow, Jim, see Jones, Faustine Childress, A Traditional Model of Educational Excellence: Dunbar High School of Little Rock, Arkansas (Washington, DC: Published for ISEP by Howard University Press, 1981); Walker, Vanessa Siddle, Their Highest Potential: An African American School Community in the Segregated South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); and Stewart, Allison, First Class: the Legacy of Dunbar, America's First Black Public High School (Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2013). On black teachers and principals, see Fultz, Michael, “African American Teachers in the South, 1890–1940: Powerlessness and the Ironies of Expectations and Protest,” History of Education Quarterly 35, no. 4 (Winter 1995): 401–22; Walker, Vanessa Siddle, “Ninth Annual Brown Lecture in Education Research: Black Educators as Educational Advocates in the Decades Before Brown v. Board of Education,” Educational Researcher 42, no. 2 (May 2013): 207–22; and Walker, Vanessa Siddle, Hello Professor: A Black Principal and Professional Leadership in the Segregated South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009). African Americans were educated in both parochial schools, in particular Catholic schools, and black private institutions. Sources that address the history of African Americans in parochial schools include Franklin, V. P. and McDonald, Edward P., “Blacks in Urban Catholic Schools in the United States: A Historical Perspective,” in Visible Now: Blacks in Private Schools, ed. Slaughter-Defoe, Diana T. and Johnson, Deborah J. (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988); Mitchell, Mary Niall, “‘A Good and Delicious Country': Free Children of Color and How They Learned to Imagine the Atlantic World in Nineteenth-Century Louisiana,” History of Education Quarterly 40, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 123–44; and Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan and Foster, Michèle, eds., Growing Up African American in Catholic Schools (New York: Teachers College Press, 1996). For histories of black private institutions, see Jones, Thomas Jesse, “A Study of the Private and Higher Schools for Colored People in the United States,” prepared in cooperation with the Phelps-Stokes Fund for the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, 2 vols. (Washington, DC-Government Printing Office, 1917); Grant, Donald L. and Grant, Jonathan, The Way It Was in the South: The Black Experience in Georgia (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001); Cooper, Arnold, Between Struggle and Hope: Four Black Educators in the South, 1894–1915 (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1989); and Wadelington, Charles Weldon and Knapp, Richard F., Charlotte Hawkins Brown & Palmer Memorial Institute: What One Young African American Woman Could Do (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999).

10 For an examination of Westminster's first black students’ experiences, see Purdy, Michelle A., “Courageous Navigation: African American Students at an Elite Private School in the South, 1967–1972,” Journal of African American History 100:4 (Fall 2015), in press; Purdy, Michelle A., “Southern and Independent: Public Mandates, Private Schools, and Black Students, 1951–1970” (PhD Dissertation, Emory University, 2011).

11 Accounts on Southern public school desegregation include Liva Baker, The Second Battle of New Orleans: The Hundred-Year Struggle to Integrate the Schools (New York: HarperCollins, 1996); Baker, R. Scott, Paradoxes of Desegregation: African American Struggles for Educational Equity in Charleston, South Carolina, 1926–1972 (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2006); Bolton, Charles C., The Hardest Deal of All: The Battle Over School Integration in Mississippi, 1870–1980 (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2005); Douglas, Davison M., Reading, Writing, and Race: The Desegregation of Charlotte Schools (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995); Hoppe, Sherry L. and Speck, Bruce W., Maxine Smith's Unwilling Pupils: Lessons Learned in Memphis's Civil Rights Classroom (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2007); and Pratt, Robert A., The Color of Their Skin: Education and Race in Richmond, Virginia, 1954–1989 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992). For further discussion on segregationist academies, see Champagne, Anthony M., “The Segregation Academy and the Law,” The Journal of Negro Education 42, no. 1 (1973): 5866; Fuquay, Michael W., “Civil Rights and the Private School Movement in Mississippi, 1964–1971,” History of Education Quarterly 42, no. 2 (2002): 159–80; and Nevin, David and Bills, Robert E., The Schools That Fear Built: Segregationist Academies in the South (Washington, DC: Acropolis Books, 1976).

12 Studies of desegregation's effects on black schooling include Cecelski, David S., Along Freedom Road: Hyde County, North Carolina, and the Fate of Black Schools in the South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994); Fairclough, Adam, “The Costs of Brown: Black Teachers and School Integration,” Journal of American History 91, no. 1 (June 2004): 4355; and Fultz, Michael, “The Displacement of Black Educators Post-Brown: An Overview and Analysis,” History of Education Quarterly 44, no. 1 (Spring 2004): 11–45.

13 Examples include Beals, Melba Patillo, Warriors Don't Cry: A Searing Memoir of the Battle to Integrate Little Rock's Central High (New York: Washington Square Press, 1995); Bates, Daisy, “The Long Shadow of Little Rock,” in The Eyes on the Prize Civil Rights Reader: Documents, Speeches, and Firsthand Accounts from the Black Freedom Struggle, 1954–1990, ed. Carson, Clayborne, Garrow, David J., Gill, Gerald, Harding, Vincent, and Hine, Darlene Clark (New York: Penguin Boob, 1991); Hampton, Henry, Fayer, Steve, and Flynn, Sarah, Voices of Freedom: An Oral History of the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s through 1990s (New York: Bantam Books, 1990); and Wells, Amy Stuart et al., Both Sides Now: The Story of School Desegregation's Graduates (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).

14 Examples include Klarman, Michael J., “How Brown Changed Race Relations: The Backlash Thesis,” Journal of American History 81, no. 1 (June 1994): 81118; Ladson-Billings, Gloria, “Landing on the Wrong Note: The Price We Paid for Brown,” Educational Researcher 33, no. 7 (October 2004): 3–13; Orfield, Gary and Eaton, Susan, ed. Dismantling Desegregation: The Quiet Reversal of Brown v. Board of Education (New York: New Press, 1996); and Patterson, James T., Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

15 Studies include Baird, Leonard L., The Elite Schools: A Profile of Prestigious Independent Schools (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books/D. C. Heath, 1977); Chamberlain, Ernest Barrett, Our Independent Schools: The Private School in American Education (New York: American Book Company, 1944); Kraushaar, Otto F., American Nonpublic Schools: Patterns of Diversity (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972); and Powell, Arthur G., Lessons from Privilege: The American Prep School Tradition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).

16 Powell, , Lessons from Privilege; Wilson and Frank, They Took Their Stand.

17 Speede-Franklin, Wanda A., “Ethnic Diversity: Patterns and Implications of Minorities in Independent Schools,” in Visible Now: Blacks in Private Schools, ed. Slaughter-Defoe, Diana T. and Johnson, Deborah J. (New York: Greenwood, Press, 1988). Additional studies about the recruitment of black students include Judith Berry Griffin, “Human Diversity and Academic Excellence: Learning from Experience,” The Journal of Negro Education 68, no. 1 (Winter 1999): 7279; and Zweigenheft, Richard L. and Domhoff, G. William, Blacks in the White Elite: Will the Progress Continue? (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003).

18 Powell, , Lessons from Privilege, 98; Speede-Franklin, “Ethnic Diversity,” 25.

19 Gannon, Michael, “From White Flight to Open Admissions: The Founding and Integration of Private Schools in the City of Atlanta, 1951–1967” (Master's thesis, Georgia State University, 2004).

20 Hein, Virginia H., “The Image of ‘A City Too Busy to Hate': Atlanta in the 1960s,” Pbylon 33, no. 3 (September 1972): 205–21; Martin, Harold H., William Berry Hartsfield: Mayor of Atlanta (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1978); Jackson, Barbara L., “Desegregation: Atlanta Style,” Theory Into Practice 17, no. 1 (1978): 43–53; Plank, David N. and Turner, Marcia, “Changing Patterns in Black School Politics: Atlanta, 1872–1973,” American Journal of Education 95, no. 4 (August 1987): 584–608; Hornsby, Alton Jr., “Black Public Education in Atlanta, Georgia, 1954–1973: From Segregation to Segregation,” The Journal of Negro History 76, no. 1 (January 1991): 21–47; and McGrath, Susan M., “From Tokenism to Community Control: Political Symbolism in the Desegregation of Atlanta's Public Schools, 1961–1973,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 79, no. 4 (December 1995): 842–72.

21 Roche, Jeff, Restructured Resistance: The Sibley Commission and the Politics of Desegregation of Georgia (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998); and Thomas, V. O'Brien, The Politics of Race and Schooling: Public Education in Georgia, 1900–1961 (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 1999).

22 Bayor, Ronald H., Race and the Shaping of Twentieth-Century Atlanta (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); Brown-Nagin, Tomiko, Courage to Dissent: Atlanta and the Long History of the Civil Rights Movement (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011); Grady-Willis, , Challenging U.S. Apartheid; and Walker, Vanessa Siddle, “Ninth Annual Brown Lecture in Education Research: Black Educators as Educational Advocates in the Decades Before Brown v. Board of Education,” Educational Researcher 42, no. 4 (May 2013): 207–22.

23 For a discussion of elite private schools with religious affiliations, see Kruse, Kevin Michael, White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), 171–79.

24 Lassiter, Matthew D., The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006).

25 Kean, Melissa, Desegregating Private Higher Education in the South: Duke, Emory, Rice, Tulane, and Vanderbilt (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008), 1.

26 Pressly, William L., The Formative Years at Atlanta's Westminster Schools (Atlanta: McGuire Publishing, 1991), 89.

27 The School Atlanta Needs,” record group 13.07, box 1, folder: 1952 Promotional Materials (3 of 3), Office of Institutional Advancement, Campaigns and Promotional Materials, The Westminster Schools Archives, Atlanta, GA (hereafter referred to as WSA).

28 The Physical Development of the School,” record group 5.01, box 1, folder: Administrative Records 1956–1961, Office of the President [Restricted], Pressly, Dr. William L., WSA.

29 Sibley, Celestine, “City Visioned as Top Hub in Education,” The Atlanta Constitution, April 24, 1952, record group 5.01, box 2, folder: Clippings, Office of the President [Restricted], Pressly, Dr. William L. (WSA); and Celestine Sibley, “A Quiet Man with Ideas,” The Atlanta Constitution, July 2, 1953, RG 5.01, box 2, folder: Clippings, Office of the President [Restricted], Pressly, Dr. William L., WSA.

30 Minutes, , June 23, 1953, record group 4.03, box 1, folder: Minutes—August 1952–June 1954, Board of Trustees [Restricted], Minutes, WSA.

31 Minutes, , November 24, 1952, record group 4.03, box 1, folder: Minutes—August 1952–June 1954. Board of Trustees [Restricted], Minutes, WSA; and Pressly, The Formative Years, 33, 35.

32 The Westminster Schools,” advertisement, Rush, November 5, 1953. RG 5.01, box 2, folder: Clippings, Office of the President [Restricted], Pressly, Dr. William L., WSA.

33 Expenses,” record group 5.01, box 1, folder: Administrative Records, 1953–1954, Office of the President [Restricted], Pressly, Dr. William L., WSA.

34 Fund for the Advancement of Education to William L. Pressly, December 16, 1953, record group 4.05, box la, folder: Fund for the Advancement of Education, 1953— 1956, Board of Trustees [Restricted], Correspondence, WSA.

35 Pressly, , The Formative Years, 52.

36 The Physical Development of the School,” record group 5.01, box 1, folder: Administrative Records 1956–1961, Office of the President [Restricted], Pressly, Dr. William L., WSA.

37 Wilson, Mira B., “Colored Students Are an Asset,” Independent School Bulletin Series ‘48–'49, no. 3 (February 1949): 1213.

38 What the Schools Are Doing,” Independent School Bulletin Series ‘49–'50, no. 2 (January 1949): 43.

39 David Mallery, Negro Students in Independent Schools (Boston, MA: National Association of Independent Schools, 1963), 1011; and “What the Schools Are Doing,” Independent School Bulletin, Series ‘55–'56, no. 4 (May 1956): 25.

40 Pressly's other leadership roles included charter trustee for the College Entrance Examination Board, vice president of the Southern Association of Independent Schools, and chairman of the Georgia State Committee of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. He also held membership on the Georgia Accrediting Commission.

41 National Council of Independent Schools, “Independent Schools and the ‘Crisis': Policy Statement,” National Council of Independent Schools Report, no. 46 (December 1957): 11.

42 Miller, Arthur S., Racial Discrimination and Private Education: A Legal Analysis (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1957).

43 Clipping, , ca. March 1958, Frye, Roland M. Biographical Files, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Books Library, Emory University (hereafter referred to as MARBL); and Minutes, November 12, 1958, record group 4.03, box 1, folder: Minutes— September 1957–June 1959, Board of Trustees [Restricted], Minutes, WSA.

44 Minutes, December 10, 1958, record group 4.03, box 1, folder: Minutes— September 1957–June 1959, Board of Trustees [Restricted], Minutes, WSA.

45 Pressly, , The Formative Years, 148.

46 Minutes, GACHR Executive Committee, January 5, 1961, Eliza Paschall Papers, MARBL.

47 Ibid and Minutes, GACHR Board of Directors, September 12, 1961, Eliza Paschall Papers, MARBL.

48 Minutes, September 13, 1961, RG 4.03, box 1, folder: Minutes—August 1961–July 1964, Board of Trustees [Restricted], Minutes, WSA.

49 GACHR Newsletter, “School News,” March 1962, Eliza Paschall Papers, MARBL.

50 Paschall, Eliza to Pressly, William, May 30, 1962, Eliza Paschall Papers, MARBL.

51 Minutes of meeting of Parents Council for Westminster Schools April 22, 1962, record group: 5.01, box 3a, folder: Parents Council Meetings, 1961–1970, Office of the President [Restricted], Pressly, Dr. William L., WSA.

52 President's Report to the Board, November 1962. Record group 5.01, box 12, folder: 1962, Office of the President [Restricted], Pressly, Dr. William L., WSA.

53 Kruse, , White Flight, 123.

54 Prospectus in Human Relations in Greater Atlanta,” 1963, Eliza Paschall Papers, MARBL.

55 Young, Andrew, An Easy Burden: The Civil Rights Movement and the Transformation of America (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1996) 197.

56 Paschall, Eliza to Hocking, Kay, Perkins, Nancy, and Nelson, Anne, February 20, 1963, Eliza Paschall Papers, MARBL.

57 Gannon, , “From White Flight to Open Admissions,” 81–82.

58 Kruse, , White Flight, 174.

59 Ibid, 175.

60 Atlanta Journal, March 16, 1963: 3, as cited in Gannon, “From White Flight to Open Admissions,” 95.

61 National Council of Independent Schools, “New Schools in the South,” National Council of Independent Schools Report, no. 52 (March 1959): 23.

62 National Council of Independent Schools, “Help for New Schools: A Manual,” National Council of Independent Schools Report, no. 53 (June 1959): 3.

63 National Council of Independent Schools, “Introduction: NCIS-ISEB,” National Council of Independent Schools Report, no. 67 (April 1962): 1.

64 National Association of Independent Schools, “Civil Rights,” National Association of Independent Schools Report, no. 6 (October 1963): 78.

65 Mallery, David, Negro Students in Independent Schools (Boston, National Association of Independent Schools, 1963).

66 National Association of Independent Schools, “Legislation,” National Association of Independent Schools Report, no. 3 (December 1962): 6; National Association of Independent Schools, “Legislation,” National Association of Independent Schools Report, no. 4 (April 1963): 6–7; National Association of Independent Schools, “Legislation,” National Association of Independent Schools Report, no. 5 (June 1963): 4–5; National Association of Independent Schools, “Legislation,” National Association of Independent Schools Report, no. 6 (October 1963): 5–6; National Association of Independent Schools, “Legislation,” National Association of Independent Schools Report, no. 9 (May 1964): 8–9; and National Association of Independent Schools, “Legislation,” National Association of Independent Schools Report, no. 10 (September 1964): 5. See also Keith, Frank B., “Federal Aid and Non-Public Schools,” Independent School Bulletin Series ‘61–'62, no. 2 (January 1962): 69–70.

67 Two Year Report on Independent Schools Talent Search Program,” box 13, Stouffer, Anne C. Foundation Records, 1960s–1990s, #04556, Southern Historical Collection, Louis Round Wilson Special Collections Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (Hereafter referred to as Stouffer Foundation Records, SHC, UNC.)

68 Two Year Report on Independent Schools Talent Search Program,” box 13, Stouffer Foundation Records, SHC, UNC.

69 Mikula, Thomas M., “Education of the Disadvantaged,” Independent School Bulletin 25, no. 2 (December 1965): 1719; and Blair, Edward, “Community Service,” Independent School Bulletin 25, no. 2 (December 1965): 20–22.

70 Speede-Franklin, , “Ethnic Diversity,” 23.

71 Paschall, Eliza to Pressly, William, December 9, 1963, Papers, Eliza Paschall, MARBL; and Council on Human Relations of Greater Atlanta, newsletter, January 1964, Eliza Paschall Papers, MARBL.

72 Paschall, Eliza to Taylor, Max, March 26, 1964, Eliza Paschall Papers, MARBL.

73 Paschall, Eliza to members of the GACHR Board, confidential memorandum, n.d., Eliza Paschall Papers, MARBL.

74 Rothschild, Jacob M. to Pressly, William, April 20, 1964. Record group 5.01, box 8, folder: Correspondence 1961–1966. Office of the President [Restricted], Pressly, Dr. William L., WSA.

75 Pressly, , The Formative Years, 148.

76 Kean, , Desegregating Private Higher Education, 185–86.

77 Pressly, , The Formative Years, 148.

78 Gannon, , “From White Flight to Open Admissions,” 110.

79 Pressly, , The Formative Years, 143.

80 Ibid., 148.

81 Civil Rights: Segregation: Federal Income Tax: Exemptions and Deductions: The Validity of Tax Benefits to Private Segregated Schools,” Michigan Law Review 68, no. 7 (1970): 1412.

82 Ibid., 1432.

83 Federal Tax Benefits to Segregated Private Schools,” Columbia Law Review 68, no. 5 (1968): 923–24. While the records I reviewed do not include specific calculations about what Westminster would lose financially if denied tax-exempt status, it is evident from Pressly's memoir, secondary sources, national organizational materials, and oral histories with such individuals as William Dandridge, first director of minority affairs for NAIS, that the tax-exempt issue was very important to independent schools and signaled leaders’ hesitancy to have the federal government scrutinize independent schools’ policies.

84 Pressly, , The Formative Years, 149.

85 Ibid., 150.

86 Minutes, November 11, 1965, record group 4.03, box 1, folder: Minutes— September 1964–June 1967, Board of Trustees [Restricted], Minutes, WSA.

87 Pressly, , The Formative Years, 150.

88 Ibid.

89 Kelley, Wayne, “Westminster Board Sets Desegregation,” Atlanta Constitution. November 14, 1965, p. 55, WSA.

90 Pressly, , The Formative Years, 149.

91 Minutes, December 8, 1965, record group 4.03, box 1, folder: Minutes—September 1964–June 1967, Board of Trustees [Restricted], Minutes, WSA.

92 Ibid.

93 Pressly, William to Woodruff, Robert, November 12, 1965, Robert Winship Woodruff Papers, MARBL.

94 Wilson, and Frank, , They Took Their Stand, 13.

95 Omi, Michael and Winant, Howard, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s (New York: Routledge, 1994), 2.

96 A similar case was filed in 1969 in the U.S. District Court in Philadelphia. The plaintiffs included the NAACP. “The suit sought a permanent injunction against the use of state funds for support of sectarian schools and other private schools whose policies, ‘by purpose or effect,’ discriminate against persons by reason of race or religions, and goes on to aver that the defendant schools and nonpublic schools generally are de facto segregated and that aid to them will perpetuate such segregation.” National Association or Independent Schools, “Schools, Politics, and the Law,” National Association of Independent Schools Report, no. 30 (October 1969): 2.

97 Civil Rights: Segregation: Federal Income Tax: Exemptions and Deductions: The Validity of Tax Benefits to Private Segregated Schools,” Michigan Law Review 68, no. 7 (1970): 1411; and Green v. Kennedy 309 F. Supp. 1127 (D.D.C. 1970).

98 Green v. Kennedy, 309 F. Supp. 1127.

99 Ibid.

100 The Judicial Role in Attacking Racial Discrimination in Tax-Exempt Private Schools,” Harvard Law Review 93, no. 2 (December 1979): 380.

101 National Association of Independent Schools, “NAIS and Governmental Relations—The Establishment of a Special Committee,” National Association of Independent Schools Report, no. 28 (February 1969): 2.

102 As noted by Lassiter, “[T]he [Southern Regional Council's] long-standing motto pledged ‘to attain, through research and action, the ideals and practices of equal opportunity for all peoples in the South.” Lassiter, The Silent Majority, 23.

103 Pressly, William, Testimony Prepared for Select Senate Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity, record group 26.01, box 24, folder: Testimony for Senate Committee on Equal Education Opportunity, June 1970, Special Collections, Dr. William Pressly, L. Papers, WSA.

104 Ibid.

She is appreciative of the HEQ editors and staff at the University of Illinois and the University of Washington and HEQ's anonymous reviewers. She is also grateful for the advice, support, and editorial suggestions of her mentors and colleagues, in particular Dionne Danns, Mary Ann Dzuback, Karen Graves, Jon Hale, Michael Hevel, Vanessa Siddle Walker, Elizabeth Todd-Breland, and Kevin Zayed.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

History of Education Quarterly
  • ISSN: 0018-2680
  • EISSN: 1748-5959
  • URL: /core/journals/history-of-education-quarterly
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed