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Gateways to the West, Part II: Education and the Making of Race, Place, and Culture in the West


In his 1916 book, The Measurement of Intelligence, Lewis Terman presented the first version of the Stanford-Binet scale and his testing results for groups of California children. Singling out a few children whose scores fell in the range he categorized as “feeble-minded,” Terman commented:

[They] represent the level of intelligence that is very, very common among Spanish-Indian and Mexican families of the Southwest and also among negroes. Their dullness seems to be racial or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they came. The fact that one meets this type with such extraordinary frequency among Indians, Mexicans, and negroes suggests quite forcibly that the whole question of racial differences in mental traits will have to be taken up anew and by experimental methods.1

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1 Terman, Lewis Madison, The Measurement of Intelligence (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1916), 91–2.

2 Gould, Stephen Jay, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: W. W. Norton, 1981).

3 Gonzalez, Gilbert, “Racial Intelligence Testing and the Mexican People,” Explorations in Ethnic Studies 5 (July 1982), 3649 ; Raftery, Judith R., “Missing the Mark: Intelligence Testing in Los Angeles Public Schools,” History of Education Quarterly 28, no. 1 (April 1988), 7393 ; Fass, Paula S., Outside In: Minorities and the Transformation of American Education (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989); Richardson, John G., Common, Delinquent and Special: The Institutional Shape of Special Education (New York: Falmer Press, 1999); Osgood, Robert L., For “Children who Vary from the Normal Type”: Special Education in Boston, 1838–1930 (Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 2000); Blanton, Carlos, “From Intellectual Deficiency to Cultural Deficiency: Mexican Americans, Testing, and Public School Policy in the American Southwest, 1920–1940,” Pacific Historical Review 72, no. 1 (Feb. 2003), 3962 ; Baker, R. Scott, Paradoxes of Desegregation: African American Struggles for Educational Equity in Charleston, South Carolina, 1926–1972 (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2006). Also, see Woolworth, Stephen, “When Physicians and Psychologists Parted Ways: Professional Turf Wars in Child Study and Special Education, 1910–1920,” in When Science Encounters the Child: Education, Parenting and Child Welfare in Twentieth Century America ed. Beatty, Barbara, Cahan, Emily D., and Grant, Julia (New York: Teachers College Press, 2006), 96114 ; Reese, William J., Testing Wars in the Public Schools: A Forgotten History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013); and Fallace, Thomas, Race and the Origins of Progressive Education, 1880–1929 (New York: Teachers College Press, 2015).

4 Lewis Madison Terman, “Genius and Stupidity: A Study of Some of the Intellectual Processes of Seven ‘Bright’ and Seven ‘Stupid’ Boys.” (PhD diss., Clark University, 1906), reprinted in Pedagogical Seminary 13 (September, 1906), 307–373; 318.

5 Lagemann, Ellen recounts this history in An Elusive Science: The Troubling History of Education Research (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2000), 8993 .

6 West, Elliot, “Reconstructing Race,” Western Historical Quarterly 34, no. 1 (Spring 2003), 626, 6.

7 See also West, Elliott, Growing Up with the Country: Childhood on the Far Western Frontier (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1989); and West, The Last Indian War: The Nez Perce Story (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).

8 West, “Reconstructing Race,” 17.

9 Beadie, Nancy, et al. , “Gateways to the West, Part I: Education in the Shaping of the West,” History of Education Quarterly, 56, no. 3 (Aug. 2016), 418–44.

10 Lomawaima, K. Tsianina, They Called It Prairie Light: The Story of Chilocco Indian School (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994); Adams, David Wallace, Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875–1928 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995); Harmon, Alexandra, Indians in the Making: Ethnic Relations and Indian Identities around Puget Sound (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998); Gilbert, Matthew Sakiestewa, Education beyond the Mesas: Hopi Students at Sherman Institute, 1902–1929 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010). See also Lomawaima, K. Tsianina and McCarty, Teresa L., To Remain an Indian: Lessons in Democracy from a Century of Native American Education (New York: Teachers College Press, 2006).

11 Miguel, Guadalupe San Jr., Brown, Not White: School Integration and the Chicano Movement in Houston (College Station: Texas A&M University, 2001).

12 Adams, David Wallace, Three Roads to Magdalena: Coming of Age in a Southwest Borderland, 1890–1990 (Lawrence: Kansas University Press, 2016).

13 Anderson, James, “Race-Conscious Education Policies versus a ‘Color-Blind Constitution’: A Historical Perspective,” Educational Researcher 36, no. 5 (July 2007), 249–57.

14 Wollenberg, Charles, All Deliberate Speed: Segregation and Exclusion in California Schools, 1855–1975 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), 2847 ; and Kuo, Joyce, “Excluded, Segregated and Forgotten: A Historical View of Chinese Americans in Public Schools,” Asian American Law Journal 5 (Jan. 1998), 181212 .

15 Ngai, Mae, The Lucky Ones: One Family and the Extraordinary Invention of Chinese America (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010); and Ngai, Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004).

16 Brudnoy, David, “Race and the San Francisco School Board Incident: Contemporary Evaluations,” California Historical Quarterly 50, no. 3 (Sept. 1971), 295312 ; Brooks, Charlotte, Alien Neighbors, Foreign Friends: Asian Americans, Housing, and the Transformation of Urban California (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009); and Asato, Noriko, Teaching Mikadoism: The Attack on Japanese Language Schools in Hawaii, California, and Washington, 1919–1927 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2005).

17 Stanley, Timothy J., Contesting White Supremacy: School Segregation, Anti-Racism, and the Making of Chinese Canadians (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2011).

18 For an extensive bibliography on Mexican American educational history, see Miguel, Guadalupe San Jr. and Donato, Rubén, “Latino Education in Twentieth-Century America: A Brief History,” in Handbook of Latinos and Education: Theory, Research, and Practice ed. Murillo, Enrique G. (New York: Routledge Press, 2010), 5562 .

19 Montejano, David, Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836–1986 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987), 191 .

20 Gonzalez, Gilbert, Chicano Education in the Era of Segregation, 2nd ed. (Denton: University of North Texas Press, [1990] 2013); Gonzalez, Labor and Community: Mexican Citrus Worker Villages in A Southern California County, 1900–1950 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994), 99103 ; and Gonzalez and Fernandez, Raul, eds., A Century of Chicano History: Empire, Nations, and Migration (New York: Routledge, 2003), 46 .

21 MacDonald, Victoria-María, ed., Latino Education in the U.S.: A Narrated History, 1513–2000 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), 117182 .. See also Donato, Rubén, The Other Struggle for Equal Schools: Mexican Americans during the Civil Rights Era (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997); Donato, Mexicans and Hispanos in Colorado Schools and Communities, 1920–1960 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007); and Gonzalez, Chicano Education in the Era of Segregation.

22 Muñoz, Laura, “Separate but Equal? A Case Study of Romo v. Laird and Mexican American Education,” OAH Magazine of History 15, no. 2 (Winter 2001), 2835 ; Powers, Jeanne M., “Forgotten History: Mexican American School Segregation in Arizona from 1900–1951,” Equity and Excellence in Education 41, no. 4 (Oct. 2008), 467–81; Rubén Donato, Gonzalo Guzman, and Jarrod Hanson, “Francisco Maestas et al. v. George H. Shone et al.: Mexican American Resistance to School Segregation in the Hispano Homeland, 1912–1914,” Journal of Latinos and Education (May 31, 2016), 1–15.

23 Molina, Natalia, How Race Is Made in America: Immigration, Citizenship, and the Historical Power of Racial Scripts (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014). Thanks to Laura Muñoz for emphasizing the relevance of Molina's work for our argument.

24 Molina, How Race Is Made in America, 64.

25 Garcia, David G. and Yosso, Tara J., “‘Strictly in the Capacity of Servant’: The Interconnection Between Residential and School Segregation in Oxnard, California, 1934–1954,” History of Education Quarterly 53, no. 1 (Feb. 2013), 6489, 64. Also Garcia, David G., Yosso, Tara J., and Barajas, Frank P., “‘A Few of the Brightest, Cleanest Mexican Children’: School Segregation as a Form of Mundane Racism in Oxnard, California, 1900–1940,” Harvard Educational Review 82, no. 1 (Spring 2012), 125, 166, 168.

26 Burkholder, Zoë, Color in the Classroom: How American Schools Taught Race, 1900–1954 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011); Gordon, Leah, From Power to Prejudice: The Rise of Racial Individualism in Midcentury America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015); and Selig, Diana, Americans All: The Cultural Gifts Movement (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008).

27 Adams, Three Roads to Magdalena.

28 Warren, Kim Cary, The Quest for Citizenship: African American and Native American Education in Kansas, 1880–1935 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010).

29 Tyack, David B., The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974); Nelson, Bryce, Good Schools: The Seattle Public School System, 1901–1930 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988); Raftery, Judith Rosenberg, Land of Fair Promise: Politics and Reform in Los Angeles Schools, 1885–1941 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992); Kantor, Harvey, Learning to Earn: School, Work, and Vocational Reform in California, 1880–1930 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988); Peterson, Paul E., The Politics of School Reform, 1870–1940 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985); and Katznelson, Ira and Weir, Margaret, Schooling for All: Class, Race, and the Decline of the Democratic Ideal (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985).

30 Rubin, Lillian B., Busing and Backlash: White against White in an Urban School District (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972); and Kafka, Judith, The History of “Zero Tolerance” in American Public Schooling (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

31 San Miguel Jr., Brown Not White; Taylor, Quintard, The Forging of a Black Community: Seattle's Central District from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994); and Li, Wei, “Anatomy of a New Ethnic Settlement: The Chinese Ehnoburb in Los Angeles,” Urban Studies 33, no. 3 (March 1998), 479502 .

32 Starr, Kevin, Americans and the California Dream, 1850–1915 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973); Starr, Kevin, Material Dreams: Southern California Through the 1920s (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973); Weiss, Marc A., The Rise of the Community Builders: The American Real Estate Industry and Urban Land (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987); Hise, Greg, Magnetic Los Angeles: Planning the Twentieth-Century Metropolis (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997); and Self, Robert O., American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003).

33 Hise, Magnetic Los Angeles, 1–13.

34 Nicolaides, Becky, My Blue Heaven: Life and Politics in the Working Class Suburbs of Los Angeles, 1920–1965 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002); and Strauss, Emily E., Death of a Suburban Dream: Race and Schools in Compton, California (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014).

35 Thrush, Coll, Native Seattle: Histories from the Crossing-Over Place (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2007).

36 See, for example, Sánchez, George J., Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 6386 ; Taylor, Forging a Black Community ), 106–134; and Thrush, Native Seattle, 3–78.

37 Quintana, Isabela Seong Leong, “Making Do, Making Home: Borders and the Worlds of Chinatown and Sonoratown in Early Twentieth-Century Los Angeles,” Journal of Urban History 41, no. 1 (Jan. 2015), 4774 .

38 Wild, Mark, Street Meeting: Multiethnic Neighborhoods in Early Twentieth Century Los Angeles (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005); and Lee, Shelley Sang-Hee, Claiming the Oriental Gateway: Prewar Seattle and Japanese America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2011).

39 Johnson, Marilynn S., The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World War II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).

40 Pearson, Rudy, “‘A Menace to the Neighborhood’: Housing and African Americans in Portland, 1941–1945,” Oregon Historical Quarterly 102, no. 2 (Summer 2001), 158–79.

41 Dorn, Charles, American Education, Democracy, and the Second World War (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).

42 Dougherty, Jack, “Shopping for Schools: How Public Education and Private Housing Shaped Suburban Connecticut,” Journal of Urban History 38, no. 2 (March 2012), 205–24; Erickson, Ansley T., “Building Inequality: The Spatial Organization of Schooling in Nashville, Tennessee after Brown ,” Journal of Urban History 38, no. 2 (March 2012), 247–70;  Erickson, Making the Unequal Metropolis: School Desegregation and Its Limits (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016); and Benjamin, Karen, “Suburbanizing Jim Crow: The Impact of School Policy on Residential Segregation in Raleigh,” Journal of Urban History 38, no. 2 (March 2012), 225–46. One exception to the dearth of school-focused urban histories of the West is Horsford, Sonya D., Sampson, Carrie, and Forletta, Felicia, “School Resegregation in the Mississippi of the West: Community Counternarratives on the Return to Neighborhood Schools in Las Vegas, 1968–1994,” Teachers College Record 115, no. 11 (Nov. 2013), 128 .

43 Michael Bowman, “Learning Place: Education and Planning in Seattle and the Pacific Northwest, 1934–1955” (PhD diss., University of Washington, 2015).

44 Nicolaides, My Blue Heaven.

45 O'Mara, Margaret Pugh, Cities of Knowledge: Cold War Science and the Search for the Next Silicon Valley (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005); Self, American Babylon; Rubin, Busing and Backlash; Murch, Donna Jean, Living for the City: Migration, Education, and the Rise of the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010); and Spencer, John, In the Crossfire: Marcus Foster and the Troubled History of American School Reform (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012).

46 Moreton, Bethany, To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009); McGirr, Lisa, Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001); and Strauss, Death of a Suburban Dream.

47 For comparative regional analysis of school district formation, see Fischel, William A., Making the Grade: The Economic Evolution of American School Districts (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009). On federal school funding, see Nelson, Adam R., The Elusive Ideal: Equal Educational Opportunity and the Federal Role in Boston's Public Schools, 1950–1985 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2005); on conservative politics, see Lassiter, Matthew, The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006).

48 Sandoval-Strausz, A. K., “Latino Landscapes: Postwar Cities and the Transnational Origins of a New Urban America,” Journal of American History 101, no. 3 (Dec. 2014), 804–31.

49 Mitchell, Katharyne, Crossing the Neoliberal Line: Pacific Rim Migration and the Metropolis (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004); and Hsu, Madeline Yuan-yin, The Good Immigrants: How the Yellow Peril Became the Model Minority (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015).

50 Terman, Measurement of Intelligence.

51 Ellen Lagemann, An Elusive Science; Kimball, Bruce A., The “True Professional Ideal” in America: A History (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1992); Dzuback, Mary Ann, “Women Scholars, Social Science Expertise, and the State,” Women's History Review 18, no. 1 (Feb. 2009), 7195 ; Dzuback, Gender and the Politics of Knowledge,” History of Education Quarterly 43, no. 2 (Summer 2003), 171–95; and Reuben, Julie, The Making of the Modern University: Intellectual Transformation and the Marginalization of Morality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).

52 Burkholder, Color in the Classroom; and Gordon, From Power to Prejudice.

53 Stratton, Clif, Education for Empire: American Schools, Race, and the Paths of Good Citizenship (Oakland: University of California Press, 2016).

54 Tamura, Eileen, Americanization, Acculturation and Ethnic Identity: The Nisei Generation in Hawaii (Urbana: University of Illinois, 1994); Wollenberg, All Deliberate Speed; Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South 1860–1935 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1988); Cohen, Ronald and Mohl, Raymond A., The Paradox of Progressive Education: The Gary Plan and Urban Schooling (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1979); and Blanton, “From Intellectual to Cultural Deficiency.”

55 On missionary activity in western New York and northern Pennsylvania in the 1790s see Wallace, Anthony F. C. and Steen, Sheila C., Death and Rebirth of the Seneca (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969). On missionary activity in Hawaii in the 1820s and 1830s, see Osorio, Jonathan Kay Kamakawiwo‘ole, Dismembering Lāhui: A History of the Hawaiian Nation to 1887 (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2002).

56 On the manual labor movement, see Mullins, Jeffrey A., “‘In the Sweat of Thy Brow’: Education, Manual Labor, and Market Revolution,” in Cultural Change and the Market Revolution in America, 1789–1860, ed. Martin, Scott C. (New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005); Sernett, Milton, Abolition's Axe: Beriah Green, Oneida Institute and the Black Freedom Struggle (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986), 3147 ; and Beadie, Nancy, Education and the Creation of Capital in the Early American Republic (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 248–66.

57 Stratton, Education for Empire, 90–92.

58 Jung, Moon-Ho, Coolies and Cane: Race, Labor, and Sugar in the Age of Emancipation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006); also, Okihiro, Gary Y., Cane Fires: The Anti-Japanese Movement in Hawaii, 1865–1945 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991).

59 On this idea of educational “space” see Beadie, Nancy, “When Is a Space Not a Space?,” Bildungsgeschichte: International Journal for the Historiography of Education 6, no. 1 (Jan. 2016), 9699 , and other commentaries in the same issue.

60 Mirel, Jeffrey, Patriotic Pluralism: Americanization Education and European Immigrants (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2010); Van Nuys, Frank, Americanizing the West: Race, Immigrants, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002).

61 Lozano, Rosina A., “Managing the ‘Priceless Gift’: Debating Spanish Language Instruction in New Mexico and Puerto Rico, 1930–1950,” Western Historical Quarterly 44, no. 3 (Autumn 2013), 271293 .

62 Gutfreund, Zevi, “Immigrant Education and Race: Alternative Approaches to ‘Americanization’ in Los Angeles, 1910–1940,” History of Education Quarterly 57, no. 1 (Feb. 2017).

63 Blanton, Carlos Kevin, George I. Sánchez: The Long Fight for Mexican American Integration (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014); Flores, Ruben, Backroads Pragmatists: Mexico's Melting Pot and Civil Rights in the United States (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014).

64 Ruben Flores, Backroads Pragmatists. Among careers Flores describes are those of Manuel Gamio, cultural leader of the Mexican Revolution who studied under Franz Boas; Marie Hughes, US educator who assumed a leading role in the federal school for Indigenous education in Mexico City; anthropologist Ralph Beals, intellectual progeny of Boas; Edwin Embree from the Rosenwald Fund; and psychologists Lloyd Tireman and Montana Hastings, important in California education policy in the 1940s. See parallel biographies in Weiler, Kathleen, Democracy and Schooling in California: The Legacy of Helen Heffernan and Corinne Seeds (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011); and Laura Muñoz, “Desert Dreams: Mexican American Education in Arizona, 1870–1930” (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2006).

65 Brilliant, Mark, The Color of America Has Changed: How Racial Diversity Shaped Civil Rights Reform in California, 1941–1978 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 16 .

66 MacDonald, Victoria- María and Hoffman, Benjamin Polk, “‘Compromising La Causa?’: The Ford Foundation and Chicano Intellectual Nationalism in the Creation of Chicano History, 1963–1977,” History of Education Quarterly 52, no. 2 (May 2012), 251–81.

67 Joshee, Reva and Johnson, Lauri, eds., Multicultural Education Policies in Canada and the United States (Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 2007).

68 For a selection of DeLoria's writings on this topic, see Deloria, Vine Jr. and Wildcat, Daniel R., Power and Place: Indian Education in America (Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 2001).

69 Mark Brilliant, The Color of America Has Changed; Behnkin, Brian D., Fighting Their Own Battles: Mexican Americans, African Americans, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Texas (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011); Bernstein, Shana, Bridges of Reform: Interracial Civil Rights Activism in Twentieth-Century Los Angeles (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

70 Brilliant, The Color of America Has Changed, 14.

71 On the West as “racial frontier,” see Taylor, Quintard, In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans and the American West, 1528–1990 (New York: Norton, 1998); and Brilliant, The Color of America Has Changed, 5.

72 See, for example, Wollenberg, All Deliberate Caution.

73 Petrzela, Natalia Mehlman, Classroom Wars: Language, Sex, and the Making of Modern Political Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015).

74 Cohen, Robert, Freedom's Orator: Mario Savio and the Radical Legacy of the 1960s (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009); and Cohen, Robert and Zelnik, Reginald, eds., The Free Speech Movement: Reflections on Berkeley in the 1960s (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).

75 Murch, Living for the City; and Self, American Babylon.

76 By 1971, there were over five hundred black studies departments or programs across the country. See Biondi, Martha, The Black Revolution on Campus (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012); Rojas, Fabio, From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007); and Rooks, Noliwe M., White Money/Black Power: The Surprising History of African American Studies and the Crisis of Race in Higher Education (Boston: Beacon Press, 2006).

77 Ryan, Angela, “Counter College: Third World Students Reimagine Public Higher Education,” History of Education Quarterly 55, no. 4 (Nov. 2015), 413–40.

78 For one treatment, see Umemoto, Karen, “‘On Strike!’ San Francisco State College Strike, 1968–1969: The Role of Asian American Students,” Amerasia Journal 15, no. 1 (Jan. 1989), 341 .

79 Pulido, Laura, Black, Brown, Yellow and Left: Radical Activism in Los Angeles (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 153 .

80 Murch, Living for the City, 8.

81 Hinnershitz, Stephanie, Race, Religion, and Civil Rights: Asian Students on the West Coast, 1900–1968 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2015).

82 Tamura, Eileen, “Education in a Multi-ethnoracial Setting: Seattle's Neighborhood House and the Cultivation of Urban Community Builders, 1960s-1970s,” History of Education Quarterly 57, no. 1 (Feb. 2017).

83 For a discussion of the historical origins of this centralized role of state government in California, see Kelly, Matthew Gardner, “Schoolmaster's Empire: Race, Conquest, and the Centralization of Common Schooling in California, 1848–1879,” History of Education Quarterly 56, no. 3 (Aug. 2016), 445–72.

84 Petrzela, Classroom Wars, 213. Thanks also to Mark Brilliant for his restatement of this point in his review of Petrzela's book, History of Education Quarterly 56, no. 3 (Aug. 2016), 505–08.

85 For analysis of this issue using Nancy Fraser's distinction between “the politics of recognition” and “the politics of redistribution,” see Dumas, Michael, “Theorizing Redistribution and Recognition in Urban Education Research: How Do We Get Dictionaries at Cleveland?” in Theory and Educational Research: Toward Critical Social Explanation ed. Anyon, Jean (New York: Routledge, 2009), 81108 . Dumas focuses on Seattle as a case. For further evidence of how the idea of multiculturalism helped forge a convergence of interest around Seattle's 1977 desegregation plan, see Siqueland, Ann LaGrelius, Without a Court Order: The Desegregation of Seattle's Schools (Seattle: Madrona Publishers, 1981); and Dumas, A Cultural Political Economy of School Desegregation in Seattle,” Teachers College Record 113, no. 4 (April 2011), 703–34.

86 For example, see the “Epilogue” and “Conclusion,” respectively of Zimmerman, Jonathan, Whose America? Culture Wars in the Public Schools (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002); and Zoë Burkholder, Color in the Classroom.

At the time the essay was drafted, he and the remaining authors were graduate students in the history of education at the University of Washington. The authors are grateful for feedback on earlier versions of this essay from the scholars who participated in our session on this topic at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the History of Education Society in St. Louis: David Wallace Adams, Carlos Blanton, Ruben Flores, David Garcia, Matthew Kelley, Adrea Lawrence, and Laura Muñoz.

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