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The Medicalization of Education: A Historiographic Synthesis

  • Stephen Petrina (a1)

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We believed we had overwhelming evidence that to know a child better is to love it more.

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1 Hall, G. Stanley, Life and Confessions of a Psychologist (New York: Appleton, 1923), 392.

2 Cohen, Sol. “The Mental Hygiene Movement, The Development of Personality and the School: The Medicalization of American Education.History of Education Quarterly, 23 (Summer 1983): 123149; idem, “The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Essay Review.” History of Education Quarterly 30 (1990): 371–79; Robert Castell, Francoise Castell and Ann Lovell, The Psychiatric Society trans. Arthur Goldhammer (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982); Leifer, Ronald. “Introduction: The Medical Model as the Ideology of the Therapeutic State.” The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 11 (Autumn 1990): 247–258; Polsky, Andrew J., The Rise of the Therapeutic State (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991); Reiff, Philip, The Triumph of the Therapeutic (New York: Harper & Row, 1966); Shea, Christine Mary, “The Ideology of Mental Health and the Emergence of the Therapeutic Liberal State.” PhD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1980.

3 Conrad, Peter. “Medicalization and Social Control.Annual Review of Sociology 18 (April 1992): 209232; Conrad, Peter and Schneider, Joseph. “Looking at Levels of Medicalization.” Social Science and Medicine (January 1980): 75–79; Fox, Renee. “The Medicalization and Demedicalization of American Society.” Daedalus 106 (January 1977): 9–22; Illich, Ivan, Medical Nemesis (London: Calder & Boyars, 1975), 31; Illich, Ivan, Limits to Medicine (London: McClelland & Stewart, 1976); Zola, Irving K. “Medicine as an Institution of Social Control.” Sociological Review 20 (October 1972), 487–504; Strong, P.M. “Sociological Imperialism and the Profession of Medicine: A Critical Examination of the Thesis of Medical Imperialism.” Social Science and Medicine 13 (February 1979): 199–215; Zola, Irving K., Socio-Medical Inquiries (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1983), 295.

4 On mental hygiene, see Cohen. “The Mental Hygiene Movement”; Idem, “The Mental Hygiene Movement and the Development of Personality: Changing Conceptions of the American College and University, 1920–1940.” History of Higher Education Annual 2 (1982): 65–93; Idem, “the School and Personality Development: Intellectual History,” in Historical Inquiry in Education ed. John Best, H. (Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association, 1983), 109137; Idem, “Every School a Clinic: A Historical Perspective on Modern Education,” in From the Campus: Perspectives on the School Reform Movement eds. Sol Cohen and Lewis C. Solmon (New York: Praeger, 1989), 18–33; Grob, Gerald N., Mental Illness and American Society, 1815–1940 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983), 144–78; Mathews, Fred, “In Defense of Common Sense: Mental Hygiene as Ideology in Twentieth-Century America,” Prospects 4 (Fall 1979): 459–516; Richardson, Theresa, The Century of the Child: The Mental Hygiene Movement and Social Policy in the United States and Canada (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989); Shea, “The Ideology of Mental Health.”

5 Of course, in the 1920s and 1930s, at $10.00 per hour, or an average of $3,000 to $6,000 for two years of treatment, psychoanalysis was quite limited as a therapeutic procedure. As a result, permutations, rather than strict, technical forms of psychoanalysis, were popularized in sectors such as education. On this, see Petrina, Stephen, “Luella Cole, Sidney Pressey and Educational Psychoanalysis, 1921–1931,” History of Education Quarterly 44 (Fall 2004): 524–53. For fees and services, see Hyman, Harold T.The Value of Psychoanalysis as a Therapeutic Procedure.Journal of the American Medical Association 107 (August 1936): 326–29.

6 Coles, Gerald, The Learning Mystique (New York: Ballantine, 1987); Franklin, Barry, From “Backwardness” to “At-Risk” (New York: State University of New York Press, 1994); Conrad, Peter, Identifying Hyperactive Children: The Medicalization of Deviant Behavior (London: Lexington, 1976); Decker, Jeroen. “An Educational Regime: Medical Doctors, Schoolmasters, Jurists and the Education of Retarded and Deprived Children in the Netherlands around 1900.” History of Education 25 (July 1996): 255–268; Erchak, Gerald M., and Richard Rosenfeld, “Learning Disabilities, Dyslexia, and the Medicalization of the Classroom,” in Images of Issues: Typifying Contemporary Social Problems ed. Joel Best (New York: Aldine De Gryter, 1989), 7997; Harlow, Steve. “The Medicalization of the Classroom: The Constriction of Difference in Our Schools.” Holistic Education Review 2 (Summer 1989): 12–17; Harris, Bernard, The Health of the School Child: A History of the School Medical Service in England and Wales (Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1995); Hurt, John S., Outside the Mainstream: A History of Special Education (London: B.T. Batsford, 1988); Lazerson, Marvin, “The Origins of Special Education,” in Special Education Policies: Their History, Implementation and Finance eds. Jay Chambers and William T. Hartman (Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1983), 15–47; Parker, David, “‘A Convenient Dispensary': Elementary Education and the Influence of the School Medical Service, 1907–39,” History of Education 27 (February 1998): 59–83; Reynolds, Maynard C. “An Historical Perspective: The Delivery of Special Education to Mildly Disabled and At-Risk Students.” Remedial and Special Education 10 (November 1989): 7–11; Sigmond, Scott, Radical Analysis of Special Education: Focus on Historical Development and Learning Disabilities (New York: Routledge, 1987); Thompson, Gerald. “A Fondness for Charts and Children: Scientific Progressivism in Vancouver Schools, 1920–50.” Historical Studies in Education 12 (Spring/Fall, 2000): 111–128; Winzer, Margaret, The History of Special Education: From Isolation to Integration (Washington, DC: Galludet University Press, 1994); Wright, David and Digby, Anne, eds., From Idiocy to Mental Deficiency: Historical Perspectives on People With Learning Disabilities (New York: Routledge, 1996). On the sociology of medicalization, see Conrad, Peter. “Medicalization and Social Control.” Annual Review of Sociology 18 (Spring 1992): 209–232; Fox, Renee. “The Medicalization and Demedicalization of American Society.” Daedalus 106 (January 1977): 9–22; Illich, Ivan, Medical Nemesis (London: Calder & Boyars, 1975); Illich, Ivan, Limits to Medicine (London: McClelland & Stewart, 1976).

7 Bredberg, Elizabeth, “Writing Disability History: Problems, Perspectives and Sources,” Disability & Society 14 (June 1999): 189201; Carrier, James G., “Sociology and Special Education: Differentiation and Allocation in Mass Education,” American Journal of Education 94 (May 1986): 281–312; Saint-Loup, Aude de, “A History of Misunderstandings: A History of the Deaf,” Diogenes 44 (Summer 1996): 1–25; Safford, Philip L. and Elizabeth Safford, A History of Childhood and Disability (New York: Teachers College Press, 1996); Geraldine Scholl, T., Ed., Foundations of Education for Blind and Visually Handicapped Children and Youth: Theory and Practice (New York: American Foundation for the Blind, 1986); Thomson, Rosemarie Garland, Extraordinary Bodies: Prefiguring Physical Disability in American Culture and Literature (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997); Winzer, ibid; Wright, David and Digby, Ann, From Idiocy to Mental Deficiency: Historical Perspectives on People with Learning Disabilities (New York: Routledge, 1996).

8 Dowbiggin, Ian R., Keeping America Sane: Psychiatry and Eugenics in the United States and Canada, 1880–1940 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997); Lombardo, Paul. “Medicine, Eugenics and the Supreme Court: From Coercive Sterilization to Reproductive Freedom.” Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy 13 (Fall 1996): 125; Lowe, Roy A. “Eugenicists, Doctors and the Quest for National Efficiency: An Educational Crusade, 1900–1939.” History of Education 8 (April 1979): 293–306; Reilly, Philp R., The Surgical Solution: A History of Involuntary Sterilization in the United States (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press); Selden, Steven, Inheriting Shame: Eugenics and Race in America (New York: Teachers College Press, 1999).

9 Brown, JoAnne, The Definition of a Profession (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992).

10 Horn, Margo, Before It's Too Late: The Child Guidance Movement in the United States, 1922–1945 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989); Jones, Kathleen W., Taming the Troublesome Child: American Families, Child Guidance, and the Limits of Psychiatric Authority (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999; Platt, Anthony, The Child Savers: The Invention of Delinquency (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969); Richardson, Theresa, “Revisiting the Medicalization of Childhood and the Colonization of Children's Policy by Psychologists and Psychiatrists, Review of Jones, Kathleen W.Taming the Troublesome Child” H-Net Reviews in the Humanities & Social Sciences (February 2000): http://www.h-net.org; Schlossman, Steven, Love and the American Delinquent: The Theory and Practice of Progressive Juvenile Justice, 1825–1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977). See also Addams, Jane, The Child, the Clinic and the Court (New York: New Republic, 1925); Healy, William, The Individual Delinquent (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1922).

11 Daglish, N.D.Robert Morant's Hidden Agenda?: The Origins of the Medical Treatment of Schoolchildren.History of Education 19 (February 1990): 139148; Duffy, John. “School Vaccination: The Precursor to School Medical Inspection.” Journal of the History of Medicine and the Allied Sciences 33 (July 1978): 344–355; Gleason, Mona. “Race, Class and Health: School Medical Inspection and “Healthy Children” in British Columbia, 1890 to 1930.” Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 19 (January 2002): 95–112; Kirk, David. “Foucault and the Limits of Corporeal Regulation: The Emergence, Consolidation and Decline of School Medical Inspection and Physical Training in Australia, 1909–1930.” International Journal of the History of Sport 13 (August 1996): 114–131; Kirk, David and Twigg, Karen. “Regulating Australian Bodies: Eugenics, Anthropometrics and School Medical Inspection in Victoria, 1900–1940.” History of Education Review 23 (February 1994): 19–37; Potts, Patricia. “Medicine, Morals, and Mental Deficiency: The Contribution of Doctors to the Development of Special Education in England.” Oxford Review of Education 9 (April 1983): 181–196; Stephen, T. Woolworth, “Conflict, Collaboration and Concession: A Study of the Rise and Fall of Medical Authority in the Seattle Public Schools, 1892–1922.” PhD diss., University of Washington, 2002.

12 Conrad, Peter. “The Discovery of Hyperkinesis: Notes on the Medicalization of Deviant Behavior.Social Problems 23 (October 1975): 1221; Idem, Identifying.

13 Rapeer, Louis, Essentials of Educational Hygiene (New York: Scribners, 1915), 130–1. See also Burnham, William, “Outlines of School Hygiene,” Pedagogical Seminary 2 (February 1892): 9–71; King, Lester, Transformations in American Medicine (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991), 218–225; Rosen, George, The Structure of American Medical Practice, 1875–1941 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983), 13–36; Starr, Paul, The Social Transformation of American Medicine (New York: Basic Books, 1982), 180–196.

14 This integration of medicine and psychology partially underwrote the reason why Hall went out of his way to host Freud during his first American visit in 1909. Stanley, G. Hall. “The Medical Profession and Children.” Pedagogical Seminary 15 (February 1908): 207218, 209, 215; Sidis, Boris. “The Nature and Principles of Psychology.American Journal of Insanity 56 (July 1899): 41–52, 41. On Hall and Medicine, see Dorothy, Ross G. Stanley Hall: The Psychologist as Prophet (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972), 393–97; Burnham, William H., Great Teachers and Mental Health: A Study of Seven Educational Hygienists (New York: Appleton, 1926), 189–247.

15 Christopher Goetz, Michel Bonduelle and Toby Gelfand, Charcot: Constructing Neurology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); Goldstein, Jan, Console and Classify: The French Psychiatric Profession in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Pressy 1987); Janet, Pierre, “Pierre Janet,” in A History of Psychology in Autobiography ed. Carl Murchison (Worcester, MA: Clark University Press, 1930), 123133; Micale, Mark S. “The Salpetriere in the Age of Charcot.” Journal of Contemporary History 20 (October 1985): 703–731; Micale, Mark S. “Hysteria and its Historiography: The Future Perspective.” History of Psychiatry, (March 1990): 33–124.

16 Sharp, Stella E. “Individual Psychology: A Study in Psychological Method.” American Journal of Psychology, (April 1899): 329391; Wolf, Theta H., Alfred Binet (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), 143–89; Zenderland, Leila, Measuring Minds: Henry Herbert Goddard and the Origins of American Intelligence Testing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 71–120. For historiography of intelligence testing, see Petrina, Stephen. “Getting a Purchase on ‘The School of the Future’ and Its Constituent Commodities: Histories and Historiographies of Technologies.” History of Education Quarterly 42 (Spring 2002): 75–111, on 86–91; idem, “‘The Never-To-Be-Forgotten Investigation': Cole, Luella W., Sidney Pressey, L. and Mental Surveying in Indiana, 1918–1921,” History of Psychology 4 (August 2001): 245–271.

17 Editors, “Announcement,” Journal of Psycho-Asthenics 1 (September 1896): 3435.

18 Seaver, Edwin. “Medical Inspection in Public Schools: Discussion.Journal of Proceedings and Addresses of the National Education Association 40 (July 1901): 238–39, 239; Zirkle, Homer W. “Discussion.” Journal of Proceedings and Addresses of the National Education Association 42 (July 1903): 784–85, 784; Seaver, Edwin P. “The Medical Visitors.” Superintendent's Report, (1895): 76–79, Boston Archives and Records Management Division; Brooks, Stratton D., “Report of the Director of School Hygiene,” Superintendent's Report (1908): 102–48, Boston Archives and Records Management Division; Duffy, John. “The Early Days of the School Health Movement.” Conspectus of History 1 (October 1981): 43–54; Rosen, George, A History of Public Health, expanded edition (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1993), 340–41; Gulick, Luther H. and Leonard Ayres, Medical Inspection of Schools (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1908). See also Burnham, John C. “Medical Inspection of Prostitutes in America in the Nineteenth Century.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 45 (January 1971): 203–211; Yew, Elizabeth. “Medical Inspection of Immigrants at Ellis Island, 1891–1924.” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 56 (June 1980): 488–503.

19 Laura Azzarito, Poetra Munro and Melinda Soloman. “Unsettling the Body: The Institutionalization of Physical Activity at the Turn of the 20th Century.” Quest 56 (November 2004): 377396; Cavallo, Dominick, Muscles and Morals: Organized Playgrounds and Urban Reform, 1880–1920 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981), 32–38; Conant, W.M., “The Educational Aspects of College Athletics,” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 18 (February 1894): 20; Gulick, Luther H. “Physical Education: A New Profession.” Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education 5 (July 1890): 59–66; Green, Harvey, Fit For America: Health, Fitness and Sport in American Society (New York: Pantheon, 1986), 181–215; Hughes, James. “Physical Training as a Factor in Character Building.” Journal of Proceedings and Addresses of the National Education Association 40 (July 1896): 911–18; Park, Roberta. “Science, Service and the Professionalization of Physical Education, 1885–1905.” Research Quarterly in Exercise and Sport 57 (Spring 1987): 7–20; Park, Roberta. “Physiologists, Physicians, and Physical Educators: Nineteenth Century Biology and Exercise, ‘Hygienic and Educative'.” Journal of Sport History 14 (Spring 1987): 28–60; Verbrugge, Martha. “Recreating the Body: Women's Physical Education and the Science of Sex Differences in America, 1900–1940.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71 (1997): 273–304.

20 Kimberlin, N.D.Physical Training in Public Schools.Journal of Proceedings and Addresses of the National Education Association 39 (July 1895): 296–97, on 297.

21 The Child Health Organization, formed in 1918, coined the phrase “health education” in 1919 to distinguish new practices from the older instruction in hygiene. Woodward, Charles and Williamson, Pauline, The Laws of Health and How to Teach Them (New York: Charles E. Merril, 1925). On the history of health education, see Conrad, Howard. “Historical Steps in the Development of Health Education.” Mind and Body 42 (May 1935): 8182; Means, Richard K., A History of Health Education in the United States (Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1962); Idem, Historical Perspectives on School Health (Auburn: Auburn University Press, 1975); Taylor, John, “A History of the Formation, Development, and Growth of the Department of Health Education at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1921 to 1993.” PhD diss., Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1996. On the history of the body and physical culture, see Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette. “History and Critical Theories: Discursive Play and Body Work” Pedagogy, Culture and Society 8 (2000): 249–261; William Joyce, ed. The Illustrated History of Physical Culture (London: Alan Radley, 2001); Kirk, David, Schooling Bodies: School Practice and Public Discourse, 1880–1950 (London: Leicester University Press, 1998); Massey, John, American Adonis: Tony Sansone, the First Male Physique Icon (New York: Universe, 2004); Park, Roberta. “History of Research on Physical Activity and Health: Selected Topics from 1867 to the 1950s.” Quest 47 (August 1995): 274–287; Idem, “A Decade of the Body: Researching and Writing About the History of Health, Fitness, Exercise and Sport, 1983–1993.” Journal of Sport History 21 (Spring 1994): 59–82.

22 Apple, Rima, “Science Gendered: Nutrition in the United States, 1840–1940,” in The Science and Culture of Nutrition eds. Harmke Kamminga and Andrew Cunningham (Atlanta, 1995), 129154; Barnett, L. Margaret, “Every Man His Own Physician: Dietetic Fads, 1890–1914,” in Science and Culture of Nutrition eds. Harmke Kamminga & Andrew Cunningham (Atlanta: Roclopi, 1995), 155–178; Clarke, Robert, Ellen Swallow: The Woman who Founded Ecology (Chicago: Follett, 1973), 123–140; Cutter, Ephraim. “Address on Dietetics—Medical Food Ethics Now and to Come.” Journal of the American Medical Association 20 (March 1893): 238–244, on 242; Hunt, Caroline, The Daily Meals of School Children, U.S. Bureau of Education Bulletin No. 3 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1909); Hunt, Caroline, The Life of Ellen H. Richards (Boston: Whitcomb and Barrows, 1912), 215–229; Kerley, Charles G., “The Nutrition on School Children,” Teachers College Record 6 (March 1905): 85–89; Levensteine, Harry, Revolution at the Table: The Transformation of the American Diet (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 44–59; Makechnie, Horace. “Problems in Feeding School Children.” Journal of the American Medical Association 30 (January 1898): 56–57; Miller, A.E. “Hygienic Management of Children.” Journal of the American Medical Association 31 (December 1898): 1556–58; Moran, Mary H. “Boston High School Lunches.” Journal of Home Economics 2 (April 1910): 181–84; Moran, Mary H. and Julia Pulsiler, Boston's Public School Lunches (Boston: Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 1908); Oppenheim, Nathan, The Care of the Child in Health (New York: Macmillan, 1900); Richards, Ellen H., “The Food of School Children and Young Students,” in Plain Words About Food: The Rumford Kitchen Leaflets ed. Ellen Richards (Boston: Home Science Publishing Company, 1893/1899), 89–103; Idem, “The Prophylactic and Therapeutic Value of Food,” in Plain Words About Food: The Rumford Kitchen Leaflets ed. Ellen Richards, H. (Boston: Home Science Publishing Company, 1893/1899), 104–114; Idem, “Public Kitchens in Relation to School Lunches and to Restaurants,” Plain Words About Food: The Rumford Kitchen Leaflets ed. Ellen Richards, H. (Boston: Home Science Publishing Company, 1893/1899), 161–65; Idem, “Luncheons for School Children.” New England Kitchen Magazine 3 (May 1895): 51–54.

23 Rice, Thurman B., The Hoosier Health Officer: A Biography of John N. Hurty (Indianapolis: Indiana State Board of Health, 1946), 134–35; Morrison, Gilbert B., “School Architecture and Hygiene,” in American Education ed. Nicholas Murray Butler (New York: L.B. Lyon Company, 1900), 430; Dressler quoted in Garber, John A., “The School Janitor,” U.S. Bureau of Education Bulletin 24 (1922): 3; May Ayres, Jesse Williams and Thomas Wood, Healthful Schools (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1918); Burrage, Severance and Henry Baily, T., School Sanitation and Decoration (New York: D.C. Heath, 1899); Kilham, W., “The Hygienic Construction of Schoolhouses from an Architect's Standpoint,” Fourth International Congress on School Hygiene Transactions, Vol. II (1914): 35–38. On the history of school sanitation, see Duffy, John, The Sanitarians: A History of American Public Health (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990), 175–220; Idem, “School Buildings and the Health of American School Children in the Nineteenth Century,” in Healing and History ed. Charles Rosenberg (New York: Dawson, 1979), 161–178: Hoy, Suellen, Chasing Dirt: The American Pursuit of Cleanliness (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 87–149; Petrina, “Getting a Purchase”; Tomes, Nancy, Gospel of Germs: Men, Women and American Life (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998); Idem, “The Private Side of Public Health: Sanitary Science, Domestic Hygiene, and Germ Theory, 1870–1900,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 64 (Winter 1990): 509–539.

24 Rice's work through the 1890s was published in two volumes. Rice, J.M., The Public School System of the United States (New York: Century, 1893), 9; Rice, J.M., Scientific Management in Education (New York: Hinds, Noble & Eldridge, 1914), 55, 27, 136. On Rice, see Cremin, Lawrence, The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, 1816–1957 (New York: Knopf, 1961), 3–8; Levine, Murray, “The Academic Achievement Test: Its Historical Context and Social Functions,” American Psychologist 31 (June 1976): 228–238. See also, Thorndike, Edward L. “Educational Diagnosis.” Science 37 (January 1913): 133–142. On malpractice, see Foster, William F. “Educational Malpractice: Educate or Litigate.” Canadian Journal of Education 11 (March 1986): 122–29.

25 Witmer, Lightner. “The Organization of Practical Work in Psychology.The Psychological Review 4 (January 1897): 116–17; Idem, “Clinical Psychology,” The Psychological Clinic 1 (March 1907): 1–9, 4, 1, 8. For Witmer see French, Joseph. “On the Conception, Birth, and Early Development of School Psychology.” American Psychologist 39 (September 1984): 976–987; McReynalds, Paul, Lightner Witmer: His Life and Times (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1997); O'Donnell, John. “The Clinical Psychology of Lightner Witmer.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 15 (Winter 1979): 3–17; Richards, Barry. “Lightner Witmer and the Project of Psychotechnology.” History of the Human Sciences 1 (Winter 1988): 201–219; Wallin, J.E. Wallace. “Handicapped Children.” American Journal of School Hygiene 4 (September 1920): 29–48, on 44; Merrill, Maud. “Oscillation and Progress in Clinical Psychology.” Journal of Consulting Psychology 15 (July 1951): 281–89, on 284.

26 Knapp, Philip C. “The Influence of Overwork in School in the Production of Nervous Diseases in Childhood.” Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 85 (July 1896): 3739, on 37, 38; Guye, D.On Aprosexia and Headache in School Children.Practitioner 47 (September 1891): 198–201, on 198; Punton, John. “Nervous Disorders of Children: Their Relation to School Life and Work.” American Medicine 13 (February 1907): 79–86, on 84; Pritchard, William B. “The Hygiene and Management of Nervous Children.” Archive of Pediatrics 27 (July 1910): 499–505, on 503. See also Archibald Church, “Nervous Children.” Archives of Pediatrics 23 (September 1906): 678–681, 700–705; Editor. Precocious Children.” Archive of Pediatrics 14 (February 1897): 116–18.

27 On the vivisection of children, see Belais, Diana. “Vivisection Animal and Human.Cosmopolitan 49 (July 1910): 267273; Lederer, Susan. “Hideyo Noguchi's Luerin Experiment and the Antivivisectionists.” Isis 76 (March 1985): 31–48; Idem, “Orphans as Guinea Pigs: American Children and Medical Experimenters, 1890–1930,” in In the Name of the Child: Health and Welfare, 1810–1940 ed. Roger Cooter (New York: Routledge: 1992), 96–123; Idem, Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America Before the Second World War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), 40–46, 79–85; Lederer, Susan and Grodin, Michael, “Historical Overview: Pediatric Experimentation,” in Children as Research Subjects eds. Michael Grodin and Leonard Glantz, H. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 3–28; Searle, G.M., “Murder in the Name of Science,” Catholic World 70 (July 1903): 493–504.

28 Bradley, Charles. “A Children's Hospital for Neurologic and Behavior Disorders.Journal of the American Medical Association 107 (August 1936): 650653; Idem,. “The Behavior of Children Receiving Benzedrine.” American Journal of Psychiatry 94 (November 1937): 577–585, on 578, 584; Idem, Bradley, Charles and Bowen, M. “Amphetamine (Benzedrine) Therapy of Children's Behavior Disorders.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 11 (January 1941): 92–103; Idem, “Benzedrine and Dexedrine in the Treatment of Children's Behavior Disorders.” Pediatrics 5 (January 1950): 24–37; Grinspoon, Lester and Singer, Susan B. “Amphetamines in the Treatment of Hyperkinetic Children.” Harvard Education Review 43 (November 1973): 515–555; Molitch, Mathew and Sullivan, John. “The Effect of Benzedrine Sulfate on Children taking the New Stanford Achievement Test.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 1 (October 1937): 519–522; Hartmann, Max and Panizzon, Leandro, assignors to Ciba Pharmaceutical Products Inc., “Pyridine and Piperdine Compounds and Process of Making Same,” U.S. Patent 2,507,631 (May 1950): 1–3; “Ritalin (methylphenidate),” Physician's Desk Reference, 11th ed. (Oradell, NJ: Medical Economics, 1956), 441–42. On the history of Ritalin and the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, see Conrad, “The Discovery of Hyperkinesis”; Idem, Identifying Hyperactive Children: the Medicalization of Deviant Behavior (Toronto: D.C. Heath, 1976); Miller, Toby and Marie Leger, C., “A Very Childish Moral Panic: Ritalin,” Journal of Medical Humanities 24 (Summer 2003): 9–33. For Ritalin controversy, Vinnedge, Harlan, “Drugs for Children: Politicians Who Would Practice Medicine,” New Republic 164 (March 1971): 13–15.

29 Woolworth, “Conflict,” 278–298; On antivivisection, see Lederer, “Hideyo Noguchi.” For anti-vaccination, see Davidovich, Nadav, “Homeopathy and Anti-Vaccinationism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century,” in The Politics of Healing ed. Robert Johnston, D. (New York: Routledge, 2004), 1128; Kaufman, Martin. “The American Anti-Vaccinationists and Their Arguments.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 41 (September 1967): 463–478; Porter, Dorothy and Porter, Roy. “The Politics of Prevention: Anti-Vaccinationism and Public Health in Nineteenth-Century England.” Medical History 32 (July 1988): 231–252. On Medical Freedom and allopathic hegemony, see Petrina, Stephen, Medicalizing Liberty in the Kingdom of Evils: Education, Medicine, Psychotherapeutics, Foucault (unpublished manuscript).

30 Reed, Charles A. “The Medical Inspection of Children and Medical Freedom.” Journal of Proceedings and Addresses of the National Education Association 50 (1912): 273–78; “News and Comment: The School Hygiene Department of Boston, Mass.” Psychological Clinic 2 (1908): 251–52, 251. On the progress of medicine in schools, see Lear, Julia Graham. “School Based Services and Adolescent Health: Past, Present and Future.Adolescent Medicine 7 (June 1996): 163–180; Averill, Lawrence A. “The Present Status of School Health Work in the 100 Largest Cities of the United States.” American Journal of School Hygiene 1 (February 1917): 30–38, 53–62; Idem, Educational Hygiene (Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1926); Baker, Josephine, Child Hygiene (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1925); Gulick, and Ayers, , Medical Inspection, 167–180; Hoag, Ernest B. and Lewis Terman, M., Health Work in the Schools (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914); Ingen, Philip van, “History of Child Welfare in the United States,” in A Half Century of Public Health ed. Mazyk Ravenel, P. (New York: Public Health Association, 1921), 290–334; Rapeer, Essentials; Ready, Marie M., “Hygiene and Physical Education,” Biennial Survey of Education, 1928–1930, U.S. Office of Education Bulletin No. 20 (1931): 353–380; Rogers, James F., School Health Activities in 1930, U.S. Office of Education Pamphlet No. 21 (May 1931); Idem, “Health Services in City Schools,” in Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1938–40 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1942), 1–50; Small, Willard, Educational Hygiene, Bureau of Education Bulletin No. 33 (1923).

31 For Cole and Pressey's training, see Petrina, “Luella Cole, Sidney Pressey.” On psychological internships and training, see Crane, Loyal. “A Plea for the Training of Psychologists.Journal of Abnormal Psychology 20 (July 1955): 228233; Fernberger, Samuel. “The Training of Mental Hygienists.” Psychological Clinic 14 (October 1930): 137–142; Morrow, William. “The Development of Psychological Internship Training.” Journal of Consulting Psychology 10 (July 1946): 165–183; O'Donnell, John, The Origins of Behaviorism: American Psychology, 1870–1920 (New York: New York University Press, 1985), 195–97; Shakow, David. “An Internship for Psychologists (with Special Reference to Hospitals).” Journal of Consulting Psychology 2 (April 1938): 73–76; Terman, Lewis. “Professional Training for Mental Hygiene.” Popular Science Monthly 80 (March 1912): 289–297; Watson, Robert I. “Training of Clinical Psychologists.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 22 (Spring 1952): 140–152; Watson, Robert I. “A Brief History of Clinical Psychology.” Psychological Bulletin 50 (September 1953): 321–346; Witmer, Lightner. “The Hospital School.” Psychological Clinic 1 (July 1907): 138–146; Idem, “Courses in Psychology at the Summer School of the University of Pennsylvania.” Psychological Clinic 4 (November 1911): 245–273.

32 Who is qualified to administer examinations, make diagnoses, and prescribe treatments? Of course, the relations between medicine and psychology were not without disputes. See for example Burnham, John C. “Psychiatry, Psychology and the Progressive Movement.” American Quarterly 12 (October 1960): 457465; Idem, “The Struggle Between Physicians and Paramedical Personnel in American Psychiatry, 1917–41.” Journal of the History of Medicine 29 (January 1974): 93–106; Goode, William J. “Encroachment, Charlatanism, and the Emerging Profession: Psychology, Sociology, and Medicine.” American Sociological Review 25 (October 1960): 902–914; Shakow, David. “Psychology and Psychiatry: A Dialogue.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 19 (March 1949): 191–210, 381–396; Watson, Robert I. “Historical Perspectives on the relationship of Psychologists to Medical Research.” Neuropsychiatry 6 (January 1960): 51–59.

33 Neoscholastic hygiene is a derivative of the hygiene of instruction and refers to the use of clinical methods to reaffirm the authority of disciplinary content of school subjects. Averill, Lawrence A., The Hygiene of Instruction (New York: Houghton Miffiin, 1928); Rivkin, Harry N., Educating for Adjustment: The Classroom Applications of Mental Hygiene (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1936).

34 On educational psychoanalysis, see Petrina, “Luella Cole, Sidney Pressey”; Leo Brueckner. “Diagnostic Analysis of Classroom Procedures.” Elementary School Journal 27 (January 1926): 2540; Brueckner, Leo and Melby, Ernest, Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1931); Cole, Luella, “The Use of Quantitative Measurement in Educational Diagnosis and in Evaluating Remedial Instruction,” in Quantitative Measurement in Instruction in Higher Education ed. Stuart Courtis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1930), 164–177; Good, Carter. “Research in Secondary School Methods.” Journal of Educational Research 22 (January 1930): 9–30; Metcalf, Arthur A. “Diagnostic Testing and Remedial Teaching.” School Executives Magazine 49 (June 1930): 358–360; Monroe, Marion. “Diagnostic and Remedial Procedures in Reading.” Educational Record 19 (February 1938): 105–113; Paulu, Emanuel, Diagnostic Testing and Remedial Teaching (New York, D.C. Heath and Company, 1924); Rogers, Bertha and Baker, Teresa. “A Diagnostic and Remedial Activity in Supervision.” Journal of Educational Research 5 (January 1922): 21–26; Smith, Eugene. “The Use of Tests and Measurements in the Three R's: A Symposium.” Progressive Education 5 (March 1928): 136–152; Thorndike, “Educational Diagnosis.” On textbook histories, see Petrina, Stephen. “Getting a Purchase on ‘The School of Tomorrow’ and Its Constituent Commodities: Histories and Historiographies of Technologies.” History of Education Quarterly 42 (April 2002): 75–111.

35 On clinical methods, see Watson, Robert I., Readings in the Clinical Method in Psychology (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1949); Idem, The Clinical Method in Psychology (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1951). On the complete act of instruction, see Ruch, Giles M., The Objective or New-Type Examination (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1929), 9; Grave, Charlotte E., “Twenty-Five Years of Progress at the Woods Schools,” in Twenty-Five Years of Progress in Education eds. (Langhorne, PA: Child Research Clinic of the Woods Schools, 1939), 12; Bettelheim, Bruno and Sylvester, Emmy. “A Therapeutic Milieu.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 18 (April 1948): 191–200; Oakland, Thomas, “Diagnostic Help 5 ¢: Examiner Is In,” Psychology in the Schools 6 (1969): 359–367, on 360.

36 Sutton, Mary. “Medical Sociology in the Public Schools.New York Medical Journal 108 (December 1913): 1164–66, on 1164. On early medical sociology, see Davis, Kingsley. “Mental Hygiene and the Class Structure.” Psychiatry 1 (January 1938): 55–65, on 65; Laswell, Harold D., Psychopathology and Politics (New York: Viking, 1930); Mills, C. Wright. “The Professional Ideology of Social Pathologists.” American Journal of Sociology 49 (1943): 165–180; Parsons, Talcott. “Illness and the Role of the Physician: A Sociological Perspective.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 21 (October 1951): 452–460; Wirth, Louis. “Clinical Sociology.” American Journal of Sociology 27 (January 1931): 49–66.

37 Freidson, Eliot, Profession of Medicine: A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1971), 172, 252. See also, Abbott, Andrew, The System of Professions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988); Atkinson, Paul, Medical Talk and Medical Work: The Liturgy of the Clinic (London: Sage, 1995); Caroline Cox and Adrienne Mead, eds., A Sociology of Medical Practice (London: Collier-Macmillan, 1975); Etzioni, Amatai, The Semi-Professions and Their Organization: Teachers, Nurses, Social Workers (New York: Free Press, 1969); Freidson, Eliot, Doctoring Together: A Study of Professional Social Control (New York: Elsevier, 1975); Idem, Medical Work in America: Essays on Health Care (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989); Eliot Freidson and Judith Lorber, eds., Medical Men and Their Work (Chicago: Aldine, 1972); Merton, Robert K., Sociological Ambivalence and Other Essays (New York: Free Press, 1976).

38 Parsons, Talcott, “Definitions of Health and Illness in Light of American Values and Social Structure,” in Patients, Physicians and Illness ed. E. Gartly Jaco (London Collier Macmillan, 1973), 140–41 Warner, John H., “The Fall and Rise of Professional Mystery,” in The Laboratory Revolution in Medicine eds. Andrew Cunningham and Perry Williams (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 141.

39 Foucault, Michel, The Birth of the Clinic trans. A.M. Sheridan Smith (New York: Vintage, 1973/1994), xii, xv, xviii, 33–34; Metcalf, “Diagnostic Testing,” 360; Foucault quoted in Colin Gordon, ed., Power/Knowledge (Brighton: Harvester, 1980), 166.

40 On diversification of educational hygiene, see Veselak, Kenneth E. “Historical Steps in the Development of the Modern School Health Program.” Journal of School Health 29 (July 1959): 262–69.

41 Signifying the marketability of psychotherapeutic knowledge for education, 650 Sylvan Learning Centers are operating in Canada and the United States and competing with the Educational Testing Service (ETS) to provide computerized testing and remedial services to place students on the road to good academic health. Companies such as Sylvan and the ETS's Princeton Review are coordinating their services with public schools to exploit the $2.5 billion test preparation market. Hawkins, Denise. “Multiple-Choice Mushroom.Black Issues in Higher Education 11 (February 1995): 810, 12; Marguerite Clark, George Madaus, Catherine Horn and Miguel Ramos. “The Marketplace for Educational Testing.” Statements 2 (April 2001): 1–10; Haney, Walter M., George Madaus, F. and Robert Lyons, The Fractured Marketplace for Standardized Testing (Boston: Kluwer, 1993); Phelps, Richard P. “Estimating the Cost of Standardized Student Testing in the United States.” Journal of Educational Finance 24 (Winter 2000): 343–380; Saks, Peter, Standardized Minds (Cambridge: Perseus, 1999), 221–230.

42 The U.S. Congress passed The Child Medication Safely Act of 2003 “to protect children and their parents from being coerced into administering a controlled substance in order to attend, and for other purposes.” On trends in methylphenidate uses, see William Cooper, Gerald Hickson, Catherine Fuchs, Patrick Arbogast and Wayne Ray. “New Users of Antipsychotic Medications Among Children Enrolled in TennCare.” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 158 (August 2004): 753–59; Diller, Lawrence H., Running on Ritalin (New York: Bantam, 1998); Idem, “Lessons from Three Year Olds,” Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 23 (February 2002): S10–S12; Kolchik, Svetlana, “Use of Ritalin to Control Kids’ Behavior,” Honolulu Advisor (13 November 2002), http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2002/Nov/13/hf/hf01a.html; Anton Miller, Christopher Lalonde, Kimberlyn McGrail, M. and Robert Armstrong. “Prescription of Methylphenidate to Children and Youth, 1990–1996.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 165 (November 2001): 1489–494; Miller, and Leger, , “A Very Childish Moral Panic”; Robison, Linda M., David Sclar, Tracy Sclar, L. and Richard Galin. “National Trends in the Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and the Prescribing of Methylphenidate Among School-Age Children: 1990–1995.” Clinical Pediatrics 38 (April 1999): 209–217; Zito, Julie M., Daniel Safer, Susan dosReis, James Gardner, Myde Boles and Frances Lynch. “Trends in the Prescribing of Psychotropic Medications to Preschoolers.” Journal of the American Medical Association 283 (February 2000): 1025–030.

He is at work on a book on the automation of education, 1924–1984.

The Medicalization of Education: A Historiographic Synthesis

  • Stephen Petrina (a1)

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