Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The Incorporation of the Native American Past: Cultural Extermination, Archaeological Protection, and the Antiquities Act of 1906

  • Chip Colwell-Chanthaphonh (a1)
Abstract

In the late nineteenth century, while advocates garnered support for a law protecting America's archaeological resources, the U.S. government was seeking to dispossess Native Americans of traditional lands and eradicate native languages and cultural practices. That the government should safeguard Indian heritage in one way while simultaneously enacting policies of cultural obliteration deserves close scrutiny and provides insight into the ways in which archaeology is drawn into complex sociopolitical developments. Focusing on the American Southwest, this article argues that the Antiquities Act was fundamentally linked to the process of incorporating Native Americans into the web of national politics and markets. Whereas government programs such as boarding schools and missions sought to integrate living indigenous communities, the Antiquities Act served to place the Native American past under the explicit control of the American government and its agents of science. This story of archaeology is vital, because it helps explain the contemporary environment in which debates continue about the ownership and management of heritage.

Copyright
References
Hide All

Bibliography

Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875–1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997.
Ahern, Wilbert H.An Experiment Aborted: Returned Indian Students in the Indian School Service, 1881–1908.” Ethnohistory 44, no. 2 (1997): 263304.
Anyon, Roger, and T. J. Ferguson. “Cultural Resources Management at the Pueblo of Zuni, New Mexico, U.S.A.” Antiquity 69 (1995): 91330.
Biasi, Heidi M.The Antiquities Act of 1906 and Presidential Proclamations: A Retrospective and Prospective Analysis of President William J. Clinton's Quest to ‘Win the West’.” Buffalo Environmental Law Journal 9 (2002): 189244.
Brooks, James F. Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship and Community in the Southwest Borderlands. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
Chatters, James C. Ancient Encounters: Kennewick Man and the First Americans. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.
Churchill, Ward. A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1997.
Clum, John P.Es-Kin-in-Zin.” New Mexico Historical Review 4, no. 1 (1929): 127.
Collins, Charles. Apache Nightmare: The Battle at Cibecue Creek. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.
Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip. “Western Apache Oral Histories and Traditions of the Camp Grant Massacre.” American Indian Quarterly 27, no. 3&4 (2003): 63966.
Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip. “The Place of History: Social Meanings of the Archaeological Landscape in the San Pedro Valley of Arizona.” Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 2004.
Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Cunningham, Richard B. Archaeology, Relics, and the Law. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 1999.
Cutler, Bruce. The Massacre at Sand Creek. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997.
DeJong, David H.Forced to Abandon Their Farms: Water Deprivation and Starvation among the Gila River Pima, 1892–1904.” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 28, no. 3 (2004): 2956.
Deloria, Vine Jr. American Indian Policy in the Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.
Dobyns, Henry F.An Appraisal of Techniques with a New Hemispheric Estimate.” Current Anthropology 7, no. 4 (1966): 395416.
Doelle, William H.Threats to the Past.” Archaeology Southwest 15, no. 3 (2001): 1.
Dongoske, Kurt E., Mark Aldenderfer, and Karen Doehner, eds. Working Together: Native Americans and Archaeologists. Washington, D.C.: Society for American Archaeology, 2000.
Driver, Harold E.On the Population Nadir of Indians in the United States.” Current Anthropology 9, no. 4 (1968): 330.
Dumont, Clayton W. Jr.The Politics of Scientific Objections to Repatriation.” Wicazo Sa Review 18, no. 1 (2003): 10928.
Echo-Hawk, Roger C., and Walter R. Echo-Hawk. Battlefields and Burial Grounds: The Indian Struggle to Protect Ancestral Graves in the United States. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1994.
Eley, Geoff, and Ronald Grigor Suny. “Introduction: From the Moment of Social History to the Work of Cultural Representation.” In Becoming National, edited by Geoff Eley and Ronald Grigor Suny, 338. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Fewkes, J. Walter. “The Prehistoric Culture of Tusayan.” American Anthropologist 9, no. 5 (1896): 15174.
Fewkes, J. Walter. “Two Ruins Recently Discovered in the Red Rock Country, Arizona.” American Anthropologist 9, no. 8 (1896): 26383.
Fine-Dare, Kathleen S. Grave Injustice: The American Indian Repatriation Movement and NAGPRA. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002.
Fleisher, Kass. The Bear River Massacre and the Making of History. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004.
French, Laurence. Addictions and Native Americans. Westport: Praeger, 2000.
Friedberg, Lilian. “Dare to Compare: Americanizing the Holocaust.” American Indian Quarterly 24, no. 3 (2000): 35380.
Gersenblith, Patty. “Identity and Cultural Property : The Protection of Cultural Property in the United States.” Boston University Law Review 75 (1995): 559688.
Green, William. “Cultural Resource Management and American Archaeology.” Journal of Archaeological Research 6, no. 2 (1998): 12167.
Hewett, Edgar L.Preservation of American Antiquities; Progress During the Last Year; Needed Legislation.” American Anthropologist 8, no. 1 (1906): 10914.
Hewett, Edgar L..Preservation of American Antiquities—Progress During 1906.” American Anthropologist 9, no. 1 (1907): 23334.
Hoerig, Karl A.Remembering Our Indian School Days: The Boarding School Experience.” American Anthropologist 104, no. 2 (2002): 6426.
Jacobs, Wilbur R.The Tip of the Iceberg: Pre-Columbian Indian Demography and Some Implications for Revisionism.” William and Mary Quarterly 31, no. 1 (1974): 12332.
Judd, Neil M.Report on Illegal Excavations in Southwestern Ruins.” American Anthropologist 26, no. 3 (1924): 42832.
Kickingbird, Kirke, and Karen Ducheneaux. One Hundred Million Acres. New York: Macmillan, 1973.
Lee, Ronald Freeman. “The Antiquities Act of 1906.” Journal of the Southwest 42, no. 2 (2000): 197270.
Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. “Domesticity in the Federal Indian Schools: The Power of Authority over Mind and Body.” American Ethnologist 20, no. 2 (1993): 22750.
Mallouf, Robert J.An Unraveling Rope: The Looting of America's Past.” In Repatriation Reader: Who Owns American Indian Remains?, edited by Devon A. Mihesuah, 5973. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.
Matthews, Washington. “In Memoriam: Frank Hamilton Cushing.” American Anthropologist 2, no. 2 (1900): 3706.
McGuire, Randall H.Why Have Archaeologists Thought the Real Indians Were Dead and What Can We Do About It?” In Indians and Anthropologists: Vine Deloria Jr. And the Critique of Anthropology, edited by Thomas Biolsi and Larry J. Zimmerman, 6391. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1997.
McGuire, Randall H..Contested Pasts: Archaeology and Native Americans.” In A Companion to Social Archaeology, edited by Lynn Meskell and Robert W. Preucel, 37495. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.
McLaughlin, Robert H.The Antiquities Act of 1906: Politics and the Framing of an American Anthropology and Archaeology.” Oklahoma City University Law Review 25, no. 1&2 (1998): 6191.
Merrill, William L., Edmund J. Ladd, and T. J. Ferguson. “The Return of the Ahayu:da: Lessons for Repatriation from Zuni Pueblo and the Smithsonian Institution.” Current Anthropology 34, no. 5 (1993): 52367.
Mieder, Wolfgang. “‘The Only Good Indian Is a Dead Indian’: History and the Meaning of a Proverbial Stereotype.” Journal of American Folklore 106, no. 419 (1993): 3860.
Moore, Mari Jo, ed. Genocide of the Mind: New Native American Writing. New York: Nation Books, 2003.
n.a. “Keysville Massacre, April 19, 1863 (from Military Correspondence).” Kern County Historical Society 4, no. 2 (1952): 58.
Nichols, Deborah L., Anthony L. Klesert, and Roger Anyon. “Ancestral Sites, Shrines, and Graves: Native American Perspectives on the Ethics of Collecting Cultural Properties.” In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property?, edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, 2738. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999.
Ogle, Ralph Hendrick. Federal Control of the Western Apaches, 1848–1886. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1949.
Ortiz, Alfonso, ed. Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 9. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1979.
Ortiz, Alfonso, ed. Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 10. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1983.
Perry, Richard J. Apache Reservation: Indigenous People and the American State. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993.
Rothschild, Nan A. Colonial Encounters in a Native American Landscape: The Spanish and Dutch in North America. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2003.
Ryden, Don W., and Doug Kupel. “Warfare between Indians and Americans in Arizona, 1846–1886.” Manuscript on file, Arizona State Historic Preservation Office, Phoenix, 1998.
Spicer, Edward H. Cycles of Conquest: The Impact of Spain, Mexico, and the United States on the Indians of the Southwest, 1533–1960. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1962.
Squillace, Mark. “The Monumental Legacy of the Antiquities Act of 1906.” Georgia Law Review 37, no. 2 (2003): 473610.
Stannard, David E. American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Stockel, H. Henrietta. Shame and Endurance: The Untold Story of the Chiricahua Apache Prisoners of War. Tucson: University of Arizona, 2004.
Thomas, David Hurst. Skull Wars: Kennewick Man, Archaeology, and the Battle for Native American Identity. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Thompson, Raymond H.Edgar Lee Hewitt and the Political Process.” Journal of the Southwest 42, no. 2 (2000): 271318.
Tinker, George E. Missionary Conquest: The Gospel and Native American Cultural Genocide. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.
Trafzer, Clifford E. The Kit Carson Campaign: The Last Great Navajo War. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982.
Trennert, Robert A.Educating Indian Girls at Nonreservation Boarding Schools, 1878–1920.” The Western Historical Quarterly 13, no. 3 (1982): 27190.
Trigger, Bruce G.Archaeology and the Image of the American Indian.” American Antiquity 45, no. 4 (1980): 66276.
Trigger, Bruce G.. A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Watkins, Joe. “Cultural Nationalists, Internationalists, and ‘Intra-Nationalists’: Who's Right and Whose Right?International Journal of Cultural Property 12, no. 1 (2005): 7894.
Watkins, Joe, Lynne Goldstein, Karen D. Vitelli, and Leigh Jenkins. “Accountability: Responsibilities of Archaeologists to Other Interest Groups.” In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by Mark J. Lynott and Alison Wylie, 3337. Washington, D.C.: Society for American Archaeology Special Report, 1995.
Whiteley, Peter M. Deliberate Acts: Changing Hopi Culture through the Oraibi Split. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988.
Worcester, Donald E. The Apaches: Eagles of the Southwest. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1979.
Yellow Bird, Michael. “Cowboys and Indians: Toys of Genocide, Icons of Colonialism.” Wicazo Sa Review 19, no. 2 (2004): 3348.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Cultural Property
  • ISSN: 0940-7391
  • EISSN: 1465-7317
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-cultural-property
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 61 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 257 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.