Skip to main content

Nature and Culture: A New World Heritage Context

  • Shabnam Inanloo Dailoo (a1) and Frits Pannekoek (a2)

The understanding of the relationship between culture and nature as manifested in the UNESCO declarations and practices has changed over the last few years. The World Heritage Convention is continuing to evolve its definitions to reflect the increasing complexities of world cultures as they grapple with the heritage conservation policies that reflect their multiple stakeholders. They are also integrating a greater cultural perspective in their recent resolutions to the convention. Although the links between nature and culture have been clarified through this new attention to cultural landscapes, many countries and their bureaucracies have not yet adopted these new perspectives. The article suggests that to achieve an integrated approach to conservation, national, regional, and international bodies and their professionals must be involved. Two examples are discussed to address the shortcomings of the application of the convention and to illustrate the complexities of defining and conserving cultural landscapes.

Hide All


Amos, Bruce. “The International Context for Heritage Conservation in Canada.” Environments 24 (1996): 13.
Australia ICOMOS. “Asia-Pacific Regional Workshop on Associative Landscapes: A Report by Australia ICOMOS to the World Heritage Committee. 27–29 April.” New South Wales, April 27–29, 1995. (accessed December 29, 2005).
Buggey, Susan. “Associative Values: Exploring Nonmaterial Qualities in Cultural Landscapes.” Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 31 (2000): 2127.
Buggey, Susan. “Cultural Landscapes.” Notes from email to the author, September 7, 2005.
Cameron, Christina. “The Spirit of Place: The Physical Memory of Canada.” Journal of Canadian Studies 35 (2000): 77.
Clarke, Ian. “Report on the State of Conservation of Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump.” Periodic Report on the Application of the World Heritage Convention. Calgary: Province of Alberta, 2005.
Cleere, Henry. “Cultural Landscapes as World Heritage.” Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites 1 (1995): 6368.
Cleere, Henry. “The Concept of ‘Outstanding Universal Value’ in the World Heritage Convention.” Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites 1 (1996): 22733.
Cleere, Henry. “The World Heritage Convention in the Third World.” In Cultural Resource Management in Contemporary Society: Perspectives on Managing and Presenting the Past, edited by Francis P. McManamon and Alf Hatton, 99106. London and New York: Routledge, 2000.
Head, Lesley. Cultural Landscapes and Environmental Change. Edited by John A. Matthews, Raymond S. Bradley, Neil Roberts, and Martin A.J. Williams. Key Issues in Environmental Change Series. London: Arnold, 2000.
ICOMOS. The Nara Document on Authenticity. Nara, Japan, 1994. (accessed December 29, 2005).
ICOMOS. “Evaluations of Cultural Properties: Takht-e-Suleiman (Iran).” World Heritage Committee 27th Ordinary Session, Suzhou (China), 5155. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2003. (accessed August 10, 2007).
Irani Behbahani, Homa, Arta Sharifi, and Shabnam Inanloo Dailoo. “A Glance at the Conservation and Reclamation of Archeological Landscapes.” Iranian Architecture Quarterly 3 (2003): 5671.
Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization. “Takht-E Soleyman Fire Temple of Knights.” UNESCO World Heritage Convention Nomination of Properties for Inclusion on the World Heritage List. Tehran: Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization, 2002. (accessed January 15, 2006).
Jones, Michael. “The Concept of Cultural Landscape: Discourse and Narratives.” In Landscape Interfaces: Cultural Heritage in Changing Landscapes, edited by Hannes Palang and Gary Fry, 2151. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.
Keisteri, Tarja Tuulikki. “The Study of Changes in Cultural Landscapes.” PhD diss., Helsingin Yliopisto (Finland), 1990.
Lewis, Peirce. “The Challenge of the Ordinary: Preservation and the Cultural Landscape.” Historic Preservation Forum 12 (1998): 1828.
Lowenthal, David. “Landscape as Heritage: National Scenes and Global Changes.” In Heritage: Conservation, Interpretation, Enterprise, edited by J. M. Fladmark, 315. London: Donhead Publishing, 1993.
Lowenthal, David. “Cultural Landscapes.” UNESCO Courier 50 (1997): 1820.
Lowenthal, David. “Natural and Cultural Heritage.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 11 (2005): 81.
Merriam-Webster Online. “Coulee.” (accessed January 15, 2008).
Mitchell, Nora J.Cultural Landscapes: Concepts of Culture and Nature as a Paradigm for Historic Preservation.” PhD diss., Tufts University, 1996.
Mitchell, Nora J., and Susan Buggey. “Protected Landscapes and Cultural Landscapes: Taking Advantage of Diverse Approaches.” The George Wright Forum 17 (2000): 3546.
Naumann, Rudolf. Die Ruinen Von Tacht-E Suleiman Und Zendan-E Suleiman. Translated by Faramarz Nadjd Samii. Tehran: Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization, 1995.
Olwig, Kenneth R.Introduction: The Nature of Cultural Heritage and the Culture of Natural Heritage-Northern Perspectives on a Contested Patrimony.” International Journal of Heritage Studies 11 (2005): 37.
Parks Canada. “Guiding Principles and Operational Policies: Glossary.” (accessed January 27, 2008).
Philips, Adrian. “The Nature of Cultural Landscapes: A Nature Conservation Perspective.” Landscape Research 23 (1998): 2138.
Philips, Adrian. “Why Lived-in Landscapes Matter to Nature Conservation.” Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 34 (2003): 510.
Robertson, Iain, and Penny Richards. Studying Cultural Landscapes. London: Hodder Arnold, 2003.
Sauer, Carl O.The Morphology of Landscape.” In Land and Life: A Selection from the Writings of Carl Otwin Sauer, edited by John Leighly, 31550. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.
Stoffle, Richard W., David B. Halmo, and Diane E. Austin. “Cultural Landscapes and Traditional Cultural Properties: A Southern Paiute View of the Grand.” American Indian Quarterly 21 (1997): 22950.
Tilley, Christopher. A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and Monuments. Providence and Oxford: Berg, 1994.
Tunbridge, J. E., and G. J. Ashworth. Dissonant Heritage: The Management of the Past as a Resource in Conflict. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Paris: World Heritage Centre, 1996.
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Report of the World Heritage Global Strategy Natural and Cultural Heritage Expert Meeting. Paris: World Heritage Centre, 1998. (accessed January 22, 2006).
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Paris: World Heritage Centre 2005. (accessed January 15, 2006).
UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Global Strategy. Paris: World Heritage Centre. (accessed January 17, 2006).
University of Virginia. “A History of the Grand Coulle Dam, 1801–2001.”∼UG02/barnes/grandcoulee/daughter.html (accessed January 15, 2008).
Van Mansvelt, Jan Diek, and Bas Pedroli. “Landscape, A Matter of Identity and Integrity: Towards Sound Knowledge, Awareness and Involvement.” In Landscape Interfaces: Cultural Heritage in Changing Landscapes. Landscape Series, edited by Palang Hannes and Gary Fry, 37594. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.
Von Droste, Bernd, Herald Plachter, and Mechtild Rossler. “Cultural Landscapes: Reconnecting Culture and Nature.” In Cultural Landscapes of Universal Value: Components of a Global Strategy, edited by Herald Plachter and Mechtild Rossler, 1518. Jena, Stuttgart, and New York: Gustav Fischer Verlag in cooperation with UNESCO, 1995.
Williams, Sue. “The Four New ‘Cultural Landscapes’.” UNESCO Sources 80 (1996): 9.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Cultural Property
  • ISSN: 0940-7391
  • EISSN: 1465-7317
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-cultural-property
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 62 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 227 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.