Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-5zjcf Total loading time: 0.641 Render date: 2022-08-17T19:06:19.294Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue false

A review of directional modulation technology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 July 2015

Yuan Ding*
Affiliation:
The ECIT Institute, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT3 9DT, UK. Phone: +44 (0)2890 971 806
Vincent Fusco
Affiliation:
The ECIT Institute, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT3 9DT, UK. Phone: +44 (0)2890 971 806
*
Corresponding author: Y. Ding Email: yding03@qub.ac.uk

Abstract

Directional modulation (DM) is an emerging technology for securing wireless communications at the physical layer. This promising technology, unlike the conventional key-based cryptographic methods and the key-based physical layer security approaches, locks information signals without any requirements of keys. The locked information can only be fully recovered by the legitimate receiver(s) priory known by DM transmitters. This paper reviews the origin of the DM concept and, particularly, its development in recent years, including its mathematical model, assessment metrics, synthesis approaches, physical realizations, and finally its potential aspects for future studies.

Type
Tutorial and Review Paper
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press and the European Microwave Association 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

[1] Li, X.; Hwu, J.; Ratazzi, E.P.: Using antenna array redundancy and channel diversity for secure wireless transmissions. J. Commun., 2 (3) (2007), 2432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[2] Mollin, R.A.: An Introduction to Cryptography, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006.Google Scholar
[3] William, S.: Cryptography and Network Security, 4th ed., Pearson Education India, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2006.Google Scholar
[4] Forouzan, B.A.: Cryptography and Network Security, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2007.Google Scholar
[5] Bloch, M.; Barros, J.: Physical-Layer Security: From Information Theory to Security Engineering, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[6] Wang, T.; Liu, Y.; Vasilakos, A.: Survey on channel reciprocity based key establishment techniques for wireless systems. Wireless Netw., 2015, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11276-014-0841-8.Google Scholar
[7] Chen, C.; Jensen, M.A.: Secret key establishment using temporally and spatially correlated wireless channel coefficients. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput., 10 (2011), 205215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[8] Ahmadi, H.; Safavi-Naini, R.: Secret key establishment over a pair of independent broadcast channels, in 2010 Int. Symp. Information Theory and Its Applications (ISITA), 2010, 185190.Google Scholar
[9] Mukherjee, A.; Fakoorian, S.A.A.; Huang, J.; Swindlehurst, A.L.: Principles of physical layer security in multiuser wireless networks: a survey. IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., 16 (3) (2014), 15501573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[10] Ding, Y.; Fusco, V.: Vector representation of directional modulation transmitters, in 2014 8th European Conf. Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2014, 332336.Google Scholar
[11] Ding, Y.; Fusco, V.: A vector approach for the analysis and synthesis of directional modulation transmitters. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 62 (2014), 361370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[12] Ding, Y.; Fusco, V.: Establishing metrics for assessing the performance of directional modulation systems. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 62 (2014), 27452755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[13] Ding, Y.; Fusco, V.: BER-driven synthesis for directional modulation secured wireless communication. Int. J. Microw. Wireless Technol., 6 (2014), 139149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[14] Ding, Y.; Fusco, V.: Directional modulation transmitter radiation pattern considerations. IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 7 (15) (2013), 12011206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[15] Ding, Y.; Fusco, V.: Constraining directional modulation transmitter radiation patterns. IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 8 (15) (2014), 14081415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[16] Ding, Y.; Fusco, V.: Directional modulation far-field pattern separation synthesis approach. IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 9 (1) (2015), 4148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[17] Zhang, Y.; Ding, Y.; Fusco, V.: Sidelobe modulation scrambling transmitter using Fourier Rotman lens. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61 (2013), 39003904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[18] Shi, H.; Tennant, A.: Secure physical-layer communication based on directly modulated antenna arrays, in 2012 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conf. (LAPC), 2012, 14.Google Scholar
[19] Shi, H.; Tennant, A.: Enhancing the security of communication via directly modulated antenna arrays. IET Microw. Antennas Propag., 7 (8) (2013), 606611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[20] Babakhani, A.; Rutledge, D.B.; Hajimiri, A.: Transmitter architectures based on near-field direct antenna modulation. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 43 (2008), 26742692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[21] Babakhani, A.; Rutledge, D.B.; Hajimiri, A.: Near-field direct antenna modulation. IEEE Microw. Mag., 10 (2009), 3646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[22] Chang, A.H.; Babakhani, A.; Hajimiri, A.: Near-field direct antenna modulation (NFDAM) transmitter at 2.4 GHz, in 2009 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Int. Symp., 2009, 14.Google Scholar
[23] Shi, H.; Tennant, A.: Direction dependent antenna modulation using a two element array, in Proc. 2011 5th European Conf. Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2011, 812815.Google Scholar
[24] Shi, H.; Tennant, A.: Characteristics of a two element direction dependent antenna array, in 2011 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conf. (LAPC), 2011, 14.Google Scholar
[25] Shi, H.; Tennant, A.: An experimental two element array configured for directional antenna modulation, in Proc. 2012 6th European Conf. Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2012, 16241626.Google Scholar
[26] Daly, M.P.; Bernhard, J.T.: Directional modulation technique for phased arrays. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 57 (2009), 26332640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[27] Daly, M.P.; Bernhard, J.T.: Beamsteering in pattern reconfigurable arrays using directional modulation. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 58 (2010), 22592265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[28] Daly, M.P.; Daly, E.L.; Bernhard, J.T.: Demonstration of directional modulation using a phased array. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 58 (2010), 15451550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[29] Daly, M.P.: 2012: Physical layer encryption using fixed and reconfigurable antennas. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
[30] Shi, H.; Tennant, A.: Secure communications based on directly modulated antenna arrays combined with multi-path, in 2013 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conf. (LAPC), 2013, 582586.Google Scholar
[31] Shi, H.; Tennant, A.: Covert communication using a directly modulated array transmitter, in 2001 Proc. 8th European Conf. Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2014, 316318.Google Scholar
[32] Shi, H.; Tennant, A.: Simultaneous, multi-channel, spatially directive data transmission using direct antenna modulation. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 62 (1) (2014), 403410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[33] Hong, T.; Song, M.Z.; Liu, Y.: Dual-beam directional modulation technique for physical-layer secure communication. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., 10 (2011), 14171420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[34] Valliappan, N.; Lozano, A.; Heath, R.W.: Antenna subset modulation for secure millimeter-wave wireless communication. IEEE Trans. Commun., 61 (8) (2013), 32313245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[35] Zhu, Q.; Yang, S.; Yao, R.; Nie, Z.: A directional modulation technique for secure communication based on 4D antenna arrays, in Proc. 7th European Conf. Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2013, 125127.Google Scholar
[36] Zhu, Q.; Yang, S.; Yao, R.; Nie, Z.: Directional modulation based on 4-D antenna arrays. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 62 (2) (2014), 621628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[37] Hong, T.; Song, M.Z.; Liu, Y.: RF directional modulation technique using a switched antenna array for physical layer secure communication applications. Prog. Electromagn. Res., 116 (2011), 363379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[38] Csiszar, I.; Korner, J.: Broadcast channels with confidential messages. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, 24 (1978), 339348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[39] McIllree, P.E.: Channel capacity calculations for M-ary N-dimensional signal sets. M.E. thesis in Electronic Engineering, The University of South Australia, 1995.Google Scholar
[40] Stroud, A.H.: Approximate Calculation of Multiple Integrals, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1971, 2352.Google Scholar
[41] Brink, S.T.: Convergence behavior of iteratively decoded parallel concatenated codes. IEEE Trans. Commun., 49 (10) (2001), 17271737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[42] Lavaei, J.; Babakhani, A.; Hajimiri, A.; Doyle, J.C.: A study of near-field direct antenna modulation systems using convex optimization, in American Control Conf. (ACC), 2010, 10651072.Google Scholar
[43] Ding, Y.; Fusco, V.: Experiment of digital directional modulation transmitters. Forum for Electromagnetic Research Methods and Application Technologies (FERMAT), 11 (2015).Google Scholar
[44] WARP Project. Available at: http://www.warpproject.org (accessed 14 June 2014).Google Scholar
[45] Ding, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Fusco, V.: Fourier Rotman lens enabled directional modulation transmitter. Int. J. Antennas Propag., 2015, 13 pages, 2015, Article ID 285986. doi:10.1155/2015/285986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
[46]Fourier Rotman lens directional modulation demonstrator experiment. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FsmCcxo-TPE.Google Scholar
[47] Ding, Y.; Fusco, V.: Improved physical layer secure wireless communications using a directional modulation enhanced retrodirective array, in 2014 XXXIst URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symp. (GASS), 2014, doi: 10.1109/URSIGASS.2014.6929294.Google Scholar
30
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

A review of directional modulation technology
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

A review of directional modulation technology
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

A review of directional modulation technology
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *