Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Development of a 70 MHz unit for hyperthermia treatment of deep-seated breast tumors

  • Johannes Crezee (a1), Geertjan Van Tienhoven (a1), Merel W. Kolff (a1), Jan Sijbrands (a1), Gerard Van Stam (a1), Sabine Oldenborg (a1), Elisabeth D. Geijsen (a1), Maarten C.C.M. Hulshof (a1) and Henny P. Kok (a1)...

A dedicated hyperthermia (HT) system was designed for tumors in intact breast extending beyond the heating depth of our superficial 434 MHz antennas, consisting of a treatment bed fitted with a 50 cm × 40 cm × 16 cm temperature controlled open water bolus. The patient lies in prone position with the breast immersed in the water positioned in front of a 34 cm × 20 cm 70 MHz waveguide operating in the TE10 mode. E-field patterns were measured in a tissue-mimicking phantom. HT was applied once a week with the 70 MHz applicator for six patients treated with thermoradiotherapy for deep lesions of recurrent breast cancer or melanoma. Two 14-sensor thermocouple thermometry probes were placed in catheters to monitor the invasive temperature. Results: Phantom measurements showed sufficient penetration depth up to 10 cm depth. The combination of 300–900 W antenna power and a water temperature of 42°C was well tolerated for the entire session of 1 h and resulted in good tumor temperatures with T90 = 39.8°C, T50 = 41.1°C, and T10 = 42.2°C. No toxicity or complaints were associated with the heating. A water mattress and other measures were needed to assure a comfortable position throughout the treatment. Conclusion: the 70 MHz breast applicator system performed well and tumor temperatures were good.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author: J. Crezee Email:
Hide All
[1] SaparetoS.A.; DeweyW.C.: Thermal dose determination in cancer therapy. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 10 (1984), 787800.
[2] KappD.S.; CoxR.S.: Thermal treatment parameters are most predictive of outcome in patients with single tumor nodules per treatment field in recurrent adenocarcinoma of the breast. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 33 (1995), 887899.
[3] DattaN.R. et al. : Local hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy and-/ or chemotherapy: recent advances and promises for the future. Cancer Treat. Rev., 41 (2015), 742753.
[4] CihoricN. et al. : Hyperthermia-related clinical trials on cancer treatment within the registry. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 31 (2015), 609614.
[5] VernonC.C. et al. : Radiotherapy with or without hyperthermia in the treatment of superficial localized breast cancer: results from five randomized controlled trials. International Collaborative Hyperthermia Group. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 35 (1996), 731744.
[6] JonesE.L. et al. : Randomized trial of hyperthermia and radiation for superficial tumors. J. Clin. Oncol., 23 (2005), 30793085.
[7] OldenborgS. et al. : Reirradiation and hyperthermia for irresectable locoregional recurrent breast cancer in previously irradiated area: size matters. Radiother. Oncol., 117 (2015), 223228.
[8] OldenborgS. et al. : Elective reirradiation and hyperthermia following resection of persistent locoregional recurrent breast cancer: a retrospective study. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 26 (2010), 136144.
[9] LinthorstM. et al. : Local control rate after the combination of re-irradiation and hyperthermia for irresectable recurrent breast cancer: results in 248 patients. Radiother. Oncol., 117 (2015), 217222.
[10] LinthorstM. et al. : Re-irradiation and hyperthermia after surgery for recurrent breast cancer. Radiother. Oncol., 109 (2013), 188193.
[11] ZagarT.M. et al. : Hyperthermia combined with radiation therapy for superficial breast cancer and chest wall recurrence: a review of the randomised data. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 26 (2010), 612617.
[12] DattaN.R.; PuricE.; KlingbielD.; GomezS.; BodisS.: Hyperthermia and radiation therapy in locoregional recurrent breast cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 94 (2016), 10731087.
[13] GelvichE.A.; MazokhinV.N.: Contact flexible microstrip applicators (CFMA) in a range from microwaves up to short waves. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 49 (2002), 10151023.
[14] GabrieleP. et al. : Radio hyperthermia for re-treatment of superficial tumours. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 25 (2009), 189198.
[15] CorreiaD.; KokH.P.; de GreefM.; BelA.; van WieringenN.; CrezeeJ.: Body conformal antennas for superficial hyperthermia: the impact of bending contact flexible microstrip applicators on their electromagnetic behavior. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 56 (2009), 29172926.
[16] KokH.P. et al. : FDTD simulations to assess the performance of CFMA-434 applicators for superficial hyperthermia. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 25 (2009), 462476.
[17] LamaitreG.; van DijkJ.D.; GelvichE.A.; WiersmaJ.; SchneiderC.J.: SAR characteristics of three types of Contact Flexible Microstrip Applicators for superficial hyperthermia. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 12 (1996), 255269.
[18] DattaN.R. et al. : Hyperthermia and reirradiation for locoregional recurrences in preirradiated breast cancers: a single institutional experience. Swiss Med. Wkly., 145 (2015), w14133.
[19] MorosE.G.; PenagaricanoJ.; NovakP.; StraubeW.L.; MyersonR.J.: Present and future technology for simultaneous superficial thermoradiotherapy of breast cancer. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 26 (2010), 699709.
[20] NotterM.; PiazenaH.; VaupelP.: Hypofractionated re-irradiation of large-sized recurrent breast cancer with thermography-controlled, contact-free water-filtered infra-red-A hyperthermia: a retrospective study of 73 patients. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 33 (2017), 227236.
[21] FennA.J.; WolfG.L.; FogleR.M.: An adaptive microwave phased array for targeted heating of deep tumours in intact breast: animal study results. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 15 (1999), 4561.
[22] TurnerP.F.: Hyperthermia and inhomogeneous tissue effects using an annular phased array. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., 32 (1984), 874875.
[23] TurnerP.F.; TumehA.; SchaefermeyerT.: BSD-2000 approach for deep local and regional hyperthermia: physics and technology. Strahlenther. Onkol., 165 (1989), 738741.
[24] van DijkJ.D.; SchneiderC.; van OsR.; BlankL.E.; GonzalezD.G.: Results of deep body hyperthermia with large waveguide radiators. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 267 (1990), 315319.
[25] CrezeeJ. et al. : Improving locoregional hyperthermia delivery using the 3-D controlled AMC-8 phased array hyperthermia system: a preclinical study. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 25 (2009), 581592.
[26] van WieringenN. et al. : Characteristics and performance evaluation of the capacitive Contact Flexible Microstrip Applicator operating at 70 MHz for external hyperthermia. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 25 (2009), 542553.
[27] KosterevV.V.; Kramer-AgeevE.A.; MazokhinV.N.; van RhoonG.C.; CrezeeJ.: Development of a novel method to enhance the therapeutic effect on tumours by simultaneous action of radiation and heating. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 31 (2015), 443452.
[28] WuL.; McGoughR.J.; ArabeA.O.; SamulskiT.V.: An RF phased array applicator designed for hyperthermia breast cancer treatments. Phys. Med. Biol., 51 (2006), 120.
[29] StangJ.; HaynesM.; CarsonP.; MoghaddamM.: A preclinical system prototype for focused microwave thermal therapy of the breast. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 59 (2012), 24312438.
[30] HynynenK. et al. : MR imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery of fibroadenomas in the breast: a feasibility study. Radiology, 219 (2001), 176185.
[31] MalinenM.; HuttunenT.; HynynenK.; KaipioJ.P.: Simulation study for thermal dose optimization in ultrasound surgery of the breast. Med. Phys., 31 (2004), 12961307.
[32] De LeeuwA.A.; LagendijkJ.J.: Design of a clinical deep-body hyperthermia system based on the ‘coaxial TEM’ applicator. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 3 (1987), 413421.
[33] de LeeuwA.A.; CrezeeJ.; LagendijkJ.J.: Temperature and SAR measurements in deep-body hyperthermia with thermocouple thermometry. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 9 (1993), 685697.
[34] van StamG. et al. : A flexible 70 MHz phase-controlled double waveguide system for hyperthermia treatment of superficial tumours with deep infiltration. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 33 (2017). doi: 10.1080/02656736.2017.1313460.
[35] PaulidesM.M. et al. : Simulation techniques in hyperthermia treatment planning. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 29 (2013), 346357.
[36] KokH.P. et al. : Towards on-line adaptive hyperthermia treatment planning: correlation between measured and simulated SAR changes caused by phase steering in patients. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., 90 (2014), 438445.
[37] KokH.P.; WustP.; StaufferP.R.; BardatiF.; van RhoonG.C.; CrezeeJ.: Current state of the art of regional hyperthermia treatment planning: a review. Radiat. Oncol., 10 (2015), 196.
[38] WiersmaJ.; van DijkJ.D.; SijbrandsJ.; SchneiderC.J.: The measurement of fringing fields in a radio-frequency hyperthermia array with emphasis on bolus size. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 14 (1998), 535551.
[39] WiersmaJ.; van WieringenN.; CrezeeH.; van DijkJ.D.: Delineation of potential hot spots for hyperthermia treatment planning optimisation. Int. J. Hyperthermia, 23 (2007), 287301.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies
  • ISSN: 1759-0787
  • EISSN: 1759-0795
  • URL: /core/journals/international-journal-of-microwave-and-wireless-technologies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 19 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 79 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 24th May 2017 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.