Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-2qt69 Total loading time: 0.592 Render date: 2022-08-13T06:26:15.275Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Explaining External Support for Insurgent Groups

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 October 2011

Idean Salehyan
Affiliation:
University of North Texas, Denton, and the Centre for the Study of Civil War, Peace Research Institute Oslo. E-mail: idean@unt.edu
Kristian Skrede Gleditsch
Affiliation:
University of Essex, Colchester, England, and the Centre for the Study of Civil War, Peace Research Institute Oslo. E-mail: ksg@essex.ac.uk
David E. Cunningham
Affiliation:
University of Maryland, College Park, and the Centre for the Study of Civil War, Peace Research Institute Oslo. E-mail: dcunningham@gvpt.umd.edu
Get access

Abstract

Many rebel organizations receive significant assistance from external governments, yet the reasons why some rebels attract foreign support while others do not is poorly understood. We analyze factors determining external support for insurgent groups from a principal-agent perspective. We focus on both the supply side, that is, when states are willing to support insurgent groups in other states, and the demand side, that is, when groups are willing to accept such support, with the conditions that this may entail. We test our hypotheses using new disaggregated data on insurgent groups and foreign support. Our results indicate that external rebel support is influenced by characteristics of the rebel group as well as linkages between rebel groups and actors in other countries. More specifically, we find that external support is more likely for moderately strong groups where support is more likely to be offered and accepted, in the presence of transnational constituencies, international rivalries, and when the government receives foreign support.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The IO Foundation 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Akcinaroglu, Seden, and Radziszewski, Elizabeth. 2005. Expectations, Rivalries, and Civil War Duration. International Interactions 31 (4):349–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balch-Lindsay, Dylan, and Enterline, Andrew J.. 2000. Killing Time: The World Politics of Civil War Duration, 1820–1992. International Studies Quarterly 44 (4):615–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balch-Lindsay, Dylan, Enterline, Andrew J., and Joyce, Kyle A.. 2008. Third-Party Intervention and the Civil War Process. Journal of Peace Research 45 (3):345–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bapat, Navin A. 2005. Insurgency and the Opening of Peace Processes. Journal of Peace Research 42 (6):699717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bapat, Navin A. 2006. State Bargaining with Transnational Terrorist Groups. International Studies Quarterly 50 (1):213–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bapat, Navin A. 2007. The Internationalization of Terrorist Campaigns. Conflict Management and Peace Science 24 (4):265280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byman, Daniel. 2005. Deadly Connections: States That Sponsor Terrorism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byman, Daniel, and Kreps, Sarah E.. 2010. Agents of Destruction? Applying Principal-Agent Analysis to State-Sponsored Terrorism. International Studies Perspectives 11 (1):118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Girardin, Luc, and Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede. 2009. Ethnonationalist Triads: Assessing the Influence of Kin Groups on Civil Wars. World Politics 61 (3):403–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cetinyan, Rupen. 2002. Ethnic Bargaining in the Shadow of Third-Party Intervention. International Organization 56 (3):645–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, Paul, Elliott, Lani, Hegre, Håvard, Hoeffler, Anke, Reynal-Querol, Marta, and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2003. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.Google Scholar
Cunningham, David E. 2006. Veto Players and Civil War Duration. American Journal of Political Science 50 (4):875–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, David E. 2010. Blocking Resolution: How External States Can Prolong Civil Wars. Journal of Peace Research 47 (2):115–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cunningham, David E., Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede, and Salehyan, Idean. 2009. It Takes Two: A Dyadic Analysis of Civil War Duration and Outcome. Journal of Conflict Resolution 53 (4):570–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, David R., and Moore, Will H.. 1997. Ethnicity Matters: Transnational Ethnic Alliances and Foreign Policy Behavior. International Studies Quarterly 41 (1):171–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diehl, Paul F., and Goertz, Gary. 2001. War and Peace in International Rivalry. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Findley, Michael G., and Teo, Tze Kwang. 2006. Rethinking Third-Party Interventions into Civil Wars: An Actor-Centric Approach. Journal of Politics 68 (4):828–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Forsythe, David. 1992. Democracy, War, and Covert Action. Journal of Peace Research 29 (4):385–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gartner, Scott Sigmund. 2008. The Multiple Effects of Casualties on Public Support for War: An Experimental Approach. American Political Science Review 102 (1):95106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gartner, Scott Sigmund, and Segura, Gary. 1998. War, Casualties, and Public Opinion. Journal of Conflict Resolution 42 (3):278300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gates, Scott. 2002. Recruitment and Allegiance: The Microfoundations of Rebellion. Journal of Conflict Resolution 46 (1):111–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gent, Stephen E. 2008. Going in When It Counts: Military Intervention and the Outcome of Civil Conflicts. International Studies Quarterly 52 (4):713–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
George, Alexander L. 1991. Forceful Persuasion: Coercive Diplomacy as an Alternative to War. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace.Google Scholar
Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede. 2002. Expanded Dyadic Trade and GDP Data. Journal of Conflict Resolution 46 (5):712–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede, Salehyan, Idean, and Schultz, Kenneth. 2008. Fighting at Home, Fighting Abroad: How Civil Wars Lead to International Disputes. Journal of Conflict Resolution 52 (4):479506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Wallensteen, Peter, Eriksson, Mikael, Sollenberg, Margareta, and Strand, Håvard. 2002. Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset. Journal of Peace Research 39 (5):615–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goertz, Gary, and Diehl, Paul F.. 1992. Territorial Changes and International Conflict. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goulka, Jeremiah E., Hansell, Lydia, Wilke, Elizabeth, and Larson, Judith. 2009. The Mujahedin-e Khalq in Iraq: A Policy Conundrum. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND.Google Scholar
Hawkins, Darren G., Lake, David A., Nielson, Daniel L., and Tierney, Michael J., eds. 2006. Delegation and Agency in International Organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heger, Lindsay, and Salehyan, Idean. 2007. Ruthless Rulers: Coalition Size and the Severity of Civil Conflict. International Studies Quarterly 51 (2):385403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jaggers, Keith, and Gurr, Ted R.. 1995. Tracking Democracy's Third Wave with the Polity III Data. Journal of Peace Research 32 (4):469–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jenne, Erin K. 2007. Ethnic Bargaining: The Paradox of Minority Empowerment. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Joshi, Manoj. 1996. On the Razor's Edge: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 19 (1):1942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalyvas, Stathis N. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil Wars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiewiet, D. Roderick, and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1991. The Logic of Delegation: Congressional Parties and the Appropriations Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
King, Gary, and Zeng, Langche. 2001. Improving Forecasts of State Failure. World Politics 53 (4):623–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, James P., Goertz, Gary, and Diehl, Paul F.. 2006. The New Rivalry Dataset: Procedures and Patterns. Journal of Peace Research 43 (3):331–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lujala, Päivi. 2010. The Spoils of Nature: Armed Conflict and Rebel Access to Natural Resources. Journal of Peace Research 47 (1):1528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metz, Steven. 2007. Rethinking Insurgency. Carlisle, Pa.: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College.Google Scholar
Minter, William. 1994. Apartheid's Contras: An Inquiry into the Roots of War in Angola and Mozambique. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
Morgan, T. Clifton, and Palmer, Glenn. 2000. A Model of Foreign Policy Substitutability: Selecting the Right Tools for the Job(s). Journal of Conflict Resolution 44 (1):1132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Most, Benjamin A., and Starr, Harvey. 1984. International Relations Theory, Foreign Policy Substitutability, and ‘Nice’ Laws. World Politics 36 (3):383406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prunier, Gérard. 2004. Rebel Movements and Proxy Warfare: Uganda, Sudan and the Congo (1986–99). African Affairs 103 (412):359–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prunier, Gérard. 2009. Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Regan, Patrick M. 2000. Civil Wars and Foreign Powers: Outside Intervention in Intrastate Conflict. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Regan, Patrick M. 2002. Third-Party Interventions and the Duration of Intrastate Conflicts. Journal of Conflict Resolution 46 (1):5573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saideman, Stephen M. 2001. The Ties That Divide: Ethnic Politics, Foreign Policy, and International Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salehyan, Idean. 2009. Rebels Without Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in World Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salehyan, Idean. 2010. The Delegation of War to Rebel Organizations. Journal of Conflict Resolution 54 (3):493515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singer, J. David. 1988. Reconstructing the Correlates of War Dataset on Material Capabilities of States, 1816–1985. International Interactions 14 (2):115–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sobek, David, and Payne, Caroline L.. 2010. A Tale of Two Types: Rebel Goals and the Onset of Civil Wars. International Studies Quarterly 54 (1):213–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Swami, Praveen. 2004. Failed Threats and Flawed Fences: India's Military Responses to Pakistan's Proxy War. India Review 3 (2):147–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, William R. 2001. Identifying Rivals and Rivalries in World Politics. International Studies Quarterly 45 (4):557–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weinstein, Jeremy M. 2007. Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Zacher, Mark W. 2001. The Territorial Integrity Norm: International Boundaries and the Use of Force. International Organization 55 (2):215–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Salehyan et al. supplementary material

Supplementary data files

Download Salehyan et al. supplementary material(File)
File 47 KB
136
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Explaining External Support for Insurgent Groups
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Explaining External Support for Insurgent Groups
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Explaining External Support for Insurgent Groups
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *