AfriMap. 2010. Democratic Republic of Congo—Military Justice and Human Rights: An Urgent Need to Complete Reforms. South Africa: A Study by AfriMAP and the Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa. Johannesburg: AfriMap.
Alexander, Michelle. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York: New Press.
Allawi, Ali A.
2008. The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Allen, Tim. 2006. Trial Justice: The International Criminal Court and the Lord's Resistance Army. London: Zed Books.
Autesserre, Séverine. 2006. Local Violence, National Peace? Postwar “Settlement” in the Eastern D.R. Congo (2003–2006). African Studies Review
Autesserre, Séverine. 2010. The Trouble with the Congo: Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Baaz, Maria Eriksson, Stearns, Jason K., and Verweijen, Judith. 2013. The National Army and Armed Groups in the Eastern Congo: Untangling the Gordian Knot of Insecurity. Kampala, Uganda: Rift Valley Institute Usalama Project.
Baaz, Maria Eriksson, Verweijen, Judith, and Deslaurier, Christine. 2013. La mère des armées n'est pas encore morte. Politique Africaine
Bakke, Kristin M., Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher, and Seymour, Lee J.M.. 2012. A Plague of Initials: Fragmentation, Cohesion, and Infighting in Civil Wars. Perspectives on Politics
Balcells, Laia. 2011. Continuation of Politics by Two Means: Direct and Indirect Violence in Civil War. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Bayart, Jean-François. 1993. The State in Africa: The Politics of the Belly. New York: Longman.
Benson, Michelle, and Kugler, Jacek. 1998. Power Parity, Democracy, and the Severity of Internal Violence. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Berman, Bruce J.
1998. Ethnicity, Patronage and the African State: The Politics of Uncivil Nationalism. African Affairs
Blattman, Christopher, and Miguel, Edward. 2010. Civil War. Journal of Economic Literature
Börzel, Tanja A.
2012. How Much Statehood Does It Take—And What For? SFB-Governance Working Paper Series 29. Berlin: Collaborative Research Center.
Branch, Adam. 2007. Uganda's Civil War and the Politics of ICC Intervention. Ethics and International Affairs
Brass, Paul R.
1997. Theft of an Idol: Text and Context in the Representation of Collective Violence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Broache, Michael. 2016. International Prosecutions and Atrocities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Case Study of the FDLR. The Journal of the Middle East and Africa
Burney, Elizabeth, Von Hirsch, Andrew, and Wikstrom, Per-Olaf. 1999. Criminal Deterrence and Sentence Severity. Portland, OR: Hart Publishing.
Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge.
Carothers, Thomas. 2006. Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Carson, Austin. 2016. Facing Off and Saving Face: Covert Intervention and Escalation Management in the Korean War. International Organization
Chabal, Patrick, and Daloz, Jean-Pascal. 1999. Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Chakravarty, Anuradha. 2006. Gacaca Courts in Rwanda: Explaining Divisions within the Human Rights Community. Yale Journal of International Affairs
Christia, Fotini. 2012. Alliance Formation in Civil Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Clausewitz, Carl von. 1969. On War. Champaign, IL: Project Gutenberg.
Comaroff, John L.
2001. Symposium Introduction: Colonialism, Culture, and the Law: A Foreword. Law and Social Inquiry
Comaroff, Jean, and Comaroff, John L.. 2006. Law and Disorder in the Postcolony. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Corey, Allison, and Joireman, Sandra F.. 2004. Retributive Justice: The Gacaca Courts in Rwanda. African Affairs
Cover, Robert M., Minow, Martha, Ryan, Michael, and Sarat, Austin. 1992. Narrative, Violence, and the Law: The Essays of Robert Cover. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Cronin-Furman, Kate. 2013. Managing Expectations: International Criminal Trials and the Prospects for Deterrence of Mass Atrocity. International Journal of Transitional Justice
De Waal, Alex. 2009. Mission Without End? Peacekeeping in the African Political Marketplace. International Affairs
De Waal, Alex. 2016. A Political Marketplace Analysis of South Sudan's Peace. Medford, MA: Justice and Security Research Foundation.
Donais, Timothy. 2009. Empowerment or Imposition? Dilemmas of Local Ownership in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Processes. Peace and Change
Doyle, Michael W., and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2000. International Peacebuilding: A Theoretical and Quantitative Analysis. The American Political Science Review
Driscoll, Jesse. 2012. Commitment Problems or Bidding Wars? Rebel Fragmentation as Peace Building. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Durant, T. Clark, and Weintraub, Michael. 2014. How to Make Democracy Self-Enforcing after Civil War: Enabling Credible yet Adaptable Elite Pacts. Conflict Management and Peace Science
Elbadawi, Ibrahim, and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2000. Why Are There So Many Civil Wars in Africa? Understanding and Preventing Violent Conflict. Journal of African Economies
Englebert, Pierre, and Tull, Denis M.. 2008. Postconflict Reconstruction in Africa: Flawed Ideas About Failed States. International Security
Fearon, James D.
2004. Why Do Some Civil Wars Last So Much Longer than Others?
Journal of Peace Research
Fearon, James D., and Laitin, David D.. 2003. Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War. The American Political Science Review
Flores, Thomas Edward, and Nooruddin, Irfan. 2012. The Effect of Elections on Postconflict Peace and Reconstruction. The Journal of Politics
Fortna, Virginia Page. 2004. Does Peacekeeping Keep Peace? International Intervention and the Duration of Peace After Civil War. International Studies Quarterly
Fujii, Lee Ann. 2010. Shades of Truth and Lies: Interpreting Testimonies of War and Violence. Journal of Peace Research
Grenfell, Laura. 2013. Promoting the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict States. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hartzell, Caroline, Hoddie, Matthew, and Rothchild, Donald. 2001. Stabilizing the Peace After Civil War: An Investigation of Some Key Variables. International Organization
Hazen, Jennifer M.
2013. What Rebels Want: Resources and Supply Networks in Wartime. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hedström, Peter, and Swedberg, Richard. 1998. Social Mechanisms: An Analytical Approach to Social Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hedström, Peter, and Ylikoski, Petri. 2010. Causal Mechanisms in the Social Sciences. Annual Review of Sociology
Hoddie, Matthew, and Hartzell, Caroline. 2003. Civil War Settlements and the Implementation of Military Power-Sharing Arrangements. Journal of Peace Research
Hoddie, Matthew, and Hartzell, Caroline. 2010. Strengthening Peace in Post-Civil War States: Transforming Spoilers into Stakeholders. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hoffman, Danny. 2011. The War Machines: Young Men and Violence in Sierra Leone and Liberia. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Hoover Green, Amelia. 2016. The Commander's Dilemma Creating and Controlling Armed Group Violence. Journal of Peace Research
Huang, Reyko. 2016. The Wartime Origins of Postwar Democratization: Civil War, Rebel Governance, and Political Regimes. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jentzsch, Corinna. 2015. True Believers, Deserters, and Traitors: Who Leaves Insurgent Groups and Why. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Kalyvas, Stathis N.
2003. The Ontology of Political Violence: Action and Identity in Civil Wars. Perspectives on Politics
1 (3): 475–94.
Kalyvas, Stathis N.
2005. Warfare in Civil Wars. In Rethinking the Nature of War, edited by Angstrom, Jan and Duyvesteyn, Isabelle, 88–108. New York: Routledge.
Kalyvas, Stathis N., and Balcells, Laia. 2010. International System and Technologies of Rebellion: How the End of the Cold War Shaped Internal Conflict. American Political Science Review
Keen, David. 2012. Useful Enemies: When Waging Wars Is More Important Than Winning Them. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Koko, Sadiki. 2014. The Mouvement du 23 Mars and the Dynamics of a Failed Insurgency in the Democratic Republic of Congo. South African Journal of International Affairs
Krasner, Stephen D.
2004. Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions for Collapsed and Failing States. International Security
Krasner, Stephen D., and Pascual, Carlos. 2005. Addressing State Failure. Foreign Affairs
La Ferrara, Eliana, and Bates, Robert H.. 2001. Political Competition in Weak States. Economics and Politics
Lake, Milli. 2014a. Ending Impunity for Sexual and Gender-Based Crimes: The International Criminal Court and Complementarity in the Democratic Republic of Congo. African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review
Lake, Milli. 2014b. Organizing Hypocrisy: Providing Legal Accountability for Human Rights Violations in Areas of Limited Statehood. International Studies Quarterly
2009. The Dynamics of Violence in Central Africa. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Licklider, Roy. 1995. Stopping the Killing: How Civil Wars End. New York: New York University Press.
Licklider, Roy. 2014. New Armies from Old: Merging Competing Military Forces After Civil Wars. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Loyle, Cyanne E., and Davenport, Christian. 2016. Transitional Injustice: Subverting Justice in Transition and Postconflict Societies. Journal of Human Rights
Mamdani, Mahmood. 2000. Beyond Rights Talk and Culture Talk: Comparative Essays on the Politics of Rights and Culture. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Mamdani, Mahmood. 2001. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Mamdani, Mahmood. 2010. Responsibility to Protect or Right to Punish?
Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding
Mampilly, Zachariah Cherian. 2011. Rebel Rulers: Insurgent Governance and Civilian Life During War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Mason, T. David, and Krane, Dale A.. 1989. The Political Economy of Death Squads: Toward a Theory of the Impact of State-Sanctioned Terror. International Studies Quarterly
Massoud, Mark Fathi. 2013. Law's Fragile State: Colonial, Authoritarian, and Humanitarian Legacies in Sudan. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, Doug, Tarrow, Sidney G., and Tilly, Charles. 2001. Dynamics of Contention. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Menkhaus, Kenneth John. 2007. Governance without Government in Somalia: Spoilers, State Building, and the Politics of Coping. International Security
Mowae, Isaac James. 1980. The Performance of Soldiers as Governors: African Politics and the African Military. Washington DC: University Press of America.
Muggah, Robert. 2009. Security and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Dealing with Fighters in the Aftermath of War. New York: Routledge.
Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv, and Weintraub, Michael. 2015. Bargaining Between Rebel Groups and the Outside Option of Violence. Terrorism and Political Violence
Olsen, Tricia D., Payne, Leigh A., and Reiter, Andrew G.. 2010. Transitional Justice in Balance: Comparing Processes, Weighing Efficacy. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace Press.
Open Society Foundations. 2013. Justice in DRC: Mobile Courts Combat Rape and Impunity in Eastern Congo. New York: Open Society Justice Initiative.
Ottaway, Marina. 2002. Rebuilding State Institutions in Collapsed States. Development and Change
Paris, Roland. 2004. At War's End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Parkinson, Sarah Elizabeth. 2013. Reinventing the Resistance: Order and Violence Among Palestinians in Lebanon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Parkinson, Sarah Elizabeth. 2016. Money Talks: Discourse, Networks and Structure in Militant Organizations. Perspectives on Politics
Pearlman, Wendy. 2009. Spoiling Inside and Out: Internal Political Contestation and the Middle East Peace Process. International Security
Pearlman, Wendy, and Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher. 2012. Nonstate Actors, Fragmentation, and Conflict Processes. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Peskin, Victor. 2005. Beyond Victor's Justice? The Challenge of Prosecuting the Winners at the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Journal of Human Rights
Petersen, Roger D.
2001. Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons from Eastern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Petersen, Roger D.
2011. Western Intervention in the Balkans: The Strategic Use of Emotion in Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Posen, Barry R.
1993. The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict. Survival
Prunier, Gérard. 2009. Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Quick, Ian. 2015. Follies in Fragile States: How International Stabilisation Failed in the Congo. London: Double Loop.
Quinn, J. Michael, Mason, T. David, and Gurses, Mehmet. 2007. Sustaining the Peace: Determinants of Civil War Recurrence. International Interactions
Radin, Andrew. 2012. The Limits of State-Building: The Politics of War and the Ideology of Peace. Massachussetts Institute of Technology. Available at <https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/74462>. Accessed 26 October 2016.
Raeymaekers, Timothy. 2005. Collapse or Order? Questioning State Collapse in Africa. Conflict Research Group Working Paper 1. Ghent, Belgium: Academia Press Scientific Publishers.
Raeymaekers, Timothy, Menkhaus, Kenneth John, and Vlassenroot, Koen. 2008. State and Non-state Regulation in African Protracted Crises: Governance without Government. Afrika Focus
Reyntjens, Filip. 2004. Rwanda, Ten Years on: From Genocide to Dictatorship. African Affairs
Raleigh, Clionadh, Linke, Andrew, Hegre, Håvard, and Karlsen, Joakim. 2010. Introducing ACLED – Armed Conflict Location and Event Data. Journal of Peace Research
Reno, William. 1999. Warlord Politics and African States. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Risse, Thomas, ed. 2011. Governance Without a State? Policies and Politics in Areas of Limited Statehood. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rodrik, Dani, Subramanian, Arvind, and Trebbi, Francesco. 2004. Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions Over Integration and Geography in Economic Development. Journal of Economic Growth
Rubin, Herbert J., and Rubin, Irene S.. 2012. Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Salehyan, Idean. 2009. Rebels Without Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in World Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Sarkin, Jeremy. 2001. The Tension Between Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda: Politics, Human Rights, Due Process and the Role of the “Gacaca” Courts in Dealing with the Genocide. Journal of African Law Journal of African Law
Scharf, Michael, and McNeal, Gregory. 2006. Saddam on Trial: Understanding and Debating the Iraqi Higher Tribunal. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
Schatz, Edward, ed. 2009. Political Ethnography: What Immersion Contributes to the Study of Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sikkink, Kathryn. 2011. The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics. New York: W.W. Norton.
Sikkink, Kathryn, and Walling, Carrie Booth. 2007. The Impact of Human Rights Trials in Latin America. Journal of Peace Research
Sikkink, Kathryn, and Kim, Hun Joon. 2013. The Justice Cascade: The Origins and Effectiveness of Prosecutions of Human Rights Violations. Annual Review of Law and Social Science
Skaperdas, Stergios. 2008. An Economic Approach to Analyzing Civil Wars. Economics of Governance
Snyder, Jack, and Vinjamuri, Wright Leslie. 2003. Trials and Errors: Principle and Pragmatism in Strategies of International Justice. International Security
Soss, Joe. 2006. Talking Our Way to Meaningful Explanations: A Practice-Centered Approach to In-Depth Interviews for Interpretive Research. In Interpretation and Method edited by Yanow, Dvora and Schwartz-Shea, Peregrine, 127–49. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Spear, Joanna. 1999. The Disarmament and Demobilisation of Warring Factions in the Aftermath of Civil Wars: Key Implementation Issues. Civil Wars
Staniland, Paul. 2012. States, Insurgents, and Wartime Political Orders. Perspectives on Politics
Staniland, Paul. 2014. Networks of Rebellion: Explaining Insurgent Cohesion and Collapse. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Stearns, Jason. 2012. From CNDP to M23: The Evolution of an Armed Movement in Eastern Congo. Nairobi: The Rift Valley Institute, Usalama Project.
Stearns, Jason. 2013. PARECO: Land, Local Strongmen and the Roots of Militia Politics in North Kivu. Nairobi: The Rift Valley Institute, Usalama Project.
Stedman, Stephen John. 2002. Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Themnér, Anders. 2011. Violence in Post-Conflict Societies: Remarginalization, Remobilizers and Relationships. New York: Routledge.
Themnér, Anders. 2015. Former Military Networks and the Micro-Politics of Violence and Statebuilding in Liberia. Comparative Politics
Thomson, Susan M.
2013. Whispering Truth to Power: Everyday Resistance to Reconciliation in Postgenocide Rwanda. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Tolbert, David, and Solomon, Andrew. 2006. United Nations Reform and Supporting the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict Societies. Harvard Human Rights Journal
United Nations Fact Finding Mission. 2010. Final Report of the Fact-Finding Missions of the United Nations Joint Human Rights Office Into the Mass Rapes and Other Human Rights Violations Committed by a Coalition of Armed Groups Along the Kibua-Mpofi Axis in Walikale Territory, North Kivu, from 30 July to 2 August 2010. North Kivu: MONUSCO and United Nations Office of the High Commission for Refugees.
US State Department. 2013. Speech by Johnnie Carson, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs. Finding a Lasting Solution to Instability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Brookings Institution, 11 February.
Uppsala Conflict Data Program. n.d. UCDP Conflict Encyclopaedia. Available at <www.ucdp.uu.se>. Accessed 26 October 2016.
Utas, Matt. 2012. African Conflicts and Informal Power: Big Men and Networks. London, UK: Zed Books.
Verweijen, Judith. 2013. Military Business and the Business of the Military in the Kivus. Review of African Political Economy
Verweijen, Judith. 2015. The Ambiguity of Militarization: The Complex Interaction Between the Congolese Armed Forces and Civilians in the Kivu Provinces, Eastern DR Congo. Unpublished manuscript, Centre for Conflict Studies Faculty of Humanities Utrecht University.
Vlassenroot, Koen, and Raeymaekers, Timothy. 2004. Conflict and Social Transformation in Eastern DR Congo. Conflict Research Group. Ghent, Belgium: Academia Press Scientific Publishers.
Wagner, R. Harrison. 1995. The Causes of Peace. In Stopping the Killing: How Civil Wars End, edited by Licklider, Roy, 235–68. New York: New York University Press.
Wagner, R. Harrison. 2000. Bargaining and War. American Journal of Political Science
Walter, Barbara F.
1997. The Critical Barrier to Civil War Settlement. International Organization
Walter, Barbara F.
1999. Designing Transitions from Civil War: Demobilization, Democratization, and Commitments to Peace. International Security
Walter, Barbara F.
2009. Bargaining Failures and Civil War. Annual Review of Political Science
Warburton, Christopher E.S., and Culp, Richard F.. 2011. Can Domestically Seated War Crimes Tribunals Generate Positive Externalities? A Case Study of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. In International Criminal Justice, edited by Andreopoulos, George, Barberet, Rosemary, and Levine, James P., 169–87. New York: Springer
Weingast, Barry R.
1997. The Political Foundations of Democracy and the Rule of Law. The American Political Science Review
Weintraub, Michael. 2016. Do All Good Things Go Together? Development Assistance and Insurgent Violence in Civil War. The Journal of Politics
Wood, Elisabeth Jean. 2008. The Social Processes of Civil War: The Wartime Transformation of Social Networks. Annual Review of Political Science
Yanow, Dvora, and Schwartz-Shea, Peregrine, eds. 2006. Interpretation and Method: Empirical Research Methods and the Interpretive Turn. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Zaum, Dominic. 2006. The Sovereignty Paradox: The Norms and Politics of International Statebuilding. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.