Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Emotional Beliefs

  • Jonathan Mercer (a1)
Abstract

A belief in alien abduction is an emotional belief, but so is a belief that Iran intends to build nuclear weapons, that one's country is good, that a sales tax is unjust, or that French decision makers are irresolute. Revolutionary research in the brain sciences has overturned conventional views of the relationship between emotion, rationality, and beliefs. Because rationality depends on emotion, and because cognition and emotion are nearly indistinguishable in the brain, one can view emotion as constituting and strengthening beliefs such as trust, nationalism, justice or credibility. For example, a belief that another's commitment is credible depends on one's selection (and interpretation) of evidence and one's assessment of risk, both of which rely on emotion. Observing that emotion and cognition co-produce beliefs has policy implications: how one fights terrorism changes if one views credibility as an emotional belief.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.
Aristotle. 1991. The Art of Rhetoric. Trans. by Lawson-Tancred, H. C.. London: Penguin.
Becker, Lawrence C. 1996. Trust as Noncognitive Security About Motives. Ethics 107 (1):4361.
Bhatt, Meghana, and Camerer, Colin F.. 2005. Self-Referential Thinking and Equilibrium as States of Mind in Games: fMRI Evidence. Games and Economic Behavior 52 (2):424–59.
Blair, James, Mitchell, Derek, and Blair, Karina. 2005. The Psychopath: Emotion and the Brain. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.
Blair, Robert James Richard. 2002. Theory of Mind, Autism, and Emotional Intelligence. In The Wisdom in Feeling: Psychological Processes in Emotional Intelligence, edited by Barrett, Lisa Feldman and Salovey, Peter, 406–34. New York: Guilford Press.
Blanchette, Isabelle. 2006. The Effect of Emotion on Interpretation and Logic in a Conditional Reasoning Task. Memory & Cognition 34 (5):1112–25.
Bleiker, Roland, and Hutchison, Emma. 2008. Fear No More: Emotions and World Politics. Review of International Studies 34 (1yes):115–35.
Brader, Ted. 2006. Campaigning for Hearts and Minds: How Emotional Appeals in Political Ads Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brosnan, Sarah F., and de Waal, Frans B. M.. 2003. Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay. Nature 425 (6955):297–99.
Calhoun, Cheshire. 2004. Subjectivity and Emotion. In Thinking About Feeling: Contemporary Philosophers on Emotions, edited by Solomon, Robert C., 107–21. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Camerer, Colin F., Loewenstein, George, and Prelec, Drazen. 2004. Neuroeconomics: Why Economics Needs Brains. Scandinavian Journal of Economics 106 (3):555–79.
Cameron, Lisa A. 1999. Raising the Stakes in the Ultimatum Game: Experimental Evidence from Indonesia. Economic Inquiry 37 (1):4759.
Checkel, Jeffrey T. 2001. Why Comply? Social Learning and European Identity Change. International Organization 55 (3):553–88.
Clancy, Susan A. 2005. Abducted: How People Come to Believe They Were Kidnapped by Aliens. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Clore, Gerald L., and Gasper, Karen. 2000. Feeling is Believing: Some Affective Influences on Belief. In Emotions and Beliefs: How Feelings Influence Thoughts, edited by Frijda, Nico H., Manstead, Antony S. R., and Bem, Sacha, 1044. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crawford, Neta C. 2000. The Passion of World Politics: Propositions on Emotion and Emotional Relationships. International Security 24 (4):116–56.
Damasio, Antonio R. 1994. Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam.
Damasio, Antonio R. 1999. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Damasio, Antonio R. 2004. William James and the Modern Neurobiology of Emotion. In Emotion, Evolution, and Rationality, edited by Evans, Dylan and Cruse, Pierre, 314. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.
Deci, Edward L. 1971. Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 18 (1):105–15.
Dijkers, Marcel P. J. M. 2005. Quality of Life of Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Conceptualization, Measurement, and Research Findings. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 42 (3, Suppl. 1):87110.
Druckman, James N., and McDermott, Rose. 2008. Emotion and the Framing of Risky Choice. Political Behavior 30 (3):297321.
Duelfer, Charles. 2004. Iraq Survey Group. Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the DCI on Iraq's WMD. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency.
Elster, Jon. 1979. Ulysses and the Sirens: Studies in Rationality and Irrationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elster, Jon. 1983. Sour Grapes: Studies in the Subversion of Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elster, Jon. 1999. Alchemies of the Mind: Rationality and the Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Elster, Jon. 2004. Emotions and Rationality. In Feelings and Emotions: The Amsterdam Symposium, edited by Manstead, Antony S. R., Frijda, Nico, and Fischer, Agneta, 3048. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Felter, Joseph, and Fishman, Brian. 2008. Appendix A. In Iranian Strategy in Iraq: Policy and “Other Means.” United States Military Academy at West Point: Combating Terrorism Center. West Point, N.Y. Available at ⟨http://www.ctc.usma.edu/Iran_Iraq.asp⟩. Accessed 2 October 2009.
Festinger, Leon. 1957. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Evanston, Ill.: Row, Peterson and Company.
Fielder, Klaus, and Bless, Herbert. 2000. The Formation of Beliefs at the Interface of Affective and Cognitive Processes. In Emotions and Beliefs: How Feelings Influence Thoughts, edited by Frijda, Nico H., Manstead, Antony S. R., and Bem, Sacha, 144–70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Finnemore, Martha, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization 52 (4):887917.
Finucane, Melissa L., Alhakami, Ali, Slovic, Paul, and Johnson, Stephen M.. 2000. The Affect Heuristic in Judgments of Risks and Benefits. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 13 (1):117.
Frijda, Nico H. 1988. The Laws of Emotion. American Psychologist 43 (5):349–58.
Frijda, Nico H. 2000. The Psychologists' Point of View. In Handbook of Emotions, 2d ed., edited by Lewis, Michael and Haviland-Jones, Jeannette M., 5974. New York: Guilford Press.
Frijda, Nico H., Manstead, Antony S. R., and Bem, Sacha. 2000. The Influence of Emotions on Beliefs. In Emotions and Beliefs: How Feelings Influence Thoughts, edited by Frijda, Nico H., Manstead, Antony S. R., and Bem, Sacha, 19. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Frijda, Nico H., Manstead, Antony S. R., and Fischer, Agneta H.. 2004. Feelings and Emotions: Where do We Stand? In Feelings and Emotions: The Amsterdam Symposium, edited by Manstead, Antony S. R., Frijda, Nico, and Fischer, Agneta, 455–67. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Frijda, Nico H., and Mesquita, Batja. 2000. Beliefs Through Emotions. In Emotions and Beliefs: How Feelings Influence Thoughts, edited by Frijda, Nico H., Manstead, Antony S. R., and Bem, Sacha, 4577. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gilbert, Daniel T., Driver-Linn, Erin, and Wilson, Timothy D.. 2002. The Trouble with Vronsky: Impact Bias in the Forecasting of Future Affective States. In The Wisdom of Feeling: Psychological Processes in Emotional Intelligence, edited by Barrett, Lisa Feldman and Salovey, Peter, 114–43. New York: Guilford Press.
Gilbert, Daniel T., Pinel, Elizabeth C., Wilson, Timothy D., Blumberg, Stephen J., and Wheatley, Thalia P.. 1998. Immune Neglect: A Source of Durability Bias in Affective Forecasting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75 (3):617–38.
Goldie, Peter. 2004. Emotion, Feeling, and Knowledge of the World. In Thinking About Feeling: Contemporary Philosophers on Emotions, edited by Solomon, Robert C., 91106. New York: Oxford University Press.
Harris Poll. 2006. Great Britain, Canada, Australia, Israel and Japan Continue to be Countries Most Widely Seen as Close U.S. Allies. The Harris Poll No. 60. 3 August 2006. Available at ⟨http://www.harrisinteractive.com/harris_poll/index.asp?PID=687⟩. Accessed 7 October 2009.
Harris, Sam, Sheth, Sameer A., and Cohen, Mark S.. 2008. Functional Neuroimaging of Belief, Disbelief, and Uncertainty. Annals of Neurology 63 (2):141–47.
Hassner, Ron E. 2006/2007. The Path to Intractability: Time and the Entrenchment of Territorial Disputes. International Security 31 (3):107–38.
Heider, Fritz. 1958. The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: Wiley.
Henrich, Joseph, Boyd, Robert, Bowles, Samuel, Camerer, Colin, Fehr, Ernst, Gintis, Herbert, and McElreath, Richard. 2001. In Search of Homo Economicus: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies. American Economic Review 91 (2):7378.
Hersh, Seymour M. 2006. The Iran Plans: Would President Bush Go to War to Stop Tehran from Getting the Bomb? New Yorker (Online ed.) 17 April 2006.
Hirschman, Albert O. 1977. The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism Before Its Triumph. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Hopf, Ted. 1994. Peripheral Visions: Deterrence Theory and American Foreign Policy in the Third World, 1965–1990. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Hsee, Christopher K., Zhang, Jiao, Yu, Fang, and Xi, Yiheng. 2003. Lay Rationalism and Inconsistency between Predicted Experience and Decision. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 16 (4):257–72.
Hutchison, Kay Bailey. 2007. Interview by Jim Lehrer. The Newshour. PBS. 12 July.
Hymans, Jacques E. C. 2006. The Psychology of Nuclear Proliferation: Identity, Emotions, and Foreign Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
James, William. 1884a. On Some Omissions of Introspective Psychology. Mind 9 (33):126.
James, William. 1884b. What Is an Emotion? Mind 9 (34):188205.
Jervis, Robert. 1970. The Logic of Images in International Relations. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Jervis, Robert. 1976. Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Jervis, Robert. 1979. Deterrence Theory Revisited. World Politics 31 (2):289324.
Jervis, Robert. 2005. American Foreign Policy in a New Era. New York: Routledge.
Jervis, Robert. 2006. Understanding Beliefs. Political Psychology 27 (5):641–63.
Jervis, Robert, Lebow, Richard Ned, and Stein, Janice Gross, eds. 1985. Psychology and Deterrence. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Johnson-Laird, P. N., and Oatley, Keith. 2000. Cognitive and Social Construction in Emotions. In Handbook of Emotions, 2d ed., edited by Lewis, Michael and Haviland-Jones, Jeannette M., 458–75. New York: Guilford Press.
Johnston, Alastair Iain. 2005. Conclusions and Extensions: Toward Mid-Range Theorizing and Beyond Europe. International Organization 59 (4):1013–44.
Jones, Karen. 1996. Trust as an Affective Attitude. Ethics 107 (1):425.
Kahneman, Daniel. 1999. Objective Happiness. In Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology, edited by Kahneman, Daniel, Diener, Ed, and Schwarz, Norbert, 325. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Kahneman, Daniel. 2000a. New Challenges to the Rationality Assumption. In Choices, Values, and Frames, edited by Kahneman, Daniel and Tversky, Amos, 758–74. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Kahneman, Daniel. 2000b. Preface. In Choices, Values, and Frames, edited by Kahneman, Daniel and Tversky, Amos, ix–xvii. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Kahneman, Daniel, and Krueger, Alan B.. 2006. Developments in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Economic Perspectives 20 (1):324.
Kahneman, Daniel, and Tversky, Amos. 1979. Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk. Econometrica 47 (2):263–92.
Kaufman, Stuart J. 2001. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Kelman, Herbert C. 1997. Nationalism, Patriotism, and National Identity: Social-psychological Dimensions. In Patriotism in the Lives of Individuals and Nations, edited by Bar-Tal, Daniel and Staub, Ervin, 165–89. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Kier, Elizabeth. Forthcoming. War and Reform: Gaining Labor's Compliance on the Homefront. In War's Wake: International Conflict and the Fate of Liberal Democracy, edited by Kier, Elizabeth and Krebs, Ronald R.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
King-Casas, Brooks, Tomlin, Damon, Anen, Cedric, Camerer, Colin F., Quartz, Steven R., and Montague, P. Read. 2005. Getting to Know You: Reputation and Trust in a Two-Person Economic Exchange. Science 308 (5718):7883.
Kirshner, Jonathan. 2000. Rationalist Explanations for War? Security Studies 10 (1):143–50.
Konijn, Elly A., van der Molen, Juliette H. Walma, and van Nes, Sander. 2009. Emotions Bias Perceptions of Realism in Audiovisual Media: Why We May Take Fiction for Real. Discourse Processes 46:309–40.
Kosfeld, Michael, Heinrichs, Markus, Zak, Paul J., Fischbacher, Urs, and Fehr, Ernst. 2005. Oxytocin Increases Trust in Humans. Nature 435 (7042):673–76.
Kuklick, Bruce. 2006. Blind Oracles: Intellectuals and War from Kennan to Kissinger. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Kydd, Andrew H. 2005. Trust and Mistrust in International Relations. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
LeBoeuf, Robyn A., and Shafir, Eldar. 2003. Deep Thoughts and Shallow Frames: On the Susceptibility to Framing Effects. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 16 (2):7792.
Lebow, Richard Ned. 1981. Between Peace and War: The Nature of International Crisis. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Leno, Jay. 2003. Monologue. Tonight Show. National Broadcasting Company. 12 March.
Löwenheim, Oded, and Heimann, Gadi. 2008. Revenge in International Politics. Security Studies 17 (4):685724.
Malle, Bertram F. 2005. Folk Theory of Mind: Conceptual Foundations of Human Social Cognition. In The New Unconscious, edited by Hassin, Ran R., Uleman, James S., and Bargh, John A., 225–55. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Marcus, George E., Neuman, W. Russell, and MacKuen, Michael. 2000. Affective Intelligence and Political Judgment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McClellan, Scott. 2008. What Happened: Inside the Bush White House and Washington's Culture of Deception. New York: Public Affairs.
McDermott, Rose. 2004a. The Feeling of Rationality: The Meaning of Neuroscientific Advances for Political Science. Perspective on Politics 2 (4):691706.
McDermott, Rose. 2004b. Prospect Theory in Political Science: Gains and Losses from the First Decade. Political Psychology 25 (2):289312.
Mercer, Jonathan. 1996. Reputation and International Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Mercer, Jonathan. 2005a. Prospect Theory and Political Science. Annual Review of Political Science 8:121.
Mercer, Jonathan. 2005b. Rationality and Psychology in International Politics. International Organization 59 (1):77106.
Morrot, Gil, Brochet, Frédéric, and Dubourdieu, Denis. 2001. The Color of Odors. Brain and Language 79 (2):309–20.
National Intelligence Estimate. 2006. Declassified Key Judgments of the National Intelligence Estimate on Global Terrorism. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Available at ⟨http://www.odni.gov/press_releases/Declassified_NIE_Key_Judgments.pdf⟩. Accessed 7 October 2009.
Negroponte, John. 2006. Interview by Robert Siegel. All Things Considered. National Public Radio. 1 September.
Neuman, W. Russell, Marcus, George E., Crigler, Ann N., and MacKuen, Michael. 2007. Theorizing Affect's Effects. In The Affect Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Political Thinking and Behavior, edited by Neuman, W. Russell, Marcus, George E., Crigler, Ann N., and MacKuen, Michael, 120. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Nussbaum, Martha C. 2001. Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Öhman, Arne, and Wiens, Stefan. 2004. The Concept of an Evolved Fear Module and Cognitive Theories of Anxiety. In Feelings and Emotions: The Amsterdam Symposium, edited by Manstead, Antony S. R., Frijda, Nico, and Fischer, Agneta, 5880. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ortony, Andrew, Clore, Gerald L., and Collins, Allan. 1988. The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Packer, George. 2005. The Assassins' Gate: America in Iraq. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Phelps, Elizabeth A. 2006. Emotion and Cognition: Insights from Studies of the Human Amygdala. Annual Review of Psychology 57:2753.
Pollack, Kenneth M. 2008. A Path out of the Desert: A Grand Strategy for America in the Middle East. New York: Random House.
Poortinga, Wouter, and Pidgeon, Nick F.. 2005. Trust in Risk Regulation: Cause or Consequence of the Acceptability of GM Food? Risk Analysis 25 (1):199209.
Price, Richard. 1998. Reversing the Gun Sights: Transnational Civil Society Targets Land Mines. International Organization 52 (3):613–44.
Program on International Policy Attitudes. 2006. The Iraqi Public on the U.S. Presence and the Future of Iraq. 27 September.
Rabin, Matthew. 2002. A Perspective on Psychology and Economics. European Economic Review 46 (4–5):657–85.
Reifman, Alan S., Larrick, Richard P., and Fein, Steven. 1991. Temper and Temperature on the Diamond: The Heat-Aggression Relationship in Major League Baseball. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 17 (5):580–85.
Rilling, James K., Gutman, David A., Zeh, Thorsten R., Pagnoni, Giuseppe, Berns, Gregory S., and Kilts, Clinton D.. 2002. A Neural Basis for Social Cooperation. Neuron 35 (2):395405.
Risen, James. 2006. State of War: The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration. New York: Free Press.
Risse, Thomas. 2000. “Let's Argue!”: Communicative Action in World Politics. International Organization 54 (1):139.
Risse, Thomas, and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1999. The Socialization of International Human Rights Norms into Domestic Practices: Introduction. In The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change, edited by Risse, Thomas, Ropp, Stephen C., and Sikkink, Kathryn, 138. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosen, Stephen Peter. 2004. War and Human Nature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Ross, Andrew A. G. 2006. Coming in from the Cold: Constructivism and Emotions. European Journal of International Relations 12 (2):197222.
Schelling, Thomas C. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Schelling, Thomas C. 2006. An Astonishing Sixty Years: The Legacy of Hiroshima. American Economic Review 96 (4):929–37.
Searle, John R. 1998. Mind, Language, and Society: Philosophy in the Real World. New York: Basic Books.
Shafir, Eldar, and LeBoeuf, Robyn A.. 2002. Rationality. Annual Review of Psychology 53:491517.
Shannon, Vaughn P., and Dennis, Michael. 2007. Militant Islam and the Futile Fight for Reputation. Security Studies 16 (2):287317.
Shiv, Baba, Loewenstein, George, Bechara, Antoine, Damasio, Hanna, and Damasio, Antonio R.. 2005. Investment Behavior and the Negative Side of Emotion. Psychological Science 16 (6):435–39.
Slovic, Paul, Finucane, Melissa L., Peters, Ellen, and MacGregor, Donald G.. 2004. Risk as Analysis and Risk as Feelings: Some Thoughts About Affect, Reason, Risk and Rationality. Risk Analysis 24 (2):311–22.
Smith, Craig A., and Lazarus, Richard S.. 1993. Appraisal Components, Core Relational Themes, and the Emotions. Cognition and Emotion 7 (3–4):233–69.
Solomon, Robert C. 2000. The Philosophy of Emotions. In Handbook of Emotions, edited by Lewis, Michael and Haviland-Jones, Jeannette M., 315. 2d ed.New York: Guilford Press.
Tetlock, Philip E. 2005. Expert Political Judgment: How Good Is It? How Can We Know? Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Turner, Jonathan H., and Stets, Jan E.. 2005. The Sociology of Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tyler, Tom R., Boeckmann, Robert J., Smith, Heather J., and Huo, Yuen J.. 1997. Social Justice in a Diverse Society. Boulder, Colo.: Westview.
U.S. Senate. 2006. Select Committee on Intelligence. Postwar Findings About Iraq's WMD Programs and Links to Terrorism and How They Compare with Prewar Assessments. 109th Cong., 2nd sess., 8 September 2006.
Verdejo-García, A., Pérez-García, M., and Bechara, A.. 2006. Emotion, Decision-Making and Substance Dependence: A Somatic-Marker Model of Addiction. Current Neuropharmacology 4 (1):1731.
Volkan, Vamik D. 1985. The Need to Have Enemies and Allies: A Developmental Approach. Political Psychology 6 (2):219–47.
Walt, Stephen M. 1999. Rigor or Rigor Mortis? Rational Choice and Security Studies. International Security 23 (4):548.
Weeks, Jessica L. 2008. Autocratic Audience Costs: Regime Type and Signaling Resolve. International Organization 62 (1):3564.
Westen, Drew, Blagov, Pavel S., Harenski, Keith, Kilts, Clint, and Hamann, Stephan. 2006. Neural Bases of Motivated Reasoning: An fMRI Study of Emotional Constraints on Partisan Political Judgment in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18 (11):1947–58.
Wheeler, Mark. 2007. Different Areas of Brain Respond to Belief, Disbelief. UC Newsroom, University of California at Los Angeles. 11 December. Available at ⟨http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/article/16988⟩. Accessed 7 October 2009.
Woods, Kevin M. 2006. Iraqi Perspectives Project: A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam's Senior Leadership. Norfolk, Va.: U.S. Joint Forces Command, Joint Center for Operational Analysis.
Zajonc, Robert B. 1980. Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences. American Psychologist 35 (2):151–75.
Zajonc, Robert B. 1998. Emotions. In The Handbook of Social Psychology, edited by Gilbert, Daniel T., Fiske, Susan T., and Lindzey, Gardner, 591632. 4th ed.Vol. 2. New York: Oxford University Press.
Zajonc, Robert B., Murphy, Sheila T., and Inglehart, Marita. 1989. Feeling and Facial Efference: Implications of the Vascular Theory of Emotion. Psychological Review 96 (3):395416.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Organization
  • ISSN: 0020-8183
  • EISSN: 1531-5088
  • URL: /core/journals/international-organization
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 44
Total number of PDF views: 1195 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2759 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.