Aksoy, Deniz, Carter, David B., and Wright, Joseph. 2015. Terrorism and the Fate of Dictators. World Politics 67 (3):423–68.
Akyeampong, Emmanuel, Bates, Robert H., Nunn, Nathan, and Robinson, James. 2014. Africa's Development in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press.
Alsan, Marcella. 2015. The Effect of the Tsetse Fly on African Development. American Economic Review 105 (1):382–410.
Bechtold, Peter K. 1990. More Turbulence in Sudan: A New Politics This Time? Middle East Journal 44 (4):579–95.
Bell, Curtis, and Sudduth, Jun Koga. 2017. The Causes and Outcomes of Coup During Civil War. Journal of Conflict Resolution 61 (7):1432–55.
Besley, Timothy, and Reynal-Querol, Marta. 2014. The Legacy of Historical Conflict: Evidence from Africa. American Political Science Review 108 (2):319–36.
Bockstette, Valerie, Chanda, Areendam, and Putterman, Louis. 2002. States and Markets: The Advantage of an Early Start. Journal of Economic Growth 7 (4):347–69.
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede, and Buhaug, Halvard. 2013. Inequality, Grievances, and Civil War. Cambridge University Press.
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Wimmer, Andreas, and Min, Brian. 2010. Why Do Ethnic Groups Rebel? New Data and Analysis. World Politics 62 (1):87–119.
Chandra, Kanchan. 2011. What Is an Ethnic Party? Party Politics 17 (2):151–69.
Collier, Ruth Berins. 1982. Regimes in Tropical Africa: Changing Forms of Supremacy, 1945–1975. University of California Press.
Colson, Elizabeth. 1969. African Society at the Time of the Scramble. In Colonialism in Africa, 1870–1960, Volume 1: The History and Politics of Colonialism 1870–1914, edited by Gann, L.H. and Duignan, Peter, 27–65. Cambridge University Press.
Decalo, Samuel. 1990. Coups and Army Rule in Africa. Yale University Press.
Depetris-Chauvin, Emilio. 2015. . Working paper.
Dincecco, Mark, Fenske, James E., and Onorato, Massimiliano Gaetano. 2016. . Working paper.
Dinwiddy, Hugh. 1981. The Search for Unity in Uganda: Early Days to 1966. African Affairs 80 (321):501–18.
Doornbos, Martin R. 1977. Ankole. In African Kingships in Perspective: Political Change and Modernization in Monarchical Settings, edited by Lemarchand, Rene, 236–59. Frank Cass.
Englebert, Pierre, Tarango, Stacy, and Carter, Matthew. 2002. Dismemberment and Suffocation: A Contribution to the Debate on African Boundaries. Comparative Political Studies 35:1093–118.
Fearon, James D. 2008. Ethnic Mobilization and Ethnic Violence. In Oxford Handbook of Political Economy, edited by Weingast, Barry R. and Wittman, Donald, 852–68. Oxford University Press.
Fearon, James D., Kasara, Kimuli, and Laitin, David D.. 2007. Ethnic Minority Rule and Civil War Onset. American Political Science Review 101 (1):187–93.
Fearon, James D., and Laitin, David D.. 2003. Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War. American Political Science Review 97 (1):75–90.
Fenske, James. 2014. Ecology, Trade, and States in Pre-Colonial Africa. Journal of the European Economic Association 12 (3):612–40.
Finer, Samuel E. 2002. The Man on Horseback: The Role of the Military in Politics. Transaction Publishers.
Francois, Patrick, Rainer, Ilia, and Trebbi, Francesco. 2015. How Is Power Shared in Africa? Econometrica 83 (2):465–503.
Gassebner, Martin, Gutmann, Jerg, and Voigt, Stefan. 2016. When to Expect a Coup d'état? An Extreme Bounds Analysis of Coup Determinants. Public Choice 169 (3–4):293–313.
Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Cornell University Press.
Gennaioli, Nicola, and Rainer, Ilia. 2007. The Modern Impact of Precolonial Centralization in Africa. Journal of Economic Growth 12 (3):185–234.
Gerring, John, Ziblatt, Daniel, Van Gorp, Johan, and Arevalo, Julian. 2011. An Institutional Theory of Direct and Indirect Rule. World Politics 63 (3):377–433.
Harkness, Kristin A. 2018. When Soldiers Rebel: Ethnic Armies and Political Instability in Africa. Cambridge University Press.
Herbst, Jeffrey. 2000. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton University Press.
Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. University of California Press.
Kohli, Atul. 2004. State-Directed Development: Political Power and Industrialization in the Global Periphery. Cambridge University Press.
Lacina, Bethany. 2015. Periphery Versus Periphery: The Stakes of Separatist War. Journal of Politics 77 (3):692–706.
Lemarchand, Rene, ed. 1977. African Kingships in Perspective: Political Change and Modernization in Monarchical Settings. Frank Cass.
Lovejoy, Paul E. 1992. Historical Setting. In Nigeria: A Country Study, edited by Metz, Helen Chapin, 1–84. Library of Congress.
Magaloni, Beatriz. 2008. Credible Power-Sharing and the Longevity of Authoritarian Rule. Comparative Political Studies 41 (4–5):715–41.
Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton University Press.
McIntosh, Susan Keech. 2005. Beyond Chiefdoms: Pathways to Complexity in Africa. Cambridge University Press.
Michalopoulos, Stelios and Papaioannou, Elias. 2013. Pre-Colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development. Econometrica 81 (1):113–52.
Michalopoulos, Stelios and Papaioannou, Elias. 2016. The Long-Run Effects of the Scramble for Africa. American Economic Review 106 (7):1802–848.
Murdock, George Peter. 1959. Africa: Its Peoples and their Culture History. McGraw-Hill.
Murdock, George Peter. 1967. Ethnographic Atlas. University of Pittsburgh Press.
Nunn, Nathan. 2008. The Long-Term Effects of Africa's Slave Trades. Quarterly Journal of Economics 123 (1):139–76.
Nunn, Nathan, and Wantchekon, Leonard. 2011. The Slave Trade and the Origins of Mistrust in Africa. American Economic Review 101 (7):3221–52.
Osafo-Kwaako, Philip, and Robinson, James A.. 2013. Political Centralization in Pre-Colonial Africa. Journal of Comparative Economics 41 (1):6–21.
Posner, Daniel N. 2004. Measuring Ethnic Fractionalization in Africa. American Journal of Political Science 48 (4):849–63.
Posner, Daniel N. 2005. Institutions and Ethnic Politics in Africa. Cambridge University Press.
Powell, Jonathan M. 2014. Trading Coups for Civil War: The Strategic Logic of Tolerating Rebellion. African Security Review 23 (4):329–38.
Powell, Robert. 2004. The Inefficient Use of Power: Costly Conflict with Complete Information. American Political Science Review 98 (2):231–41.
Putterman, Louis. 2008. Agriculture, Diffusion and Development: Ripple Effects of the Neolithic Revolution. Economica 75 (300):729–48.
Quinlivan, James T. 1999. Coup-Proofing: Its Practice and Consequences in the Middle East. International Security 24 (2):131–65.
Raleigh, Clionadh, Linke, Andrew, Hegre, Håvard, and Karlsen, Joakim. 2010. Introducing ACLED: An Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset. Journal of Peace Research 47 (5):651–60.
Ranger, Terence. 2012. The Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa. In The Invention of Tradition, edited by Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terence, 211–62. Cambridge University Press.
Reid, Richard J. 2012. Warfare in African History. Cambridge University Press.
Reno, William. 2003. The Changing Nature of Warfare and the Absence of State-Building in West Africa. In Irregular Armed Forces and Their Role in Politics and State Formation, edited by Davis, Diane and Pereira, Anthony, 322–45. Cambridge University Press.
Roessler, Philip. 2011. The Enemy Within: Personal Rule, Coups, and Civil War in Africa. World Politics 63 (2):300–46.
Roessler, Philip. 2016. Ethnic Politics and State Power in Africa: The Logic of the Coup-Civil War Trap. Cambridge University Press.
Roessler, Philip, and Ohls, David. 2018. Self-Enforcing Power Sharing in Weak States. International Organization 72 (2):423–54.
Rothchild, Donald, and Rogin, Michael. 1966. Uganda. In National Unity and Regionalism in Eight African States, edited by Carter, Gwendolen M., 337–440. Cornell University Press.
Schmidt, Siegmar. 1999. Uganda. In Elections in Africa: A Data Handbook, edited by Nohlen, Dieter, Thibaut, Bernard, and Krennerich, Michael, 925–38. Oxford University Press.
Sklar, Richard L., and Whitaker, C.S.. 1966. The Federal Republic of Nigeria. In National Unity and Regionalism in Eight African States, edited by Carter, Gwendolen M., 7–150. Cornell University Press.
Southall, Aidan. 1974. State Formation in Africa. Annual Review of Anthropology 3:153–65.
Sudduth, Jun Koga. 2017. Strategic Logic of Elite Purges in Dictatorships. Comparative Political Studies 50 (13):1768–801.
Svolik, Milan W. 2012. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. Cambridge University Press.
Talmadge, Caitlin. 2015. The Dictator's Army: Battlefield Effectiveness in Authoritarian Regimes. Cornell University Press.
Tartter, Jean R. 1992. National Security. In Sudan: A Country Study, edited by Metz, Helen Chapin, 229–76. Library of Congress.
Tripp, Aili Mari. 2009. Museveni's Uganda: Paradoxes of Power in a Hybrid Regime. Rienner.
Vogt, Manuel, Bormann, Nils-Christian, Rüegger, Seraina, Cederman, Lars-Erik, Hunziker, Philipp, and Girardin, Luc. 2015. Integrating Data on Ethnicity, Geography, and Conflict: The Ethnic Power Relations Data Set Family. Journal of Conflict Resolution 59 (7):1327–42.
Warner, Carolyn M. 2001. The Rise of the State System in Africa. Review of International Studies 27 (5):65–89.
Wig, Tore. 2016. Peace from the Past: Pre-Colonial Political Institutions and Civil Wars in Africa. Journal of Peace Research 53 (4):509–24.
Wucherpfennig, Julian, Hunziker, Philipp, and Cederman, Lars-Erik. 2016. Who Inherits the State? Colonial Rule and Post-Colonial Conflict. American Journal of Political Science 60 (4):882–98.