Skip to main content
×
Home

International Politics and the Spread of Quotas for Women in Legislatures

  • Sarah Sunn Bush (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Quotas to promote women's representation in the world's legislatures have spread to more than one hundred countries. The diffusion of gender quotas poses a puzzle since they have often been adopted in countries where women have low status. International influence and inducements best explain quota adoption in developing countries. Promoting gender equality, including through gender quotas, has become a key part of international democracy promotion. The international legitimacy of gender quotas leads them to be adopted through two causal pathways: directly, through postconflict peace operations, and indirectly, by encouraging countries, especially those that depend on foreign aid, to signal their commitment to democracy by adopting quotas. An event history analysis, which controls for other relevant factors, shows that the hypothesized relationships exist. Further support comes from a process-tracing analysis of Afghanistan's 2004 quota.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Abirafeh Lina. 2009. Gender and International Aid in Afghanistan: The Politics and Effects of Intervention. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company.
Araújo Clara, and García Ana Isabel. 2006. Latin America: The Experience and the Impact of Quotas in Latin America. In Women, Quotas, and Politics, edited by Dahlerup Drude, 83111. London: Routledge.
Ballington Julie, and Dahlerup Drude. 2006. Gender Quotas in Post-Conflict States: East Timor, Afghanistan and Iraq. In Women, Quotas, and Politics, edited by Dahlerup Drude, 249–58. London: Routledge.
Bauer Antje. 2002. Afghan Women and the Democratic Reconstruction of Afghanistan: Findings and Interviews from a Journalist's Field Trip. Berlin: Berghof Research Center.
Beaulieu Emily, and Hyde Susan D.. 2009. In the Shadow of Democracy Promotion: Strategic Manipulation, International Observers, and Election Boycotts. Comparative Political Studies 42 (3):392415.
Beck Thorsten, Clarke George, Groff Alberto, Keefer Philip, and Walsh Patrick. 2001. New Tools in Comparative Political Economy: The Database of Political Institutions. World Bank Economic Review 15 (1):165–76.
Beckwith Karen. 2003. The Gendering Ways of States: Women's Representation and State Configuration in France, Great Britain, and the United States. In Women's Movements Facing the Reconfigured State, edited by Banaszak Lee Ann, Beckwith Karen, and Rucht Dieter, 169202. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Berkovitch Nitza. 1999. From Motherhood to Citizenship: Women's Rights and International Organizations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Berry Frances Stokes, and Berry William D.. 1990. State Lottery Adoptions as Policy Innovations: An Event History Analysis. American Political Science Review 84 (2):395415.
Bhavnani Rikhil R. 2009. Do Electoral Quotas Work After They Are Withdrawn? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in India. American Political Science Review 103 (1):2335.
Box-Steffensmeier Janet M., and Jones Bradford S.. 2004. Event History Modeling: A Guide for Social Scientists. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brown Keith. 2006. The New Ugly Americans? Making Sense of Democracy Promotion in the Former Yugoslavia. In Transacting Transition: The Micropolitics of Democracy Assistance in the Former Yugoslavia, edited by Brown Keith, 122. Bloomfield, Conn.: Kumarian Press.
Burnell Peter J. 2000. Democracy Assistance: The State of the Discourse. In Democracy Assistance: International Co-operation for Democratization, edited by Burnell Peter J., 333. London: Frank Cass.
Carothers Thomas. 1999. Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Carothers Thomas. 2006. The Backlash Against Democracy Promotion. Foreign Affairs 85 (2):5568.
Caul Miki. 2001. Political Parties and the Adoption of Candidate Gender Quotas: A Cross-National Analysis. Journal of Politics 63 (4):1214–29.
Chattopadhyay Raghabendra, and Duflo Esther. 2004. Women as Policymakers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India. Econometrica 72 (5):1409–43.
Clark Janine A. 2006. The Conditions of Islamist Moderation: Unpacking Cross-Ideological Cooperation in Jordan. International Journal of Middle East Studies 38 (4):539–60.
Coles Kimberley 2007. Democratic Designs: International Intervention and Electoral Practices in Post-War Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press.
Cox Michael, Ikenberry G. John, and Inoguchi Takashi. 2000. Introduction. In American Democracy Promotion: Impulses, Strategies, and Impacts, edited by Cox Michael, Ikenberry G. John, and Inoguchi Takashi, 117. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Crocker Adriana. 2009. Gender Quotas in Latin America: Analyzing Diffusion at Cross-National and Sub-National Levels. Paper presented at the 50th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, February, New York.
Dahlerup Drude. 2006. Introduction. In Women, Quotas, and Politics, edited by Dahlerup Drude, 331. London: Routledge.
DiMaggio Paul J., and Powell Walter W.. 1983. The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphisms and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields. American Sociological Review 48 (2):147–60.
Ellerby Kara. 2009. Inclusion Diffusion: The Dynamics of Quota Diffusion. Paper presented at the 50th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, February, New York.
Ferguson James. 1990. The Anti-Politics Machine: ‘Development,’ Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Finkel Steven E., Pérez-Liñán Aníbal, and Seligson Mitchell A.. 2007. The Effects of U.S. Foreign Assistance on Democracy Building, 1990–2003. World Politics 59 (3):404–39.
Finnemore Martha. 1996. National Interests in International Society. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Finnemore Martha, and Sikkink Kathryn. 1998. International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization 52 (4):887917.
Fish M. Steven. 2002. Islam and Authoritarianism. World Politics 55 (1):437.
Fleschenberg Andrea. 2009. Afghanistan's Parliament in the Making: Gendered Understandings and Practices of Politics in a Transitional Country. Berlin: Heinrich Böll Foundation.
Franzese Robert J. Jr., and Hays Jude C.. 2009. The Spatial Probit Model of Interdependent Binary Outcomes: Estimation, Interpretation, and Presentation. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Public Choice Society, March, Las Vegas, Nev.
Girod Desha M., Krasner Stephen D., and Stoner-Weiss Kathryn. 2009. Governance and Foreign Assistance: The Imperfect Translation of Ideas into Outcomes. In Promoting Democracy and the Rule of Law: American and European Strategies, edited by Magen Amichai A., Risse Thomas, and McFaul Michael A., 6192. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gleditsch Nils Petter, Wallensteen Peter, Eriksson Mikael, Sollenberg Margareta, and Strand Håvard. 2002. Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset. Journal of Peace Research 39 (5):615–37.
Goldstein Judith, and Keohane Robert O.. 1993. Ideas and Foreign Policy: An Analytical Framework. In Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, and Political Change, edited by Goldstein Judith and Keohane Robert O., 330. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Gourevitch Peter G. 1978. The Second Image Reversed: The International Sources of Domestic Politics. International Organization 32 (4):881912.
Guilhot Nicolas. 2005. The Democracy Makers: Human Rights and International Order. New York: Columbia University Press.
Haas Peter M. 1992. Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination. International Organization 46 (1):135.
Hafner-Burton Emilie M. 2005. Trading Human Rights: How Preferential Trade Agreements Influence Government Repression. International Organization 59 (3):593629.
Hafner-Burton Emilie M., and Ron James. 2009. Seeing Double: Human Rights Impact Through Qualitative and Quantitative Eyes. World Politics 61 (2):360401.
Hafner-Burton Emilie M., and Tsutsui Kiyoteru. 2007. Justice Lost! The Failure of International Human Rights Law to Matter Where Needed Most. Journal of Peace Research 44 (4):407–25.
Hughes Melanie M. 2009. Armed Conflict, International Linkages, and Women's Parliamentary Representation in Developing Nations. Social Problems 56 (1):174204.
Hurd Ian. 2007. After Anarchy: Legitimacy and Power in the United Nations Security Council. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Hyde Susan D. 2007. The Observer Effect in International Politics: Evidence from a Natural Experiment. World Politics 60 (1):3763.
Hyde Susan D. 2008. Catch Me If You Can: Why Leaders Invite International Election Monitors and Cheat in Front of Them. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.
Ikenberry G. John. 1993. Creating Yesterday's New World Order: Keynesian ‘New Thinking’ and the Anglo-American Postwar Settlement. In Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, and Political Change, edited by Goldstein Judith and Keohane Robert O., 5786. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Imai Kosuke, King Gary, and Lau Olivia. 2007. Zelig: Everyone's Statistical Software. Available at ⟨http://www.GKing.harvard.edu/zelig⟩. Accessed 22 July 2010.
Imai Kosuke, King Gary, and Lau Olivia. 2008. Toward A Common Framework for Statistical Analysis and Development. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 17 (4):892913.
Inglehart Ronald, and Norris Pippa. 2003. Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jackson Jeffrey T. 2005. The Globalizers: Development Workers in Action. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Joachim Jutta. 2003. Framing Issues and Seizing Opportunities: The UN, NGOs, and Women's Rights. International Studies Quarterly 47 (2):247–74.
Jones Mark P. 2009. Gender Quotas, Electoral Laws, and the Election of Women: Evidence from the Latin American Vanguard. Comparative Political Studies 42 (1):5681.
Kahler Miles. 2009. Networked Politics: Agency, Power, and Governance. In Networked Politics: Agency, Power, and Governance, edited by Kahler Miles, 120. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Keck Margaret E., and Sikkink Kathryn. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Kelley Judith. 2008. Assessing the Complex Evolution of Norms: The Rise of International Election Monitoring. International Organization 62 (2):221–55.
Kelley Judith. 2009. D-Minus Elections: The Politics and Norms of International Election Observation. International Organization 63 (4):765–87.
Keohane Robert O., and Nye Joseph S.. 1974. Transgovernmental Relations and International Organization. World Politics 27 (1):3962.
Krook Mona Lena. 2006. Reforming Representation: The Diffusion of Candidate Gender Quotas Worldwide. Politics & Gender 2 (3):303–27.
Krook Mona Lena. 2009. Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection Reform Worldwide. New York: Oxford University Press.
Levitsky Steven, and Way Lucan A.. 2005. International Linkage and Democratization. Journal of Democracy 16 (3):2034.
Lieberman Evan S. 2005. Nested Analysis as a Mixed-Method Strategy for Comparative Research. American Political Science Review 99 (3):435–52.
Magen Amichai A., and McFaul Michael A.. 2009. Introduction: American and European Strategies to Promote Democracy—Shared Values, Common Challenges, Divergent Tools? In Promoting Democracy and the Rule of Law: American and European Strategies, edited by Magen Amichai A., Risse Thomas, and McFaul Michael A., 133. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Marshall Monty G., and Jaggers Keith. 2007. Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2006. Dataset Users' Manual. Center for Systemic Peace.
Merritt Jeff S. 2006. Quick Impact, Slow Recovery? Funders' Priorities and the Local Realities of Transition Programming. In Transacting Transition: The Micropolitics of Democracy Assistance in the Former Yugoslavia, edited by Brown Keith, 2244. Bloomfield, Conn.: Kumarian Press.
Meyer John W., Boli John, Thomas George M., and Ramirez Francisco O.. 1997. World Society and the Nation-State. American Journal of Sociology 103 (1):144181.
Morin Robert J., and Stinson Dana S.. 2001. Transitioning to Long-Term Development: An Evaluation of the USAID/OTI Program in Kosovo. Burlington, Vt.: ARD. Available at ⟨http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnacn234.pdf⟩. Accessed 22 September 2010.
National Endowment for Democracy. 2004. 2003 NED Annual Report. Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for Democracy.
Nawabi Mariam. 2003. Women's Rights in the New Constitution of Afghanistan. Working Paper.New York: Afghanistan Reconstruction Project, Center on International Cooperation, New York University. Available at ⟨http://www.cic.nyu.edu/afghanistan/constitution.html⟩. Accessed 22 September 2010.
Norris Pippa. 2004. Implementing Women's Representation in Afghanistan's Electoral Law: Options for Reserved Seats. Working Paper.New York: Afghanistan Reconstruction Project, Center on International Cooperation, New York University. Available at ⟨http://www.cic.nyu.edu/afghanistan/constitution.html⟩. Accessed 22 September 2010.
Oates Lauryn. 2009. A Closer Look: The Policy and Law-Making Process Behind the Shiite Personal Status Law. Issue Paper.Kabul, Afghan.: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit. Available at ⟨http://www.areu.org.af⟩. Accessed 22 September 2010.
Paris Roland. 2004. At War's End: Building Peace After Civil Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Peters Anne Mariel, and Moore Pete W.. 2009. Beyond Boom and Bust: External Rents, Durable Authoritarianism, and Institutional Adaptation in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Studies in Comparative International Development 44 (3):256–85.
Pevehouse Jon C. 2002. Democracy from the Outside-In? International Organizations and Democratization. International Organization 56 (3):515–49.
Pires Milena. 2002. East Timor and the Debate on Quotas. Paper presented at the International IDEA Workshop on the Implementation of Quotas: Asian Experiences, September, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Ramirez Francisco O., Soysal Yasemin, and Shanahan Suzanne. 1997. The Changing Logic of Political Citizenship: Cross-National Acquisition of Women's Suffrage Rights, 1890 to 1990. American Sociological Review 62 (5):735–45.
Reynolds Andrew. 1999. Women in the Legislatures and Executives of the World: Knocking at the Highest Glass Ceiling. World Politics 51 (4):547–72.
Reynolds Andrew. 2006. The Curious Case of Afghanistan. Journal of Democracy 17 (2):104–17.
Rubin Barnett R. 2004. Crafting a Constitution for Afghanistan. Journal of Democracy 15 (3):519.
Simmons Beth A. 2009. Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Simmons Beth A., Dobbin Frank, and Garrett Geoffrey. 2006. Introduction: The International Diffusion of Liberalism. International Organization 60 (4):781810.
Slaughter Anne-Marie. 2004. A New World Order. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Tansey Oisín. 2007. Process Tracing and Elite Interviewing: A Case for Non-probability Sampling. PS: Political Science & Politics 40 (4):765–72.
Tripp Aili Mari, and Kang Alice. 2008. The Global Impact of Quotas: On the Fast Track to Increased Female Legislative Representation. Comparative Political Studies 41 (3):338–61.
True Jacqui, and Minstrom Michael. 2001. Transnational Networks and Policy Diffusion: The Case of Gender Mainstreaming. International Studies Quarterly 45 (1):2757.
Wolbrecht Christina, and Campbell David E.. 2007. Leading by Example: Female Members of Parliament as Political Role Models. American Journal of Political Science 51 (4):921–39.
Wotipka Christine Min, and Ramirez Francisco O.. 2008. World Society and Human Rights: An Event History Analysis of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. In The Global Diffusion of Markets and Democracy, edited by Simmons Beth A., Dobbin Frank, and Garrett Geoffrey, 303–43. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Youngs Richard. 2004. International Democracy and the West: The Role of Governments, Civil Society, and Multinational Business. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Organization
  • ISSN: 0020-8183
  • EISSN: 1531-5088
  • URL: /core/journals/international-organization
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 39
Total number of PDF views: 395 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1104 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.