Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 195
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    ATALAY, ZEYNEP 2016. Vernacularization of liberal civil society by transnational Islamist NGO networks. Global Networks, Vol. 16, Issue. 3, p. 391.

    Berliner, Daniel 2016. Transnational advocacy and domestic law: International NGOs and the design of freedom of information laws. The Review of International Organizations, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 121.

    BLOOMFIELD, ALAN 2016. Norm antipreneurs and theorising resistance to normative change. Review of International Studies, Vol. 42, Issue. 02, p. 310.

    David-Barrett, Elizabeth and Okamura, Ken 2016. Norm Diffusion and Reputation: The Rise of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. Governance, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 227.

    Davies, Thomas R. 2016. History of Transnational Voluntary Associations. Voluntaristics Review, Vol. 1, Issue. 4, p. 1.

    Martin, Susan B. 2016. Norms, Military Utility, and the Use/Non-use of Weapons: The Case of Anti-plant and Irritant Agents in the Vietnam War. Journal of Strategic Studies, Vol. 39, Issue. 3, p. 321.

    McLean, Elena V. and Roblyer, Dwight A. 2016. Public Support for Economic Sanctions: An Experimental Analysis. Foreign Policy Analysis, p. orw014.

    Roger, Charles and Dauvergne, Peter 2016. The Rise of Transnational Governance as a Field of Study. International Studies Review, p. viw001.

    Sanders, Rebecca 2016. Norm Proxy War and Resistance Through Outsourcing: The Dynamics of Transnational Human Rights Contestation. Human Rights Review, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 165.

    Schwindenhammer, Sandra 2016. Authority Pooling and Regional Organic Agriculture Standard-Setting: Evidence from East Africa. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 102.

    Shiffman, Jeremy Quissell, Kathryn Schmitz, Hans Peter Pelletier, David L Smith, Stephanie L Berlan, David Gneiting, Uwe Van Slyke, David Mergel, Ines Rodriguez, Mariela and Walt, Gill 2016. A framework on the emergence and effectiveness of global health networks. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 31, Issue. suppl 1, p. i3.

    Stavrianakis, Anna 2016. Legitimising liberal militarism: politics, law and war in the Arms Trade Treaty. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 37, Issue. 5, p. 840.

    Bátora, Jozef and Spence, David 2015. The European External Action Service.

    Bjola, Corneliu 2015. Using Momentum Analysis to Explain and Forecast the Outcome of International Negotiations. International Negotiation, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 319.

    Bower, Adam 2015. Norms Without the Great Powers: International Law, Nested Social Structures, and the Ban on Antipersonnel Mines. International Studies Review, p. n/a.

    Breitmeier, Helmut and Hansel, Mischa 2015. Nicht-staatliche Akteure und die Effektivität und Legitimität des globalen Regierens. Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik, Vol. 8, Issue. S2, p. 507.

    Budabin, Alexandra Cosima 2015. Celebrities as norm entrepreneurs in international politics: Mia Farrow and the ‘Genocide Olympics’ campaign. Celebrity Studies, Vol. 6, Issue. 4, p. 399.

    Carr, Andrew and Baldino, Daniel 2015. An Indo-Pacific norm entrepreneur? Australia and defence diplomacy. Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 30.

    Cloward, Karisa 2015. Elites, Exit Options, and Social Barriers to Norm Change: The Complex Case of Female Genital Mutilation. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 50, Issue. 3, p. 378.

    Colonomos, Ariel 2015. Is there a Future for ‘Jus ex Bello’?. Global Policy, Vol. 6, Issue. 4, p. 358.


Reversing the Gun Sights: Transnational Civil Society Targets Land Mines


The rise in the importance of nonstate actors in generating new norms in world politics has been documented by scholars, but the literature has focused predominantly on nonsecurity (“new”) issue areas. Conversely, although recent constructivist work in international relations has examined the security policies of states, typically it is the state that is doing the constructing of interests. I bridge these two literatures by examining the hard case of transnational civil society working through issue networks to teach state interests in security policy. I analyze the campaign by transnational civil society to generate an international norm prohibiting antipersonnel land mines and trace the effects of several techniques through which states can be said to be socialized. Through generating issues, networking, “grafting,” and using a transnational Socratic method to reverse burdens of proof, the campaign has stimulated systemic normative change through two processes: norm adoption through the conversion of persuaded moral entrepreneurs and emulation resulting from social pressures of identity.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Organization
  • ISSN: 0020-8183
  • EISSN: 1531-5088
  • URL: /core/journals/international-organization
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *