Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Sticks and Stones: Naming and Shaming the Human Rights Enforcement Problem

  • Emilie M. Hafner-Burton (a1)
Abstract

“Naming and shaming” is a popular strategy to enforce international human rights norms and laws. Nongovernmental organizations, news media, and international organizations publicize countries' violations and urge reform. Evidence that these spotlights are followed by improvements is anecdotal. This article analyzes the relationship between global naming and shaming efforts and governments' human rights practices for 145 countries from 1975 to 2000. The statistics show that governments put in the spotlight for abuses continue or even ramp up some violations afterward, while reducing others. One reason is that governments' capacities for human rights improvements vary across types of violations. Another is that governments are strategically using some violations to offset other improvements they make in response to international pressure to stop violations.

Copyright
References
Hide All
American Bar Association. 2005. Task Force on Reform of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
Amnesty International. 1996. Nigeria: A Summary of Human Rights Concerns. Available at ⟨http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAFR440031996?open&of=ENG-2AF⟩. Accessed 17 July 2008.
Beck, Nathaniel, and Katz, Jonathan N.. 1995. What to (and Not to Do) with Time-Series Cross-Section Data. American Political Science Review 89 (3):634–47.
Black, David. 1999. The Long and Winding Road: International Norms and Domestic Political Change in South Africa. In The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change, edited by Risse, Thomas, Ropp, Stephen C., and Sikkink, Kathryn, 78108. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bob, Clifford. 2005. The Marketing of Rebellion: Insurgents, Media and International Activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bound, John, Jaeger, David A., and Baker, Regina M.. 1995. Problems with Instrumental Variables Estimation When the Correlation Between the Instruments and the Endogenous Explanatory Variable Is Weak. Journal of the American Statistical Association 90 (430):443–50.
Cardenas, Sonia. 2007. Conflict and Compliance: State Responses to International Human Rights Pressure. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Cingranelli, David L., and Richards, David L.. 2004. The Cingranelli-Richards Human Rights Data Set. Available at ⟨http://ciri.binghamton.edu/⟩. Accessed 17 July 2008.
Cronin, Audrey Kurth. 2006. How al-Qaida Ends: The Decline and Demise of Terrorist Groups. International Security 31 (1):748.
Durbin, J. 1970. Testing for Serial Correlation in Least-Squares Regression When Some of the Regressors Are Lagged Dependent Variables. Econometrica 38 (3):410–21.
Economist, The. 1995a. Nigeria Foaming. The Economist. U.S. ed., 18 November 1995, 15.
Economist, The. 1995b. Nigeria: Sanctions, Lies and Videotape. The Economist. U.S. ed., 9 December 1995, 44.
Economist, The. 1998. Abacha's Wobbly Throne. The Economist. U.S. ed., 30 May 1998, 45.
Economist, The. 2007. The Man Behind the Fist. The Economist, 31 March 2007, 2730.
Franklin, James C. 2008. Shame on You: The Impact of Human Rights Criticism on Political Repression in Latin America. International Studies Quarterly 52 (1):187211.
Gibney, Mark, Cornett, Linda, and Wood, Reed. 2007. Political Terror Scale, 1976–2006. Available at ⟨http://www.politicalterrorscale.org/about.html⟩. Accessed 17 July 2008.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M. 2005. Trading Human Rights: How Preferential Trade Arrangements Influence Government Repression. International Organization 59 (3):593629.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., and Ron, James. 2008a. Constructing a World of Human Rights Regions, 1976–2000. Unpublished manuscript.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., and Ron, James. 2008b. Seeing Double: Human Rights Through Qualitative and Quantitative Eyes. World Politics, forthcoming.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., and Tsutsui, Kiyoteru. 2005. Human Rights in a Globalizing World: The Paradox of Empty Promises. American Journal of Sociology 110 (5):1373–411.
Hathaway, Oona A. 2002. Do Human Rights Treaties Make a Difference? Yale Law Journal 111:19352042.
Hawkins, Darren. 2002. Human Rights Norms and Networks in Authoritarian Chile. In Restructuring World Politics: Transnational Social Movements, Networks, and Norms, edited by Khagram, Sanjeev, Riker, James V., and Sikkink, Kathryn, 4770. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Hufbauer, Gary Clide, Schott, Jeffrey J., and Elliott, Kimberley Ann. 1990. Economic Sanctions Reconsidered. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.
Human Rights Watch. 1997. Nigeria: Transition or Travesty? Available at ⟨http://www.hrw.org/reports/1997/nigeria⟩. Accessed 17 July 2008.
Human Rights Watch. 2002. U.N.: Many Countries Escape Censure. Human Rights Commission Fails to Pass Critical Resolutions on Many Countries. Available at ⟨http://hrw.org/english/docs/2002/04/19/russia3867.htm⟩. Accessed 17 July 2008.
Human Rights Watch. 2005. Ethiopia: Political Dissent Quashed. Election Observers Should Not Fail to Recognize Effects of Systematic. Available at ⟨http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2005/05/10/ethiop10590.htm⟩. Accessed 17 July 2008.
Keck, Margaret E., and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Kuperman, Alan J. 2001. The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
Lebovic, James H., and Voeten, Erik. 2006. The Politics of Shame: The Condemnation of Country Human Rights Practices in the UNHCR. International Studies Quarterly 50 (4):861–88.
Lebovic, James H., and Voeten, Erik. Forthcoming. The Cost of Shame. International Organizations and Foreign Aid in the Punishing of Human Rights Violators. Journal of Peace Research.
Long, Simon. 2007. China's Great Game. The Economist. Online ed. Available at ⟨http://www.economist.com/theworldin/leaders/displayStory.cfm?story_id=10125763⟩. Accessed 17 July 2008.
Mabry, Marcus, and Nwakana, Obi. 1998. Africa's No. 1 Outlaw Dictator. Newsweek. Atlantic ed., 20 April 1998, 22.
Mitchell, Neil J. 2004. Agents of Atrocity: Leadership, Political Violence, and Human Rights. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Neumayer, Eric. 2005. Do International Human Rights Treaties Improve Respect for Human Rights? Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (6):925–53.
Poe, Steven, Tate, C. Neal, and Keith, Linda Camp. 1999. Repression of the Human Right to Personal Integrity Revisited: A Global Cross-National Study Covering the Years 1976–1993. International Studies Quarterly 43 (2):291313.
Ramos, Howard, Ron, James, and Thoms, Oskar N. T.. 2007. Shaping the Northern Media's Human Rights Coverage, 1986–2000. Journal of Peace Research 44 (4):385406.
Risse, Thomas, Ropp, Stephen C., and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1999. The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, Mary. 2004. Advancing Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: The Way Forward. Human Rights Quarterly 26 (4):866–72.
Ron, James. 1997. Varying Methods of State Violence. International Organization 51 (2):275300.
Ron, James. 2000. Savage Restraint: Israel, Palestine and the Dialectics of Legal Repression. Social Problems 47 (4):445–72.
Ron, James, Ramos, Howard, and Rodgers, Kathleen. 2005. Transnational Information Politics: NGO Human Rights Reporting, 1986–2000. International Studies Quarterly 49 (3):557–88.
Roth, Kenneth. 2001. Despots Pretending to Spot and Shame Despots. International Herald Tribune, 17 April 2001. Available at ⟨http://hrw.org/english/docs/2001/04/17/global12852.htm⟩. Accessed 27 June 2008.
Roth, Kenneth. 2004. Defending Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Practical Issues Faced by an International Human Rights Organization. Human Rights Quarterly 26 (1):6373.
Sikkink, Kathryn, and Walling, Carrie Booth. 2007. The Impact of Human Rights Trials in Latin America. Journal of Peace Research 44 (4):427–45.
Singer, David J., and Small, Melvin. 1993. Correlates of War Project: International and Civil War Data, 1816–1992. [computer file] (study no. 9905). Ann Arbor, Mich.: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. Available at ⟨http://www.icpsr.org/cgi-bin/summholdings?study=9905&path=IDRC⟩. Accessed 27 June 2008.
Snyder, Jack, and Vinjamuri, Leslie. 2003–2004. Trials and Errors: Principle and Pragmatism in Strategies of International Justice. International Security 28 (3):544.
Spar, Deborah L. 1998. The Spotlight and the Bottom Line: How Multinationals Export Human Rights. Foreign Affairs 77 (March–April):712.
Stock, James H., and Yogo, Motohiro. 2002. Testing for Weak Instruments in Linear IV Regression. NBER Technical Working Paper 284. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Thomas, Daniel C. 2001. The Helsinki Effect: International Norms, Human Rights, and the Demise of Communism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
U.S. Department of State. 1999. Nigeria. Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998. Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, 26 February 1999.
Williamson, Richard S. 2004. U.S. Representative to the Commission on Human Rights, Statement on Item 9: March 25. Available at ⟨http://geneva.usmission.gov/humanrights/2004/statements/0325Item9.htm⟩. Accessed 17 July 2008.
Wong, Wendy. 2004. When Information Matters: Why Amnesty International Succeeds. Unpublished manuscript.
World Bank. 2004. World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People. Available at ⟨http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTWDRS/EXTWDR2004/0,,menuPK:477704~pagePK:64167702~piPK:64167676~theSitePK:477688,00.html⟩. Accessed 17 July 2008. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Organization
  • ISSN: 0020-8183
  • EISSN: 1531-5088
  • URL: /core/journals/international-organization
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed