Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Violence Exposure and Ethnic Identification: Evidence from Kashmir

  • Gautam Nair and Nicholas Sambanis
Abstract

This article studies the conditions that lead peripheral minorities to identify with the state, their ethnic group, or neighboring countries. We contribute to research on separatism and irredentism by examining how violence, psychological distance, and national status determine identification. The analysis uses data from a novel experiment that randomized videos of actual violence in a large, representative survey of the Kashmir Valley region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, an enduring site of separatist and irredentist conflict. We find that a strong regional identity is a counterweight to irredentism, but violent repression by the state can push members of the minority to identify with an irredentist neighbor. Violence increases perceived distance from the nation and reduces national identification. There is suggestive evidence that these effects are concentrated among individuals with attributes that otherwise predict higher levels of identification with the state. Information about integrative institutions and increased national status brought about by economic growth is insufficient to induce national identification in a context where psychological distance from the nation is large.

Copyright
Footnotes
Hide All

We are especially grateful to Lauren Pinson for inputs on research design and Aijaz Wani, who helped facilitate the training at Kashmir University, provided comments on the survey instrument, and was our local partner during implementation. Chris Blattman, Thad Dunning, Guy Grossman, Dipin Kaur, Devesh Kapur, Dorothy Kronick, Cathy Lee, Shamika Ravi, Ashutosh Varshney, and Steven Wilkinson provided helpful comments on design, analysis, and implementation. Iba Marwein, Atulesh Shukla, and Bhartendu Trivedi of Morsel Pvt. Ltd. managed the survey in challenging conditions. We thank enumerators and survey respondents for participating in the study. Nair acknowledges funding from the South Asia Studies Council, MacMillan Center, and Georg Walter Leitner Political Economy Program at Yale. Sambanis acknowledges funding from Yale's MacMillan Center. This study received IRB approval under Yale Human Subjects Committee Protocol #1507016145. All views and errors are the authors’.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Alesina, Alberto, and Spolaore, Enrico. 2005. The Size of Nations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined Communities: Reections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso.
Anderson, Michael L. 2008. Multiple Inference and Gender Differences in the Effects of Early Intervention: A Reevaluation of the Abecedarian, Perry Preschool, and Early Training Projects. Journal of the American statistical Association 103 (484):1481–95.
Beath, Andrew, Christia, Fotini, and Enikolopov, Ruben. 2016. Winning Hearts and Minds Through Development: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Afghanistan. Working Paper.
Bellows, John, and Miguel, Edward. 2009. War and Local Collective Action in Sierra Leone. Journal of Public Economics 93 (11):1144–57.
Besley, Timothy, and Reynal-Querol, Marta. 2014. The Legacy of Historical Conflict: Evidence from Africa. American Political Science Review 108 (2):319–36.
Bettencourt, B., Charlton, Kelly, Dorr, Nancy, and Hume, Deborah L.. 2001. Status Differences and In-Group Bias: A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Effects of Status Stability, Status Legitimacy, and Group Permeability. Psychological Bulletin 127 (4):520–42.
Bhandari, Laveesh, and Chakraborty, Minakshi. 2014. Spatial Poverty in Jammu and Kashmir. Live Mint, 24 February. Available at <https://www.livemint.com/Politics/qIhZeetYN29chTZPq1s63N/Spatial-poverty-in-Jammu-and-Kashmir.html>.
Bhavnani, Ravi, and Miodownik, Dan. 2009. Ethnic Polarization, Ethnic Salience, and Civil War. Journal of Conict Resolution 53 (1):3049.
Blair, Graeme, Littman, Rebecca, and Paluck, Elizabeth Levy. 2017. Motivating the Adoption of New Community-minded Behaviors: An Empirical Test in Nigeria. Working Paper.
Blattman, Christopher. 2009. From Violence to Voting: War and Political Participation in Uganda. American Political Science Review 103 (2):231–47.
Bose, Sumantra. 2009. Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Braddock, Robert W. 2010. Kashmir: Paths to Peace. Technical Report, King's College London and Chatham House. Available at <http://www.operationspaix.net/DATA/DOCUMENT/4747~v~Kashmir___Paths_to_Peace.pdf>.
Brewer, Marilynn B. 1979. In-group Bias in the Minimal Intergroup Situation: A Cognitive-Motivational Analysis. Psychological Bulletin 86 (2):307–204.
Cassar, Alessandra, Grosjean, Pauline, and Whitt, Sam. 2013. Legacies of Violence: Trust and Market Development. Journal of Economic Growth 18 (3):285318.
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Girardin, Luc, and Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede. 2009. Ethnonationalist Triads: Assessing the Influence of Kin Groups on Civil Wars. World Politics 61 (3):403–37.
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Wimmer, Andreas, and Min, Brian. 2010. Why Do Ethnic Groups Rebel? New Data and Analysis. World Politics 62 (1):87119.
Chakrabarti, Kaustav Dhar. 2015. Sadbhavana and the Paradox of “Winning Hearts and Minds.” Economic and Political Weekly 50 (24):2123.
Collier, Paul, and Hoeffler, Anke. 2004. Greed and Grievance in Civil War. Oxford Economic Papers 56 (4):563–95.
Crost, Benjamin, Felter, Joseph, and Johnston, Patrick. 2014. Aid under Fire: Development Projects and Civil Conflict. The American Economic Review 104 (6):1833–56.
Darden, Keith, and Grzymala-Busse, Anna. 2006. The Great Divide: Literacy, Nationalism, and the Communist Collapse. World Politics 59 (1):83115.
Dasgupta, Aditya, Gawande, Kishore, and Kapur, Devesh. 2017. (When) Do Antipoverty Programs Reduce Violence? India's Rural Employment Guarantee and Maoist Conflict. International Organization 71 (3):128.
Davidson, Basil. 1992. The Black Man's Burden. Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State. New York: Three Rivers Press.
Dovidio, John F., Gaertner, Samuel L., Schnabel, N., Saguy, Tamar, and Johnson, James. 2010. Recategorization and Prosocial Behavior. In The Psychology of Prosocial Behavior: Group Processes, Intergroup Relations, and Helping, edited by Stürmer, Stefan and Snyder, Mark, 289309. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Eifert, Benn, Miguel, Edward, and Posner, Daniel N. 2010. Political Competition and Ethnic Identification in Africa. American Journal of Political Science 54 (2):494510.
Fearon, James D., and Laitin, David D.. 2003. Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War. American Political Science Review 97 (1):7590.
Gaertner, Samuel L., and Dovidio, John F.. 2000. Reducing Intergroup Bias: The Common Ingroup Identity Model. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Grossman, Guy, Manekin, Devorah, and Miodownik, Dan. 2015. The Political Legacies of Combat: Attitudes Toward War and Peace Among Israeli Ex-Combatants. International Organization 69 (4):9811009.
Hechter, Michael. 2000. Containing Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hechter, Michael. 2013. Alien Rule. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Herbst, Jeffrey. 1990. War and the State in Africa. International Security 14 (4):117–39.
Hlavac, Marek. 2014. Stargazer: LaTeX/HTML Code and ASCII Text for Well-formatted Regression and Summary Statistics Tables. Harvard University, Cambridge, USA. R package version 5.1.
Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Irwin, Colin, and CVoter. 2008. Peace in Kashmir: Myth and Reality. Technical Report. University of Liverpool and CVoter. Available at <http://www.peacepolls.org/peacepolls/documents/000295.pdf>.
Kedourie, Elie. 1993. Nationalism. Cambridge, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Kling, Jeffrey R., Liebman, Jeffrey B., and Katz, Lawrence F.. 2007. Experimental Analysis of Neighborhood Effects. Econometrica 75 (1):83119.
Kumar, Sanjay, Palshikar, Suhas, Sardesai, Shreyas, and Gupta, Pranav. 2015. Interpreting the Mandate in Jammu and Kashmir. Economic and Political Weekly 1 (19):6670.
Lijphart, Arend. 1977. Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Miguel, Edward. 2004. Tribe or Nation? Nation Building and Public Goods in Kenya Versus Tanzania. World Politics 56 (3):328–62.
Mylonas, Harris. 2013. The Politics of Nation-Building: Making Co-Nationals, Refugees, and Minorities. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nabi, Peer Ghulam, and Ye, Jingzhong. 2015. Of Militarisation, Counter-insurgency and Land Grabs in Kashmir. Economic and Political Weekly 50 (46–47):5864.
Nunn, Nathan, and Qian, Nancy. 2014. US Food Aid and Civil Conflict. The American Economic Review 104 (6):1630–66.
Nunn, Nathan, and Wantchekon, Leonard. 2011. The Slave Trade and the Origins of Mistrust in Africa. The American Economic Review 101 (7):3221–52.
Raghavan, TCA Sharad. 2014. J&K gets 10% of Central funds with Only 1% of population. The Hindu, 24 July. Available at <http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/JampK-gets-10-of-Central-funds-with-only-1-of-population/article14506264.ece>.
Robinson, Amanda Lea. 2014. National Versus Ethnic Identification in Africa: Modernization, Colonial Legacy, and the Origins of Territorial Nationalism. World Politics 66 (4):709–46.
Saideman, Stephen M. 2005. At the Heart of the Conflict: Irredentism and Kashmir. In The India-Pakistan Conflict: An Enduring Rivalry, edited by Paul, T.V., 202–24. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Saideman, Stephen M., and Ayres, R. William. 2000. Determining the Causes of Irredentism: Logit Analyses of Minorities at Risk Data from the 1980s and 1990s. The Journal of Politics 62 (4):1126–44.
Sambanis, Nicholas, and Milanovic, Branko. 2014. Explaining Regional Autonomy Differences in Decentralized Countries. Comparative Political Studies 47 (13):1830–55.
Sambanis, Nicholas, and Shayo, Moses. 2013. Social Identification and Ethnic Conflict. American Political Science Review 107 (2):294325.
Sambanis, Nicholas, Skaperdas, Stergios, and Wohlforth, William C.. 2015. Nation-building Through War. American Political Science Review 109 (2):279–96.
Samii, Cyrus. 2013. Perils or Promise of Ethnic Integration? Evidence from a Hard Case in Burundi. American Political Science Review 107 (3):558–73.
Schofield, Victoria. 2000. Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending war. London: I.B. Tauris.
Shayo, Moses. 2009. A Model of Social Identity with an Application to Political Economy: Nation, Class, and Redistribution. American Political Science Review 103 (2):147–74.
Shayo, Moses, and Zussman, Asaf. 2011. Judicial Ingroup Bias in the Shadow of Terrorism. Quarterly Journal of Economics 126 (3):1447–84.
Singh, Prerna. 2011. We-ness and Welfare: A Longitudinal Analysis of Social Development in Kerala, India. World Development 39 (2):282–93.
South Asia Terrorism Portal. 2017. Fatalaties in Terrorist Violence 1988–2017 (Jammu and Kashmir). Available at <http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/data_sheets/annual_casualties.htm>.
Spolaore, Enrico. 2008. Civil Conflict and Secessions. Economics of Governance 9 (1):4563.
Staerklé, Christian, Sidanius, Jim, Green, Eva G.T., and Molina, Ludwin E.. 2010. Ethnic Minority-Majority Asymmetry in National Attitudes Around the World: A Multilevel Analysis. Political Psychology 31 (4):491519.
Staniland, Paul. 2012. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Insurgent Fratricide, Ethnic Defection, and the Rise of Pro-State Paramilitaries. Political Psychology 56 (1):1640.
Staniland, Paul. 2014. Networks of Rebellion: Explaining Insurgent Cohesion and Collapse. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Varshney, Ashutosh. 1991. India, Pakistan, and Kashmir: Antinomies of Nationalism. Asian Survey 31 (11):9971019.
Voors, Maarten J., Nillesen, Eleonora E.M., Verwimp, Philip, Bulte, Erwin H., Lensink, Robert, and Van Soest, Daan P.. 2012. Violent Conflict and Behavior: A Field Experiment in Burundi. American Economic Review 102 (2):941–64.
Waters, Mary C. 1990. Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
World Bank. 2017. World Development Indicators: GDP Growth Annual (%). Available at <https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG?locations=IN>.
Young, Lauren E. 2017. The Psychology of Political Risk in Autocracy. Working Paper.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Organization
  • ISSN: 0020-8183
  • EISSN: 1531-5088
  • URL: /core/journals/international-organization
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Nair and Sambanis supplementary material
Nair and Sambanis supplementary material 1

 PDF (5.2 MB)
5.2 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed