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What was bipolarity?

Abstract

In spite of its widespread use, no one has ever stated clearly what the distinction between bipolar and multipolar systems refers to. Moreover, some common definitions of “bipolarity” imply behavior that is inconsistent with the behavior of states during the cold war. This article argues that the distinctive feature of post–World War II international politics was not that two states were more powerful than the others, as the literature on bipolarity would suggest, but that one state, the Soviet Union, occupied in peacetime a position of near-dominance on the Eurasian continent, a position that states in the past had been able to achieve only after a series of military victories. This fact explains the behavior that others have sought to explain by bipolarity, as well as behavior that is inconsistent with what common definitions of bipolarity would lead us to expect. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the argument for structural theories of international politics and controversies about what lies ahead.

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R. Harrison Wagner , “The Decision to Divide Germany and the Origins of the Cold War,” International Studies Quarterly 24 (061980), pp. 155190.

Arthur Lee Burns , “From Balance to Deterrence: A Theoretical Analysis,” World Politics 9 (071964), pp. 494529.

Ted Hopf , “Polarity, the Offense–Defense Balance, and War,” American Political Science Review 85 (061991), pp. 475–94.

Geoffrey Blainey , The Causes of War, 3d ed. (New York: The Free Press, 1988), pp. 108–24.

R. Harrison Wagner , “The Theory of Games and the Balance of Power,” World Politics 38 (071986), pp. 546–73

Emerson Niou and Peter Ordeshook , “Stability in Anarchic International Systems,” American Political Science Review 84 (121990), pp. 1207–34.

Jack Levy , “Preferences, Constraints, and Choices in July 1914,” International Security 15 (Winter1990), pp. 151–86.

Robert Gilpin , War and Change in World Politics (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981).

Karl Deutsch and J. David Singer , “Multipolar Systems and International Stability,” World Politics 16 (041964), pp. 390406

Richard Rosecrance , “Bipolarity, Multipolarity, and the Future,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 10 (091966), pp. 314–27.

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International Organization
  • ISSN: 0020-8183
  • EISSN: 1531-5088
  • URL: /core/journals/international-organization
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