Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-klj7v Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-02T04:28:56.089Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Health-related quality-of-life instruments for Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 January 2013

Jaime Perales*
Affiliation:
Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Cambridge Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Theodore D. Cosco
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Cambridge Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Blossom C. M. Stephan
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Cambridge Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Josep Maria Haro
Affiliation:
Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental. CIBERSAM, Spain
Carol Brayne
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Cambridge Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
*
Correspondence should be addressed to: Jaime Perales, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Cambridge Institute of Public Health, University Forvie Site, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB20SR, UK. Phone: +34 936406350 ext 12546; Email: jaume.perales@pssjd.org.

Abstract

Background: Over the last 20 years, a number of instruments developed for the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in dementia have been introduced. The aim of this review is to synthesize evidence from published reviews on HRQL measures in dementia and any new literature in order to identify dementia specific HRQL instruments, the domains they measure, and their operationalization.

Methods: An electronic search of PsycINFO and PubMed was conducted, from inception to December 2011 using a combination of key words that included quality of life and dementia.

Results: Fifteen dementia-specific HRQL instruments were identified. Instruments varied depending on their country of development/validation, dementia severity, data collection method, operationalization of HRQL in dementia, psychometric properties, and the scoring. The most common domains assessed include mood, self-esteem, social interaction, and enjoyment of activities.

Conclusions: A number of HRQL instruments for dementia are available. The suitability of the scales for different contexts is discussed. Many studies do not specifically set out to measure dementia-specific HRQL but do include related items. Determining how best to operationalize the many HRQL domains will be helpful for mapping measures of HRQL in such studies maximizing the value of existing resources.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
Copyright © International Psychogeriatric Association 2013

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adler, E. and Resnick, B. (2010). Reliability and validity of the dementia quality of life measure in nursing home residents. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 32, 686704.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Albert, S. M.et al. (1996). Quality of life in patients with Alzheimer's disease as reported by patient proxies. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44, 112.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Albert, S. M.et al. (2001). Longitudinal study of quality of life in people with advanced Alzheimer's disease. American Journal of Geriaric Psychology, 9, 160168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barca, M. L., Engedal, K., Laks, J. and Selbaek, G. (2011). Quality of life among elderly patients with dementia in institutions. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 31, 435442.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Black, B. S., Rabins, P. V. and Kasper, J. D. (1999). Alzheimer Disease Related Quality of Life (ADRQL): User's Manual, 1st edn.Baltimore, MD: DEMeasure.Google Scholar
Black, B., Rabins, P. and Kasper, J. (2009). Alzheimer Disease Related Quality of Life: User's Manual, 2nd edn.Baltimore, MD: DEMeasure.Google Scholar
Bosboom, P. R. and Jonkers, C. (2001). Dutch version of the DQoL. Amsterdam: EMGO Institute, VU University.Google Scholar
Bouman, A. I. E.et al. (2011). Evaluation of QUALIDEM: a dementia-specific quality of life instrument for persons with dementia in residential settings; scalability and reliability of subscales in four Dutch field surveys. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 711722.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brod, M., Stewart, A. L., Sands, L. and Walton, P. (1999). Conceptualization and measurement of quality of life in dementia: the dementia quality of life instrument (DQoL). The Gerontologist, 39, 2535.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brooker, D. J. and Surr, C. (2006). Dementia Care Mapping (DCM): initial validation of DCM 8 in UK field trials. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 1018–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J., Bowling, A. and Flynn, T. (2004). Models of quality of life: a taxonomy, overview and systematic review of the literature. Review: Literature and Arts of the Americas, 1, 1248.Google Scholar
Bullinger, M., Anderson, R., Cella, D. and Aaronson, N. (1993). Developing and evaluating cross-cultural instruments from minimum requirements to optimal models. Quality of Life Research, 2, 451459.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carr, A. J. and Higginson, I. J. (2001). Are quality of life measures patient centred? BMJ, 322, 13571360.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chan, I. W. P., Chu, L. W., Lee, P. W. H., Li, S. W. and Yu, K. K. (2011). Effects of cognitive function and depressive mood on the quality of life in Chinese Alzheimer's disease patients in Hong Kong. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 11, 6976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chiu, Y., Shyu, Y. and Huang, H. (2008). Measure of quality of life for Taiwanese persons with early to moderate dementia and related factors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 580585.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chiu, Y. C., Chiu, Y. F., Hsu, W. C., Lee, S. H., Chen, S. T. and Kao, H. Y. (2010). Developing a Chinese quality of life in dementia instrument for patients with early-to-moderate dementia: an exploratory test of validity. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, 21742184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
DeJong, R., Osterlund, O. W. and Roy, G. W. (1989). Measurement of quality-of-life changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Clinical Therapeutics, 11, 545554.Google ScholarPubMed
Edelman, P., Fulton, B. R., Kuhn, D. and Chang, C. H. (2005). A comparison of three methods of measuring dementia-specific quality of life: perspectives of residents, staff, and observers. The Gerontologist, 45 Spec No, 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ettema, T. P. and Lange, J. D. (2007). QUALIDEM: development and evaluation of a dementia specific quality of life instrument. Scalability, reliability and internal structure. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 22, 549556.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ettema, T. P., Dröes, R.-M., de Lange, J., Mellenbergh, G. J. and Ribbe, M. W. (2005a). A review of quality of life instruments used in dementia. Quality of Life Research, 14, 675686.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ettema, T. P., Dröes, R.-M., de Lange, J., Ooms, M. E., Mellenbergh, G. J. and Ribbe, M. W. (2005b). The concept of quality of life in dementia in the different stages of the disease. International Psychogeriatrics, 17, 353.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ettema, T. P., Droes, R.-M., Lange de, J., Mellenbergh, G. J. and Ribbe, M. W. (2007). QUALIDEM: development and evaluation of a dementia specific quality of life instrument – validation. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 424430.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Falk, H., Persson, L.-O. and Wijk, H. (2007). A psychometric evaluation of a Swedish version of the Quality of Life in Late-Stage Dementia (QUALID) scale. International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 10401050.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferri, C. P.et al. (2005). Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. Lancet, 366, 21122117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fossey, J., Lee, L. and Ballard, C. (2002). Dementia Care Mapping as a research tool for measuring quality of life in care settings: psychometric properties. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 10641070.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuh, J. L. and Wang, S. J. (2006). Assessing quality of life in Taiwanese patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 103107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garre-Olmo, J.et al. (2010). Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric validation of a Spanish version of the Quality of Life in Late-Stage Dementia Scale. Quality of Life Research, 19, 445453.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hao-ying, H. and Guo-dong, M. (2005). Reliabilities and validities of the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) Scale. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 13, 402404.Google Scholar
Hoe, J., Katona, C., Roch, B. and Livingston, G. (2005). Use of the QOL-AD for measuring quality of life in people with severe dementia: the LASER-AD study. Age and Ageing, 34, 130135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karim, S., Ramanna, G., Petit, T., Doward, L. and Burns, A. (2008). Development of the Dementia Quality of Life questionnaire (D-QOL): UK version. Aging and Mental Health, 12, 144148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karlawish, J. H. T., Klocinski, J. L., Merz, J., Clark, C. M. and Asch, D. A. (2000). Caregivers’ preferences for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 55, 10081014.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kasper, J. D., Black, B. S., Shore, A. D. and Rabins, P. V. (2009). Evaluation of the validity and reliability of the Alzheimer Disease-related Quality of Life Assessment Instrument. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 23, 275284.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawton, M. P. (1994). Quality of life in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 8, 138150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
León-Salas, B., Logsdon, R. G., Olazarán, J., Martínez-Martín, P. and The, M. A. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Spanish QoL-AD with institutionalized dementia patients and their family caregivers in Spain. Aging and Mental Health, 15, 775783.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin Kiat Yap, P.et al. (2008). How do Chinese patients with dementia rate their own quality of life? International Psychogeriatrics, 20, 482493.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Logsdon, R. G., Gibbons, L. E., McCurry, S. M. and Teri, L. (1999). Quality of life in Alzheimer's disease: patient and caregiver reports. Journal of Mental Health and Ageing, 5, 2132.Google Scholar
Logsdon, R. G., Gibbons, L. E., McCurry, S. M. and Teri, L. (2002). Assessing quality of life in older adults with cognitive impairment. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 510–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lopez, A. D., Mathers, C. D., Ezzati, M., Jamison, D. T. and Murray, C. J. L. (2006). Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet, 367, 17471757.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lucas-Carrasco, R. (2007). Calidad de vida y demencia. Medicina Clínica, 128, 7075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lucas-Carrasco, R., Lamping, D. L., Banerjee, S., Rejas, J., Smith, S. C. and Gómez-Benito, J. (2010). Validation of the Spanish version of the DEMQOL system. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 589597.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lucas-Carrasco, R., Gómez-Benito, J., Rejas, J. and Brod, M. (2011). The Spanish version of the dementia quality of life questionnaire: a validation study. Aging and Mental Health, 15, 482489.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marengoni, A., Winblad, B., Karp, A. and Fratiglioni, L. (2008). Prevalence of chronic diseases and multimorbidity among the elderly population in Sweden. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 11981200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martin-Cook, K., Hynan, L. S., Rice-Koch, K., Svetlik, D. A. and Weiner, M. F. (2005). Responsiveness of the quality of life in late-stage dementia scale to psychotropic drug treatment in late-stage dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 19, 8285.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matsui, T.et al. (2006). Determinants of the quality of life in Alzheimer's disease patients as assessed by the Japanese version of the quality of Life-Alzheimer's disease scale. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 21, 182191.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merchant, C., Hope, K. W. and Hope, K. (2004). The quality of life in Alzheimer's disease scale: direct assessment of people with cognitive impairment. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 13, 105110.Google ScholarPubMed
Moniz-Cook, E.et al. (2008). A European consensus on outcome measures for psychosocial intervention research in dementia care. Aging and Mental Health, 12, 1429.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mozley, C. G.et al. (1999). ‘Not knowing where I am doesn't mean I don't know what I like’: cognitive impairment and quality of life. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 776783.3.0.CO;2-C>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Novelli, M. M. P. C., Dal Rovere, H., Nitrini, R. and Caramelli, P. (2005). Cross-cultural adaptation of the quality of life assessment scale on Alzheimer disease. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 63, 201206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Novelli, M. M. P. C., Nitrini, R. and Caramelli, P. (2010). Validation of the Brazilian version of the quality of life scale for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers (QOL-AD). Aging and Mental Health, 14, 624631.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Novella, J. L., Jochum, C., Jolly, D., Morrone, I., Bureau, J. A. F. and Blanchard, F. (2012). Agreement between patients’ and proxies’ reports of quality of life in Alzheimer's disease. Quality of Life Research, 10, 443452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patterson, M. B.et al. (2006). ADCS Prevention instrument project: Quality of Life Assessment (QOL). Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 20, 179190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Porzsolt, F., Kojer, M., Schmidl, M., Greimel, E. R., Sigle, J., Richter, J. and Eisemann, M. (2004). A new instrument to describe indicators of well-being in old-old patients with severe dementia – the Vienna List. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 2, 10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rabins, P. V., Kasper, J. D., Kleinman, L. and Black, B. S. (1999). Concepts and methods in the development of the ADRQL: an instrument of assessing health-related quality of life in persons with Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Mental Health and Ageing, 5, 3348.Google Scholar
Ready, R. E. (2011). Measuring quality of life in dementia. In Jenkinson, C., Michele, P. and Bromber, M. B. (eds.), Quality of Life Measurement in Neurodegenerative and Related Conditions (pp. 8294). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ready, R. E. and Ott, B. R. (2003). Quality of life measures for dementia. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1, 11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ready, R. E., Ott, B. R., Grace, J. and Fernandez, I. (2002). The Cornell-Brown scale for quality of life in Dementia. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 16, 109115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ready, R. E., Ott, B. R. and Grace, J. (2007). Factor structure of patient and caregiver ratings on the dementia quality of life instrument. Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 14, 144154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Revell, A. J., Caskie, G. I., Willis, S. L. and Schaie, K. W. (2009). Factor structure and invariance of the Quality of Life in Alzheimer’ s Disease (QoL-AD) Scale. Experimental Aging Research, 35, 250267.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosas-Carrasco, O., Torres-Arreola, L. D. P., Guerra-Silla, M. D. G., Torres-Castro, S. and Gutierrez-Robledo, L. M. (2010). Validation of the Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease (QOL-AD) scale in Mexican patients with Alzheimer, vascular and mixed-type dementia. Revista de Neurologia, 51, 804808.Google ScholarPubMed
Salek, M., Schwartzberg, A. and Bayer, A. (1996). Evaluating health-related quality of life in patients with dementia: development of a proxy self-administered questionnaire. Pharmacy World and Science, 18, A6.Google Scholar
Salek, S. S., Ramgoolam, N., Edwards, S., Luscambe, D. and Bayer, A. (1997). Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease: Reliability of a Dementia-Specific Measure (CDQLP). In the 26th European Symposium on Clinical Pharmacy. Tours, Loire Valley.Google Scholar
Salek, S. S., Walker, M. D. and Bayer, A. J. (1998). A review of quality of life in Alzheimer's disease Part 2: Issues in Assessing Drug Effects. PharmacoEconomics, 14, 613627.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salek, M., Walker, M. and Bayer, A. (1999). The community dementia quality of life profile (CDQLP): a factor analysis. Quality of Life Research, 8, 660.Google Scholar
Schalkwijk, D., Verlare, L. R., Muller, M. T., Knol, D. L. and Van Der Steen, J. T. (2009). [Measuring quality of life in nursing home residents with severe dementia: psychometric properties of the QUALID scale]. Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie, 40, 184192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schölzel-Dorenbos, C. J. (2000). Measurement of quality of life in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type and their caregivers: Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL). Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie, 31, 2326.Google ScholarPubMed
Schozel-Dorenbos, C. J. M.et al. (2007). Evaluating the outcome of interventions on quality of life in dementia: selection of the appropriate scale. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 511–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Selai, C. E., Trimble, M. R., Rossor, M. N. and Harvey, R. J. (2001a). Assessing quality of life in dementia: preliminary psychometric testing of the Quality of Life Assessment Schedule (QOLAS). Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 11, 219243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Selai, C., Vaughan, A., Harvey, R. J. and Logsdon, R. (2001b). Using the QOL-AD in the UK. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 537538.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shin, H. Y. (2006). A preliminary study on the Korean version of quality of life-Alzheimer's disease (QOL-AD) scale in community-dwelling elderly with dementia. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Yebang Uihakhoe Chi, 39, 243248.Google Scholar
Silberfeld, M., Rueda, S., Krahn, M. and Naglie, G. (2002). Content validity for dementia of three generic preference based health related quality of life instruments. Quality of Life Research, 11, 7179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sloane, P. D., Zimmerman, S., Williams, C. S., Reed, P. S., Gil, K. S. and Preisser, J. S. (2005). Evaluating the quality of life of long-term care residents with dementia. The Gerontologist, 45, 3749.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sloane, P. D.et al. (2007). Dementia care mapping as a research tool. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 580589.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Small, G. W.et al. (1997). Diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Consensus statement of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, the Alzheimer's Association, and the American Geriatrics Society. JAMA, 278, 13631371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, S.et al. (2005a). Measurement of health-related quality of life for people with dementia: development of a new instrument (DEMQOL) and an evaluation of current methodology. Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England), 9, 193.Google Scholar
Smith, S.et al. (2005b). What constitutes health-related quality of life in dementia? Development of a conceptual framework for people with dementia and their carers. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 889895.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, S.et al. (2007). Development of a new measure of health-related quality of life for people with dementia: DEMQOL. Psychological Medicine, 37, 737746.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sneeuw, K. C.et al. (1997). The use of significant others as proxy raters of the quality of life of patients with brain cancer. Medical Care, 35, 490506.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suzuki, M., Uchida, A., Kanamori, M. and Ooshiro, H. (2005). Development of the Dementia quality of life instrument-Japanese version. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi, 42, 423431.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suzuki, M., Kanamori, M., Greiner, C., Ito, K. and Ooshiro, H. (2006). Follow-up study on subjective quality of life for elderly persons with dementia using the Japanese version of Dementia Quality of Life Instrument (JDQoL). Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi Japanese Journal of Geriatrics, 43, 485491.Google ScholarPubMed
Suzuki, M.et al. (2008). Dementia Care Mapping-Japanese version(DCM-J) as a research evaluation method for measuring quality of life among elderly patients with dementia: reliability and validity of Well-being and Ill-being value. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi Japanese Journal of Geriatrics, 45, 6876.Google ScholarPubMed
Terada, S.et al. (2002). Development and evaluation of a health-related quality of life questionnaire for the elderly with dementia in Japan. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 851858.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
The WHOQOL Group. (1995). The World Health Organization Quality of Life Asessment (WHOQOL): Position Paper From The World Health Organization. Social Science and Medicine, 41, 14031409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The WHOQOL Group. (1998). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28, 551558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thorgrimsen, L.et al. (2003). Whose quality of life is it anyway? Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 17, 201208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trigg, R., Jones, R. W. and Skevington, S. M. (2007a). Can people with mild to moderate dementia provide reliable answers about their quality of life? Age and Ageing, 36, 663669.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Trigg, R., Skevington, S. and Jones, R. (2007b). How can we best assess the quality of life of people with dementia? The Bath Assessment of Subjective Quality of Life in Dementia (BASQID). The Gerontologist, 47, 789797.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walker, M. D., Salek, S. S. and Bayer, A. J. (1998). A review of quality of life in Alzheimer's disease Part 1: issues in assessing disease impact. PharmacoEconomics, 14, 499530.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Walker, M. D., Salek, S. and Bayer, A. (2001a). The relationship between the quality of life (QQL) of dementia patients and their carers: validation of the community dementia quality of life profile. Age and Ageing, 30, 50.Google Scholar
Walker, M. D., Salek, S. and Bayer, A. (2001b). Assessing patient and carer quality of life (QoL) in dementia: validating the concept of a composite measure. Age and Ageing, 30, 50.Google Scholar
Weiner, M., Martin-Cook, K., Svetlik, D., Saine, K., Foster, B. and Fontaine, C. (2000). The quality of life in late-stage dementia (QUALID) scale. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 1, 114116.Google ScholarPubMed
Whitehouse, P. J. (2000). Harmonization of Dementia drug guidelines (United States and Europe): a report of the international working group for the harmonization for dementia drug guidelines. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 14 (Suppl 1), S119S122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolak, A.et al. (2009). Transcultural adaptation and psychometric validation of a French-language version of the QoL-AD. Aging and Mental Health, 13, 593600.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yamamoto-Mitani, N., Abe, T., Okita, Y., Hayashi, K., Sugishita, C. and Kamata, K. (2002). Development of a Japanese quality of life instrument for older adults experiencing dementia (QLDJ). International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 55, 7195.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yamamoto-Mitani, N., Abe, T., Okita, Y., Hayashi, K., Sugishita, C. and Kamata, K. (2004). The impact of subject/respondent characteristics on a proxy-rated quality of life instrument for the Japanese elderly with dementia. Quality of Life Research, 13, 845855.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed