Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Acculturation and depressive symptoms in latino caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults

  • Oanh L. Meyer (a1), Sue Geller (a2), Emily He (a3), Hector M. González (a4) and Ladson Hinton (a5)...
Abstract
ABSTRACTBackground:

Caregiving for older adults is a growing public health concern because of the negative psychological effects it has on caregivers. Despite the growing Latino caregiver population, little is known regarding how the effects of acculturation on caregiver depressive symptoms might vary by caregiver age. This study aimed to examine the relationship between language acculturation and depressive symptoms in Latino caregivers, and to test whether this relationship was moderated by age.

Methods:

Ninety-four Latino caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults with and without dementia were identified through an ongoing epidemiological cohort study. Caregivers were interviewed in their homes, in either Spanish or English. A Poisson regression was used to analyze the caregiver characteristics associated with caregiver depressive symptoms.

Results:

Language acculturation was positively associated with caregiver depressive symptoms, as was age, female gender, and being married or living with someone. Those with excellent or good health and who had spent more than one year caregiving had lower depressive symptoms. Finally, the positive relationship between language acculturation and depressive symptoms was increased in older caregivers.

Conclusions:

Language acculturation appears to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms in Latino caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults. The relationship between language acculturation and depressive symptoms is complex such that caregiver age and health status further nuance this relationship. Future research should explore the independent and interactive effects of these variables on depressive symptoms.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Dr. Oanh Meyer, PhD, Department of Neurology, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, 4860 Y Street, Sacramento, CA 95817. Phone: +(916) 734-5218; Fax: +(916) 703-5290. Email: olmeyer@ucdavis.edu.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

K. B. Adams (2006). The transition to caregiving: the experience of family members embarking on the dementia caregiving career. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 47, 329. doi:10.1300/J083v47n03_02.

M. Alegria et al. (2008). Prevalence of mental illness in immigrant and non-immigrant U.S. Latino groups. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 359369. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07040704.

M. Alegria , G. Canino , F. S. Stinson and B. F. Grant (2006). Nativity and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, and non-Latino Whites in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 5665. doi:10.4088/JCP.v67n0109.

M. Alegria , W. Sribney , M. Woo , M. Torres and P. Guarnaccia (2007). Looking beyond nativity: the relation of age of immigration, length of residence, and birth cohorts to the risk of onset of psychiatric disorders for Latinos. Research in Human Development, 4, 1947. doi:10.1080/15427600701480980.

M. P. Aranda and B. G. Knight (1997). The influence of ethnicity and culture on the caregiver stress and coping process: a sociocultural review and analysis. The Gerontologist, 37, 342354. doi:10.1093/geront/37.3.342.

P. A. Arean et al. (2005). Improving depression care for older, minority patients in primary care. Medical Care, 43, 381390.

D. W. Coon et al. (2004). Well-being, appraisal, and coping in Latina and Caucasian female dementia caregivers: findings from the REACH study. Aging & Mental Health, 8, 330345. doi:10.1080/13607860410001709683.

K. E. Covinsky et al. (2003). Patient and caregiver characteristics associated with depression in caregivers of patients with dementia. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 18, 10061014. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2003.30103.x.

C. Cox and A. Monk (1990). Minority caregivers of dementia victims: a comparison of Black and Hispanic families. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 9, 340354. doi:10.1177/073346489000900308.

I. Cuellar , B. Arnold and R. Maldonado (1995). Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican-Americans-II: a revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 17, 275304. doi: 10.1177/07399863950173001.

I. Cuellar and R. E. Roberts (1997). Relations of depression, acculturation, and socioeconomic status in a Latino sample. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 230238. doi: 10.1177/07399863970192009.

D. Gallagher-Thompson , D. W. Coon , N. Solano , C. Ambler , Y. Rabinowitz and L. W. Thompson (2003). Change in indices of distress among Latino and Anglo female caregivers of elderly relatives with dementia: site-specific results from the REACH national collaborative study. The Gerontologist, 43, 580591. doi:10.1093/geront/43.4.580.

L. Gallicchio , N. Siddiqi , P. Langenberg and M. Baumgarten (2002). Gender differences in burden and depression among informal caregivers of demented elders in the community. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 154163. doi: 10.1002/gps.538.

M. Garcia and G. Marks (1989). Depressive symptomatology among Mexican American adults: an examination with the CES-D scale. Psychiatry Research, 27, 137148. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(89)90129-7.

H. M. González , M. N. Haan and L. Hinton (2001). Acculturation and the prevalence of depression in older Mexican Americans: baseline results of the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 49, 948953. doi:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49186.x.

B. F. Grant , F. S. Stinson , D. A. Dawson , S. P. Chou , W. J. Ruan and R. P. Pickering (2004a). Co-occurrence of 12-month alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 361368. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.4.361.

P. J. Guarnaccia , R. Angel and J. L. Worobey (1989). The factor structure of the CES-D in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: the influences of ethnicity, gender and language. Social Science and Medicine, 29, 8594. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(89)90131-7.

M. N. Haan , D. M. Mungas , H. M. González , T. A. Ortiz , A. Acharya and W. J. Jagust (2003). Prevalence of dementia in older Latinos: the influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke and genetic factors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 169177. doi:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51054.x.

E. A. Hahn , G. Kim and D. A. Chiriboga (2011). Acculturation and depressive symptoms among Mexican American elders new to the caregiving role: results from the Hispanic-EPESE. Journal of Aging and Health, 23, 417432. doi:10.1177/0898264310380454.

D. G. Harwood , W. W. Barker , M. Cantillon , D. A. Loewenstein , R. Ownby and R. Duara (1998). Depressive symptomatology in first-degree family caregivers of Alzheimer disease patients: a cross-ethnic comparison. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 12, 340346.

D. G. Harwood , W. W. Barker , R. L. Ownby , M. Bravo , H. Aguero and R. Duara (2000). Predictors of positive and negative appraisal among Cuban American caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 481487. doi:10.1002/1099-1166(200006)15:6<481::AID-GPS984>3.0.CO;2-J.

L. Hinton , M. Haan , S. Geller and D. Mungas (2003). Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Latino Elders with dementia or cognitive impairment without dementia and factors that modify their association with caregiver depression. The Gerontologist, 43, 669677. doi:10.1093/geront/43.5.669.

R. C. Kessler et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 819. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010008002.

B. Kikman-Liff and D. Mondragón (1991). Language of interview: relevance for research of Southwest Hispanics. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 13991404.

B. G. Knight and P. Sayegh (2010). Cultural values and caregiving: the updated sociocultural stress and coping model. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65B, 513. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbp096.

S. Lee , H. A. Nguyen and J. Tsui (2011). Interview language as a proxy measure for acculturation among Asian Americans in a population-based survey. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13, 244252. doi:10.1007/s10903-009-9278-z.

R. Mahoney , C. Regan , C. Katona and G. Livingston (2005). Anxiety and depression in family caregivers of people with Alzheimer disease: the LASER-AD study. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 795801. doi:10.1097/00019442-200509000-00008.

G. Marín and R. J. Gamba (1996). A new measurement of acculturation for Hispanics: the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BAS). Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18, 297316. doi:10.1177/07399863960183002.

R. McConaghy and M. L. Caltabiano (2005). Caring for a person with dementia: Exploring relationships between perceived burden, depression, coping and well being. Nursing and Health Sciences, 7, 8191. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2018.2005.00213.x.

P. Y. Miranda and H. M. González (2011) Pathways between acculturation and health: does the measure matter? Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science, 33, 524537. doi:10.1177/0739986311423901.

A. M. Padilla and W. Perez (2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: a new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25, 3555. doi:10.1177/0739986303251694.

L. L. Pearlin , J. T. Mullan , S. J. Semple and M. M. Skaff (1990). Caregiving and the stress process – an overview of concepts and their measures. The Gerontologist, 30, 583594.

M. Pinquart and S. Sörensen (2007). Correlates of physical health of informal caregivers: a meta-analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 62, P126137.

F. I. Rivera (2007). Contextualizing the experience of young Latino adults: acculturation, social support, and depression. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 9, 237244. doi:10.1007/s10903-006-9034-6.

R. Schulz and S. R. Beach (1999). Caregiving as a risk factor for mortality: the Caregiver Health Effects Study. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 22152219. doi:10.1001/jama.282.23.2215.

R. Schulz et al. (2008). Dementia patient suffering and caregiver depression. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 22, 170176. doi:10.1097/WAD.0b013e31816653cc.

T. Sentell , M. Shumway and L. Snowden (2007). Access to mental health treatment by English language proficiency and race/ethnicity. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22 (Suppl 2), 289293. doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0345-7.

S. Sörensen and M. Pinquart (2005). Racial and ethnic differences in the relationship of caregiving stressors, resources, and sociodemographic variables to caregiver depression and perceived physical health. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 482495. doi:10.1080/13607860500142796.

M. X. Tang et al. (1998). The APOE-epsilon4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer disease among African Americans, Whites, and Hispanics. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 751755.

S. Tennstedt , G. L. Cafferata and L. Sullivan (1992). Depression among caregivers of impaired elders. Journal of Aging and Health, 4, 5876. doi: 10.1177/089826439200400104.

W. A. Vega , B. Kolody and G. Warheit (1985). Psychoneuroses among Mexican Americans and other Whites: prevalence and caseness. American Journal of Public Health, 75, 523527.

P. P. Vitaliano , J. Zhang , H. M. Young , L. W. Caswell , J. M. Scanlan and D. Echeverria (2009). Depressed mood mediates decline in cognitive processing speed in caregivers. The Gerontologist, 49, 1222. doi:10.1093/geront/gnp004.

S. M. Yu , R. M. Nyman , M. D. Kogan , Z. J. Huang and R. H. Schwalberg (2004). Parent's language of interview and access to care for children with special health care needs. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 4, 181187. doi:10.1367/A03-094R.1.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 10 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 118 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.