Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A comparison of the frequencies of risk factors for depression in older black and white participants in a study of indicated prevention

  • Roy Sriwattanakomen (a1), Jesse McPherron (a2), Jamie Chatman (a1), Jennifer Q. Morse (a3), Lynn M. Martire (a3), Jordan F. Karp (a3), Patricia R. Houck (a3), Salem Bensasi (a3), Jill Houle (a3), Jacqueline A. Stack (a3), Mattie Woods (a4), Bruce Block (a3), Stephen B. Thomas (a1), Sandra Quinn (a1) and Charles F. Reynolds (a3)...
Abstract

Background: To compare the frequencies of risk factors, we describe risks for depression as a function of race among consecutively admitted participants in a randomized clinical trial of indicated depression prevention in later life.

Methods: Seventy-two black and 143 white participants were screened for risk factors for depression.

Results: Black participants were more likely to have fewer years of education and lower household income. They were more likely to be obese, live alone, experience functional disability, have a history of alcohol and drug abuse, and have lower scores on the Mini-mental State Examination and the Executive Interview (EXIT). White participants were not found to have greater prevalence or higher mean score on any risk factor. On average, black participants experienced approximately one more risk factor than white participants (t(213) = 3.32, p = 0.0011).

Conclusions: In our sample, black participants had higher frequencies of eight risk factors for depression and a greater mean number of risk factors compared to white participants.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Charles F. Reynolds III, M.D.; Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O'Hara Street; Pittsburgh, PA 15213, U.S.A. Phone: +1 412-246-6414; Fax: +1 412-246-5300. Email: reynoldscf@upmc.edu.
References
Hide All
Adams, K. B. (2008). Specific effects of caring for a spouse with dementia: differences in depressive symptoms between caregiver and non-caregiver spouses. International Psychogeriatrics, 20, 508520.
Alexopoulos, G. S. (2003). Role of executive function in late-life depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64 (Suppl. 14), 1823.
Almeida, O. P., Calver, J., Jamrozik, K., Hankey, G. J. and Flicker, L. (2009). Obesity and metabolic syndrome increase the risk of incident depression in older men: the Health in Men Study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 889898.
Andrews, G., Issakidis, C., Sanderson, K., Corry, J. and Lapsley, H. (2004). Utilising survey data to inform public policy: comparison of the cost-effectiveness of treatment of ten mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 526533.
Bender, K., Springer, D. W. and Kim, J. S. (2006). Treatment effectiveness with dually diagnosed adolescents: a systematic review. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 6, 177205.
Blazer, D. G. and Hybels, C. F. (2005). Origins of depression in later life. Psychological Medicine, 35, 12411252.
Bolton, J. M., Robinson, J. and Sareen, J. (2009). Self-medication of mood disorders with alcohol and drugs in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Affective Disorders, 115, 367375.
Bruce, M. L. (1999). The association between depression and disability. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 7, 811.
Bruce, M. L. (2002). Psychosocial risk factors for depressive disorders in late life. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 175184.
Bruce, M. L. et al. (2004). Reducing suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms in depressed older primary care patients: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 291, 10811091.
Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R. and Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28, 193213.
Charney, D. S. et al. (2003). Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance consensus statement on the unmet needs in diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in late life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 664672.
Cohen, A., Houck, P. R., Szanto, K., Dew, M. A., Gilman, S. E. and Reynolds, C. F. (2006). Social inequalities in response to antidepressant treatment in older adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 5056.
Cohen, S., Mermelstein, R., Kamarck, T. and Hoberman, H. M. (1985). Measuring the functional components of social support. In Sarason, I. G. and Sarason, B. (eds.), Social Support: Theory, Research and Applications (pp. 7394). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Cole, M. G. and Dendukuri, N. (2003). Risk factors for depression among elderly community subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 11471156.
Cooper-Patrick, L., Gallo, J. J., Powe, N. R., Steinwachs, D. M., Eaton, W. W. and Ford, D. E. (1999). Mental health service utilization by African Americans and Whites: the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-Up. Medical Care, 37, 10341045.
Cuijpers, P., Smit, F. and Straten, A. (2007). Psychological treatment of subthreshold depression: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 115, 434441.
D'Zurilla, T., Nezu, A. and Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2002). Social Problem-solving Inventory, Revised (SPSI-R): Manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.
Derogatis, L. R. and Melisaratos, N. (1983). The Brief Symptom Inventory: an introductory report. Psychological Medicine, 13, 595605.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. W. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 5662.
Jang, Y., Borenstein, A. R., Chiriboga, D. A. and Mortimer, J. A. (2005). Depressive symptoms among African American and white older adults. Journals of Gerontology: Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, 313319.
Jette, A. M. et al. (2002). Late life function and disability instrument: I. Development and evaluation of the disability component. Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 57, M209M216.
Kessler, R. C. and Merikangas, K. R. (2004). The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R): background and aims. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13, 6068.
Ladin, K. (2008). Risk of late-life depression across 10 European Union countries: deconstructing the education effect. Journal of Health and Aging, 20, 653670.
McCarthy, L. H., Bigal, M. E., Katz, M., Derby, C. and Lipton, R. B. (2009). Chronic pain and obesity in elderly people: results from the Einstein aging study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57, 115119.
McKnight-Eily, L. et al. (2009). Prevalence and correlates of current depressive symptomatology and lifetime diagnosis of depression in Black women. Womens Health Issues, 19, 243252.
Miller, D. K., Malmstrom, T. K., Joshi, S. A. E. M., Morley, J. E. and Wolinsky, F. D. (2004). Clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms in community-dwelling middle-aged African Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 741748.
Miller, M. D. et al. (1992). Rating chronic medical illness burden in geropsychiatric practice and research: Application of the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. Psychiatry Research, 41, 237248.
Mrazek, P. and Haggerty, R. (1994). Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Royall, D. R., Mahurin, R. K. and Gray, K. F. (1992). Bedside assessment of executive cognitive impairment: the Executive Interview. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40, 12211226.
Schoevers, M. D. et al. (2003). Prevention of late-life depression in primary care: Do we know where to begin? American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 16111621.
Schoevers, R. A., Beekman, A. T., Deeg, D. J., Geerlings, M. I., Jonker, C. and van, T. W. (2000). Risk factors for depression in later life; results of a prospective community based study (AMSTEL). Journal of Affective Disorders, 59, 127137.
Sriwattanakomen, R. et al. (2008). Preventing depression in later life: translation from concept to experimental design and implementation. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 460468.
Taylor, D. J. (2008). Insomnia and depression. Sleep, 31, 447448.
U.S. Census Bureau (2000). Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF3)-Sample Data; Available at http://factfinder.census.gov; last accessed 28 April 2010.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2000). Healthy People 2010. McLean, VA: International Medical Publishing, Inc.
Vink, D., Aartsen, M. J. and Schoevers, R. A. (2008). Risk factors for anxiety and depression in the elderly: a review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 106, 2944.
Vinkers, D. J., Gussekloo, J., Stek, M. L., Westendorp, R. G. and Van Der Mast, R. C. (2004). Temporal relation between depression and cognitive impairment in old age: prospective population based study. BMJ, 329, 881.
Ware, J. E. and Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS-36-Item short form health survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30, 473483.
Watkins, D. J., Green, B., Rivers, B. M. and Rowell, K. L. (2006). Depression and black men: implications for future research. Journal of Men's Health and Gender, 3, 227235.
Weyerer, S. et al. (2008). Prevalence and risk factors for depression in non-demented primary care attenders aged 75 years and older. Journal of Affective Disorders, 111, 153163.
Williams, D. R. and Williams-Morris, R. (2000). Racism and mental health: the African American experience. Ethnic Health, 5, 243268.
Wilson, K., Mottram, P. and Sixsmith, A. (2007). Depressive symptoms in the very old living alone: prevalence, incidence and risk factors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 361366.
Zivin, K. and Christakis, N. A. (2007). The emotional toll of spousal morbidity and mortality. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 772779.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 18 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 272 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd September 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.