American Geriatrics Society and American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. (2003). Consensus statement on improving the quality of mental healthcare in U.S. nursing homes: management of depression and behavioral symptoms associated with dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 15, 1287–1298.
et al. (2009a). The dementia antipsychotic withdrawal trial (DART-AD): long-term follow-up of a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurology, 8, 151–157.
Ballard, C. G.
et al. (2009b). Management of agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer disease. Nature Reviews Neurology, 5, 245–255.
Barnes, T. R., Banerjee, S., Collins, N., Treloar, A., McIntyre, S. M. and Paton, C. (2012). Antipsychotics in dementia: prevalence and quality of antipsychotic drug prescribing in UK mental health services. British Journal of Psychiatry, 201, 221–226.
British Alzheimer's Society (2011). Optimising treatment and care for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Best Practice guide. Available at: www.alzheimers.org.uk/bpsdguide; last accessed 12 May 2015.
et al. (2010). Unexplained variation across US nursing homes in antipsychotic prescribing rated. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170, 89–95.
et al. (2006). The Assessment and Treatment of Mental Health Issues in Long Term Care Homes (Focus on Mood and Behaviour Symptoms). Toronto, Ontario Canada: Canadian Coalition for Seniors' Mental Health.
Cornegé-Blokland, E., Kleijer, B. C., Herthogh, C. M. and van Marum, R. J. (2012). Reasons to prescribe antipsychotics for the behavioral symptoms of dementia: a survey in Dutch nursing homes among physicians, nurses, and family caregivers. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 13, 80.e1--6. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2010.10.004.
De Souto Barreto, P., Lapeyre-Mestere, M., Vellas, B. and Rolland, Y. (2013). Potential underuse of analgesics for recognised pain in nursing home residents with dementia: a cross-sectional study. Pain, 13, 118–123.
et al. (2013). Withdrawal versus continuation of chronic antipsychotic drugs for behavioral and psychological symptoms in older people with dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, CD007726.
Devanand, D. P.
et al. (2012). Relapse risk after discontinuation of risperidone in Alzheimer's Disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 367, 1497–1507.
et al. (2009). Use of physical restraints and antipsychotic medications in nursing homes: a cross-national study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 1110–1118.
Gareri, P., De Fazio, P., Manfredi, V. and De Sarro, G. (2014). Use and safety of antipsychotics in behavioral disorders in elderly people with dementia. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmcology, 34, 109–123.
Goodman, C. M. (1987). The Delphi technique: a critique. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 12, 729–734.
Gustafsson, M., Karlsson, S. and Lövheim, H. (2013). Inappropriate long-term use of antipsychotic drugs is common among people with dementia living in specialized care units. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 14, 10.
Hsu, C. C. and Sandford, B. A. (2007). Minimizing non-response in the Delphi process: how to respond to non-response. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 12, 17.
Husebo, B. S., Ballard, C., Cohen-Mansfied, J., Seifert, R. and Aarsland, D. (2014). The response of agitated behavior to pain management in persons with dementia. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 708–717.
Kales, H. S.
et al. (2014). Management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in clinical settings: recommendations from a multidisciplinary expert panel. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62, 762–769.
Koopmans, R. T., Lavrijsen, J. C. and Zuidema, S. U. (2010). The physician's role in nursing homes: the Dutch solution. Archives of Internal Medicine, 9, 1406.
Lyketsos, C. G. (2007). Neuropsychiatric symptoms (behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia) and the development of dementia treatment. International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 409–420.
Maquire, A., Hughes, C., Cardwell, C. and O’Reilly, D. (2013). Psychotropic medication and the transition into care: a national data linkage study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61, 215–221.
McCleery, J. and Fox, R. (2012). Antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes. British Medical Journal, 344, e1093.
Morley, J. E. (2012). Antipsychotics and dementia: a time for restraint?
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 13, 761–763.
NICE clinical guideline 42. (2006). Dementia: supporting people with dementia and their cares in health and social care. Available at: http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg042; last accessed 12 May 2015.
Pieper, M. J. C.
et al. (2013). Interventions targeting pain or behaviour in dementia: a systematic review. Ageing Research Reviews, 12, 1042–1055.
Richter, T., Meyer, G., Möhler, R. and Köpke, S. (2012). Psychosocial interventions for reducing antipsychoitc medication in care home residents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12, CD008634.
Ruths, S., Straand, J., Nygaard, H. A. and Aarsland, D. (2008). Stopping antipsychotic drug therapy in demented nursing home patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled study – The Bergen District Nursing Home Study (BEDNURS). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23, 889–895.
Schneider, L. S.
et al. (2006). Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer's disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 1525–1538.
Schulze, J., van de Bussche, H., Glaeske, G., Kaduszkiewicz, H., Wiese, B. and Hoffmann, F. (2013). Impact of safety warnings on antipsychotic prescriptions in dementia: nothing has changed but the years and the substances. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 23, 1034–1042.
Selbaek, G., Kirkevold, Ø. and Engedal, K. (2008). Psychiatric and behavioral symptoms and the use of psychotropic medication in Special Care Units and Regular units in Norwegian nursing homes. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 22, 568–573.
Trinkley, K. E., Page II, R. L., Lien, H., Yamanoue, K. and Tisdale, J. E. (2013). QT interval prolongation and the risk of torsades de pointes: essentials for clinicians. Current Medical Research & Opinion, 29, 1719–1726.
Vakil, N. (2011). Editorial: consensus guidelines: method or madness? American Journal of Gastroenterology, 106, 225–227.
Walker, A. M. and Selfe, J. (1996). The Delphi method: a useful tool for the allied health researcher. British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 3, 677–681.
Wetzels, R., Zuidema, S. U., de Jonghe, J. F. M., Verheij, F. R. J. and Koopmans, R. T. C. M. (2011). Prescribing pattern of psychotropic drug use in nursing home residents with dementia. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 1249–1259.
Zuidema, S. U., de Jonghe, J. F. M., Verhey, F. R. J. and Koopmans, R. T. C. M. (2011). Psychotropic drug use in nursing home patients with dementia: influence of environmental correlates and staff distress on physician's prescription behavior. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 1632–1639.