Allen, C. K., Austin, S. L., David, S. K., Earhart, C. A., McCraith, D. B. and Riska-Williams, L. (2007). Allen Cognitive Level Screen-5 (ACLS-5) and Large Allen Cognitive Level Screen-5 (LACLS-5). Camarillo, CA, USA: ACLS and LACLS Committee.
Andresen, E. M. (2000). Criteria for assessing the tools of disability outcome research. Archives of Psychical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, S15–20.
Anstey, K. J. et al. (2013). Characterizing mild cognitive disorders in the young-old over 8 years: prevalence, estimated incidence, stability of diagnosis, and impact on iADLs. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 9, 640–648.
Bean, J. F., Olveczky, D. D., Kiely, D. K., LaRose, S. I. and Jette, A. M. (2011). Performance-based versus patient-reported physical function: what are the underlying predictors? Physical Therapy, 91, 1804–1811.
Bruce, I., Ntholang, O., Crosby, L., Cunningham, C. and Lawlor, B. (2016). The clinical utility of naturalistic action test in differentiating mild cognitive impairment from early dementia in memory clinic. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31, 309–315.
Cornelis, E., Gorus, E., Beyer, I., Bautmans, I. and De Vriendt, P. (2017). Early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia through basic and instrumental activities of daily living: development of a new evaluation tool. PLoS Medicine, 14, Article no. e1002250.
de Rotrou, J. et al. (2012). DAD-6: a 6-Item version of the disability assessment for dementia scale which may differentiate Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment from controls. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 33, 210–218.
De Vriendt, P., Mets, T., Petrovic, M. and Gorus, E. (2015). Discriminative power of the advanced activities of daily living (a-ADL) tool in diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in an older population. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 1–19.
De Vriendt, P., Gorus, E., Cornelis, E., Bautmans, I., Petrovic, M. and Mets, T. (2013). The advanced activities of daily living: a tool allowing the evaluation of subtle functional decline in mild cognitive impairment. The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, 17, 64–71.
DeLong, E. R., DeLong, D. and Clarke-Pearson, D. L. (1988). Comparing the areas under two or more correlated receiver operating characteristics curves: a nonparametric approach. Biometrics, 44, 837–845.
Dubois, B., Padovani, A., Scheltens, P., Rossi, A. and Dell'Agnello, G. (2016). Timely diagnosis for Alzheimer's disease: a literature review on benefits and challenges. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 49, 617–631.
Farias, S. T., Mungas, D. and Jagust, W. (2005). Degree of discrepancy between self and other-reported memory and everyday functioning by cognitive status: dementia, mild cognitive impairment and healthy elders. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 827–834.
Fauth, E. B., Schwartz, S., Tschanz, J., Ostbye, T., Corcoran, C. and Norton, M. C. (2013). Baseline disability in activities of daily living predicts dementia risk even after controlling for baseline global cognitive ability and depressive symptoms. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28, 597–606.
Fieo, R., Austin, E. J., Starr, J. M. and Deary, I. J. (2011). Calibrating ADL-IADL scales to improve measurement accuracy and to extend the disability construct into the preclinical range: a systematic review. BMC Geriatrics, 11, 42.
Fisher, A. (1999). Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Fort Collins, CO: Three Star Press.
Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.
Gallagher, D. et al. (2010). Detecting prodromal Alzheimer's disease in mild neuropsychological, cognitive impairment: utility of the CAMCOG and other predictors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 25, 1280–1287.
Giovannetti, T., Libon, D., Buxbaum, L. J. and Schwartz, M. F. (2002a). Naturalistic action impairments in dementia. Neuropsychologia, 40, 1220–1232.
Gold, D. A. (2012). An examination of instrumental activities of daily living assessment in older adults and mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34, 11–34.
Hugo, J. and Ganguli, M. (2014). Dementia and cognitive impairment: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 30, 421–442.
Hunsley, J. and Meyer, G. (2003). The incremental validity of psychological testing and assessment: conceptual, methodological, and statistical issues. Psychological Assessment, 15, 446–455.
Jekel, K. et al. (2015). Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 7, 17.
Jung, M. A., Kim, H., Kang, Y. J. and Kim, Y. J. (2013). Development of a modified naturalistic action test for Korean patients with impaired cognition. Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37, 57–65.
Katz, S. (1963). Studies of illness in the aged. The index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA, 185, 914–919.
Lawton, M. P. and Brody, E. M. (1969). Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist, 9, 179–186.
Marshall, G. A., Amariglio, R., Sperling, R. A. and Rentz, D. M. (2012). Activities of daily living: where do they fit in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease? Neurodegenerative Disease Management, 2, 483–491.
McKhann, G. M. (1984). Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA working group under the auspices of department of health and human services task force on Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 34, 939–944.
McKhann, G. M. et al. (2011). The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the national institute on aging-Alzheimer's association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 7, 263–269.
Nielsen, L. M., Kirkegaard, H., Ostergaard, L. H., Bovbjerg, K., Breinholt, K. and Maribo, T. (2016). Comparison of self-reported and performance-based measures of functional ability in elderly patients in an emergency department: implications for selection of clinical outcome measures. BMC Geriatrics, 16, 199.
Pedrosa, H. et al. (2010). Functional evaluation distinguishes MCI patients from healthy elderly people – the ADCS/MCI/ADL scale. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 14, 703–709.
Petersen, R. C. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256, 240–246.
Petersen, R. C., Caracciolo, B., Brayne, C., Gauthier, S., Jelic, V. and Fratiglioni, L. (2014). Mild cognitive impairment: a concept in evolution. Journal of Internal Medicine, 275 214–228.
Pfeffer, R. I., Kurosaki, T. T., Harrah, C. H., Chance, J. M. and Filos, S. (1982). Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 323–329.
Puente, A. N., Terry, D. P., Faraco, C. C., Brown, L. C. and Miller, L. S. (2014). Functional impairment in mild cognitive impairment evidenced using performance-based measurement. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 27, 253–258.
Reppermund, S. et al. (2016). Performance-based assessment of instrumental activities of daily living: validation of the Sydney Test of Activities of Daily Living in Memory Disorders (STAM). Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 18, 117–122.
Reuben, D. B., Laliberte, L., Hiris, J. and Mor, V. (1990). A hierarchical exercise scale to measure function at the Advanced Activities of Daily Living (AADL) level. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 38, 855–861.
Rockwood, K. (2007). The measuring, meaning and importance of activities of daily living (ADLs) as an outcome. International Psychogeriatrics, 19, 467–482.
Rodakowksi, J. et al. (2014). Can performance on daily activities discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with mild cognitive impairment? Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62, 1347–1352.
Roedersheimer, K. M., Pereira, G. F., Jones, C. W., Braz, V. A., Mangipudi, S. A. and Platts-Mills, T. F. (2016). Self-reported versus performance-based assessments of a simple mobility task among older adults in the emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 67, 151–6.
Rycroft, S. S., Giovanetti, T., Divers, R. and Hulswit, J. (2017). Sensitive performance-based assessment of everyday action in older and younger adults. Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition Section B: Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition, 7, 1–18.
Sager, M. A., Dunham, N. C., Schwantes, A., Mecum, L., Halverson, K. and Harlowe, D. (1992). Measurement of activities of daily living in hospitalized elderly: a comparison of self-report and performance-based methods. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 40, 457–462.
Schmitter-Edgecombe, M., Parsey, C. and Cook, D. J. (2014). Cognitive correlates of functional abilities in individuals with mild cognitive impairment: comparison of questionnaire, direct observation and performance-based measures. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 28, 726–746.
Schwartz, M. F., Segal, M., Veramonti, T., Ferraro, M. and Buxbaum, L. J. (2002). The naturalistic action test: a standardised assessment for everyday action impairment. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 12, 311–339.
Seelye, A. M., Schmitter-Edgecombe, M., Cook, D. J. and Crandall, A. (2013). Naturalistic assessment of everyday activities and prompting technologies in mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 19, 442–452.
Sestito, N., Schmidt, K., Gallo, J. L., Giovannetti, T. and Libon, D. J. (2005). Using the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT) to assess everyday action in healthy older adults and patients with dementia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 90–91.
Sikkes, S. A. and Rotrou, J. D. (2014). A qualitative review of instrumental activities of daily living in dementia: what's cooking? Neurodegenerative Disease Management, 4, 393–400.
Stewart, M. et al. (2011). Instrumental activities of daily living among community-dwelling older adults: discrepancies between self-report and performance are mediated by cognitive reserve. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33, 92–100.
Suchy, Y., Kraybill, M. L. and Franchow, E. (2011). Instrumental activities of daily living among community-dwelling older adults: discrepancies between self-report and performance are mediated by cognitive reserve. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33, 92–100.
Wadley, V. G., Okonkwo, O., Crowe, M., and Ross-Meadows, L. A. (2008). Mild cognitive impairment and everyday function: evidence of reduced speed in performing instrumental activities of daily living. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 416–424.
Wesson, J., Cemson, L., Brodaty, H. and Reppermund, S. (2016). Estimating functional cognition in older adults using observational assessments of task performance in complex everyday activities: a systematic review and evaluation of measurement properties. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 68, 335–360.
World Health Organization. (2001). International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.