Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 10
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ibrahim, Ibtihal Tobar, Salwa Elassy, Mai Mansour, Hader Chen, Kehui Wood, Joel Gur, Ruben C. Gur, Raquel E. El Bahaei, Wafaa and Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit 2015. Practice effects distort translational validity estimates for a Neurocognitive Battery. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 37, Issue. 5, p. 530.

    Herzallah, Mohammad M. Moustafa, Ahmed A. Natsheh, Joman Y. Danoun, Omar A. Simon, Jessica R. Tayem, Yasin I. Sehwail, Mahmud A. Amleh, Ivona Bannoura, Issam Petrides, Georgios Myers, Catherine E. and Gluck, Mark A. 2013. Depression impairs learning, whereas the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine, impairs generalization in patients with major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 151, Issue. 2, p. 484.

    Uysal-Bozkir, Özgül Parlevliet, Juliette L. and de Rooij, Sophia E. 2013. Insufficient cross-cultural adaptations and psychometric properties for many translated health assessment scales: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 66, Issue. 6, p. 608.

    Abd-Al-Atty, Muhammad F. Abou-Hashem, Rania M. Abd Elaziz, Khaled M. Abd El Gawad, Wafaa M. and El-gazzar, Yumna A. 2012. Test Your Memory Test, Arabic Version: Is It Practical in a Different Culture?. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 60, Issue. 3, p. 596.

    Rosano, Caterina Aizenstein, Howard J. Newman, Anne B. Venkatraman, Vijay Harris, Tamara Ding, Jingzhong Satterfield, Suzanne and Yaffe, Kristine 2012. Neuroimaging differences between older adults with maintained versus declining cognition over a 10-year period. NeuroImage, Vol. 62, Issue. 1, p. 307.

    Sweed, H.S. Abdul-Rahman, S.A. Abdel-Aal, W.M. and Abdul-Rahman, L.A. 2012. Clock drawing testing and diffusion tensor imaging among vascular dementia versus Alzheimer's disease. European Geriatric Medicine, Vol. 3, Issue. 6, p. 349.

    Herzallah, Mohammad M. Moustafa, Ahmed A. Misk, Adel J. Al-Dweib, Lara H. Abdelrazeq, Samer A. Myers, Catherine E. and Gluck, Mark A. 2010. Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson Patients Tested on Dopaminergic Medications. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology, Vol. 23, Issue. 2, p. 98.

    Moraes, Camila Pinto, Jony Arrais Lopes, Marcos Antônio Litvoc, Julio and Bottino, Cassio M. C. 2010. Impact of sociodemographic and health variables on mini-mental state examination in a community-based sample of older people. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Vol. 260, Issue. 7, p. 535.

    Glik, Amir Masarwa, Magdalena Abuful, Amin Deeb, Amar Strugatsky, Rosa Farrer, Lindsay A. Friedland, Robert P. and Inzelberg, Rivka 2009. Essential tremor might be less frequent than Parkinson's disease in North Israel Arab villages. Movement Disorders, Vol. 24, Issue. 1, p. 119.

    2008. Current awareness in geriatric psychiatry. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 23, Issue. 3, p. i.


Education effects on cognitive function in a healthy aged Arab population

  • Rivka Inzelberg (a1) (a2), Edna Schechtman (a3), Amin Abuful (a1), Magda Masarwa (a1), Aziz Mazarib (a4), Rosa Strugatsky (a1), Lindsay A. Farrer (a5), Robert C. Green (a5) and Robert P. Friedland (a6)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 20 October 2006

Background: The Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) has not been validated in Arabic speaking populations. The Brookdale Cognitive Screening Test (BCST) has been developed for use in low schooling populations. We investigated the influence of gender, education and occupation in a cognitively normal community sample which was assessed using an Arabic translation of the MMSE and the BCST.

Methods: Cognitively normal subjects (n = 266, 59.4% males, mean age (SD): 72.4 (5.5) years) from an Arab community in northern Israel (Wadi Ara) were evaluated. Education was categorized into levels: 1 = 0–4 years, 2 = 5–8 years, 3 = 9–12 years. Effects of gender, education and occupation on MMSE and BCST were analyzed by ANOVA, taking age as a covariate.

Results: The mean MMSE score of males [26.3 (4.1)] was higher than that of females [23.6 (4.2) points]. Two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction between gender and education on MMSE (p = 0.0017) and BCST scores (p = 0.0002). The effect of gender on MMSE and BCST was significant in education level 1 (p < 0.0001, both tests) and level 2 (p < 0.05, both tests). For education level 1, MMSE and BCST scores were higher for males, while both scores were higher for females in education level 2. The effect of occupation was not significant for both genders.

Conclusion: Education and gender influence performance when using the Arabic translation of the MMSE and BCST in cognitively normal elderly. Cognitively normal females with 0–4 years of education scored lower than males. These results should be taken into consideration in the daily use of these instruments in Arabic.

Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Rivka Inzelberg, Department of Neurology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, 38100, Israel. Phone: +972 4 6304262, Fax: +972 4 6304805. Email:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *