Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The effects of gender, age, schooling, and cultural background on the identification of facial emotions: a transcultural study

  • Leonardo Cruz de Souza (a1) (a2) (a3), Maxime Bertoux (a4), Ângelo Ribeiro Vaz de Faria (a3), Laiane Tábata Souza Corgosinho (a3), Ana Carolina de Almeida Prado (a3), Izabela Guimarães Barbosa (a1) (a3) (a5), Paulo Caramelli (a1) (a2), Enrico Colosimo (a6) and Antônio Lúcio Teixeira (a1) (a2) (a3)...
Abstract
Background:

Social cognition tasks, such as identification of emotions, can contribute to the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders. The wide use of Facial Emotion Recognition Test (FERT) is hampered by the absence of normative dataset and by the limited understanding of how demographic factors such as age, education, gender, and cultural background may influence the performance on the test.

Methods:

We analyzed the influence of these variables in the performance in the FERT from the short version of the Social and Emotional Assessment. This task is composed by 35 pictures with 7 different emotions presented 5 times each. Cognitively healthy Brazilian participants (n = 203; 109 females and 94 males) underwent the FERT. We compared the performance of participants across gender, age, and educational subgroups. We also compared the performance of Brazilians with a group of French subjects (n = 60) matched for gender, age, and educational level.

Results:

There was no gender difference regarding the performance on total score and in each emotion subscore in the Brazilian sample. We found a significant effect of aging and schooling on the performance on the FERT, with younger and more educated subjects having higher scores. Brazilian and French participants did not differ in the FERT and its subscores. Normative data for employing the FERT in Brazilian population is presented.

Conclusions:

Data here provided may contribute to the interpretation of the results of FERT in different cultural contexts and highlight the common bias that should be corrected in the future tasks to be developed.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Avenida Professor Alfredo Balena, no. 190/sl 243, Santa Efigênia, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP 30.130-100, Brazil. Phone number: + 55 31 3409 8073. E-mail: leocruzsouza@hotmail.com.
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Bertoux, M., de Souza, L. C., Sarazin, M., Funkiewiez, A., Dubois, B. and Hornberger, M. (2015). How preserved is emotion recognition in Alzheimer disease compared with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia?. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 29, 154–7.
Bertoux, M.., . ., ., . . et al. (2012). Social cognition and emotional assessment differentiates frontotemporal dementia from depression. The Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 83, 411–6.
Botega, N. J., Bio, M. R., Zomignani, M. A., Garcia, C. Jr. and Pereira, W. A. (1995). Mood disorders among inpatients in ambulatory and validation of the anxiety and depression scale HAD. Revista de Saude Publica, 29, 355–63.
Buhl, C., Stokholm, J. and Gade, A. (2013). Clinical utility of short social cognitive tests in early differentiation of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer's disease. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 3, 376–85.
Cleveland, W. S. (1993). Visualizing Data. Summit, NJ: Hobart Press.
Demenescu, L. R., Mathiak, K. A. and Mathiak, K. (2014). Age- and gender-related variations of emotion recognition in pseudowords and faces. Experimental Aging Research, 40, 187207.
Derntl, B., ., ., ., . . et al. (2010). Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities: neural correlates and gender differences. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 6782.
Dodich, A., ., ., ., . et al. (2014). Emotion recognition from facial expressions: a normative study of the Ekman 60-Faces test in the Italian population. Neurological Sciences, 35, 1015–21.
Ekman, P. and Friesen, W. V. (1975). Pictures of Facial Affect. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Ekman, P., . ., ., ., . et al. (1987). Universals and cultural differences in the judgments of facial expressions of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 712–7.
Ekman, P., Sorenson, E. R. and Friesen, W. V. (1969). Pan-cultural elements in facial displays of emotion. Science, 164, 86–8
Engelmann, J. B. and Pogosyan, M. (2013). Emotion perception across cultures: the role of cognitive mechanisms. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 118.
Grainger, S. A., Henry, J. D., Phillips, L. H., Vanman, E. J. and Allen, R. (2015). Age deficits in facial affect recognition: the influence of dynamic cues. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, 72, 622–632.
Halberstadt, J., Ruffman, T., Murray, J., Taumoepeau, M. and Ryan, M. (2011). Emotion perception explains age-related differences in the perception of social gaffes. Psychology and Aging, 26, 133–6.
Kalpouzos, G. et al. (2009). Structural and metabolic correlates of episodic memory in relation to the depth of encoding in normal aging. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 372–89.
Khawar, R., Malik, F., Maqsood, S., Yasmin, T. and Habib, S. (2013). Age and gender differences in emotion recognition ability and intellectual functioning. Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 23, 5371.
Kumfor, F. and Piguet, O. (2013). Emotion recognition in the dementias: brain correlates and patient implications. Neurodegenerative Disease Management, 3, 277–88.
Lawrence, K., Campbell, R. and Skuse, D. (2015). Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 761.
Lindquist, K. A., Gendron, M., Barrett, L. F. and Dickerson, B. C. (2014). Emotion perception, but not affect perception, is impaired with semantic memory loss. Emotion, 14, 375–87.
Mill, A., Allik, J., Realo, A. and Valk, R. 2009. Age-related differences in emotion recognition ability: a cross-sectional study. Emotion, 9, 619–30.
Nitrini, R. et al. (2004). Performance of illiterate and literate nondemented elderly subjects in two tests of long-term memory. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 634–8.
Nitrini, R. et al. (2009). Prevalence of dementia in Latin America: a collaborative study of population-based cohorts. International Psychogeriatric, 21, 622–30.
Nitrini, R. and Caramelli, P. (2003). Demências. In Nitrini, R. and Bacheschi, L. (eds.), A Neurologia Que Todo Médico Deve Saber. São Paulo: Atheneu.
Opdebeeck, C., Martyr, A. and Clare, L. (2016). Cognitive reserve and cognitive function in healthy older people: a meta-analysis. Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 23, 4060.
Roca, M. et al. (2013). Intelligence and executive functions in frontotemporal dementia. Neuropsychologia, 51, 725–30.
Ruffman, T., Henry, J. D., Livingstone, V. and Phillips, L. H.. (2008). A meta-analytic review of emotion recognition and aging: implications for neuropsychological models of aging. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 863–81.
Russell, J. A. (1994). Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expression? A review of the cross-cultural studies. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 102–41.
Torralva, T., Roca, M., Gleichgerrcht, E., Bekinschtein, T. and Manes, F. (2009). A neuropsychological battery to detect specific executive and social cognitive impairments in early frontotemporal dementia. Brain, 132, 1299–309.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

de Souza et al. supplementary material
Figure S1

 Unknown (3.0 MB)
3.0 MB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed