Skip to main content
×
Home

Pitfall Intention Explanation Task with Clue Questions (Pitfall task): assessment of comprehending other people's behavioral intentions in Alzheimer's disease

  • Tomoharu Yamaguchi (a1) (a2), Yohko Maki (a1) (a3) and Haruyasu Yamaguchi (a1)
Abstract
ABSTRACT

Background: In Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, deficits in contextual understanding and intentions/beliefs of other people (theory of mind; ToM) cause communication problems between patients and caregivers. To evaluate deficits of contextual understanding/ToM, we developed the Pitfall Intention Explanation Task with Clue Questions (Pitfall task).

Methods: We recruited 26 healthy older adults in clinical dementia rating (CDR) 0, and 62 outpatients: 12 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in CDR 0.5; 36 mild AD in CDR 1; and 14 moderate AD in CDR 2. The Pitfall task consists of a single-frame cartoon that shows a character's intention and seven serial questions that provide clues for contextual understanding/ToM.

Results: The total score (0–7) was decreased with progression of AD (CDR 0, 5.4 ± 2.6; CDR 0.5, 3.7 ± 2.7; CDR 1, 1.9 ± 3.1; CDR 2, 0.0 ± 0.0; respectively). In CDR 0, two-third of the participants responded correctly without clue questions. In CDR 0.5, one-third of the participants responded correctly without clue questions, and half of them understood with the help of the clue questions. In CDR 1, one-fourth of the participants responded correctly without clue questions, and the clue questions did not increase the correct response. In CDR 2, none responded correctly. Additionally, the Pitfall task provided the chance for patients’ families to observe patients’ responses.

Conclusion: Contextual understanding/ToM, a kind of social cognition, was impaired with progression of AD. The Pitfall task evaluates the function quickly with low burden for memory function, and may provide helpful clues for caregivers to achieve good communication with AD patients.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence should be addressed to: Tomoharu Yamaguchi, 3-39-15 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8514, Japan. Phone: +81-27-220-8946; Fax: +81-27-220-8946. Email: yamaguchi@shoken-gakuen.ac.jp.
References
Hide All
Baron-Cohen S., Leslie A. M. and Frith U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”? Cognition, 21, 3746.
Bschor T., Kühl K. P. and Reischies F. M. (2001). Spontaneous speech of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and mild cognitive impairment. International Psychogeriatrics, 13, 289298.
Carlomagno S., Santoro A., Menditti A., Pandolfi M. and Marini A. (2005). Referential communication in Alzheimer's type dementia. Cortex, 41, 520534.
Cuetos F., Arango-Lasprilla J. C., Uribe C., Valencia C. and Lopera F. (2007). Linguistic changes in verbal expression: a preclinical marker of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 433439.
de Lira J. O., Ortiz K. Z., Campanha A. C., Bertolucci P. H. and Minett T. S. (2011). Microlinguistic aspects of the oral narrative in patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Psychogeriatrics, 23, 404412.
Dubois B. et al. (2007). Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurology, 6, 734746.
Fernandez-Duque D., Baird J. A. and Black S. E. (2009). False–belief understanding in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 31, 489497.
Folstein M., Folstein S. and McHugh P. (1975). “Mini-mental state.” A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
Forbes-McKay K. E. and Venneri A. (2005). Detecting subtle spontaneous language decline in early Alzheimer's disease with a picture description task. Neurological Sciences, 26, 243254.
Gitlin L. N., Winter L., Dennis M. P. and Hauck W. W. (2007). A non-pharmacological intervention to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and reduce caregiver distress: design and methods of project ACT3. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 2, 695703.
Goodglass H. and Kaplan E. (1983). The Assessment of Aphasia and Related Disorders. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger.
Gregory C. et al. (2002). Theory of mind in patients with frontal variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease: theoretical and practical implications. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 125, 752764.
Grundman M. et al. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment can be distinguished from Alzheimer disease and normal aging for clinical trials. Archives of Neurology, 61, 5966.
Huberle E. and Karnath H. O. (2010). Saliency modulates global perception in simultanagnosia. Experimental Brain Research, 204, 595603.
Parasuraman R., Greenwood P. M. and Alexander G. E. (2000). Alzheimer disease constricts the dynamic range of spatial attention in visual search. Neuropsychologia, 38, 11261135.
Petersen R. C. (2007). Mild cognitive impairment: current research and clinical implications. Seminars in Neurology, 27, 2231.
Potkins D. et al. (2003). Language impairment in dementia: impact on symptoms and care needs in residential homes. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 10021006.
Reisberg B., Ferris S. H., Kluger A., Franssen E., Wegiel J. and den Leon M. J. (2008). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a historical perspective. International Psychogeriatrics, 20, 1831.
Ripich D. N., Ziol E. and Lee M. M. (1998). Longitudinal effects of communication training on caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease. Clinical Gerontologist, 19, 3755.
Rösler A., Mapstone M., Hays-Wicklund A., Gitelman D. R. and Weintraub S. (2005). The “zoom lens” of focal attention in visual search: changes in aging and Alzheimer's disease. Cortex, 41, 512519.
Savundranayagam M. Y., Hummert M. L. and Montgomery R. J. (2005). Investigating the effects of communication problems on caregiver burden. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, S48S55.
Vasse E., Vernooij-Dassen M., Spijker A., Rikkert M. O. and Koopmans R. (2010). A systematic review of communication strategies for people with dementia in residential and nursing homes. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 189200.
Yamaguchi H., Maki Y. and Yamaguchi T. (2011). A figurative proverb test for dementia: rapid detection of disinhibition, excuse and confabulation, causing discommunication. Psychogeriatrics, 11, 205211.
Zaitchik D., Koff E., Brownell H., Winner E. and Albert M. (2004). Inference of mental states in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 9, 301313.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

International Psychogeriatrics
  • ISSN: 1041-6102
  • EISSN: 1741-203X
  • URL: /core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 15 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 89 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.