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Historians, Social Scientists, Servants, and Domestic Workers: Fifty Years of Research on Domestic and Care Work

  • Raffaella Sarti (a1)
Abstract

Historical research on domestic servants has a long tradition. Research, however, has become more systematic from the 1960s onwards thanks to social historians, historians focusing on the family, historical demographers and (particularly from the 1970s) women's and gender historians. For a long time, scholars assumed that domestic service (especially by live-in workers) would decline, or even disappear, because of household modernization, social progress, and development of the welfare state. The (largely unexpected) “revival” of paid domestic and care work in the past three decades has prompted sociologists and other social scientists to focus on the theme, opening new opportunities for exchange between historians and social scientists. This article provides a review of the research on these issues at a global level, though with a focus on Europe and the (former) European colonies, over the past fifty years, illustrating the different approaches and their results.

La recherche historique sur les serviteurs domestiques a une longue tradition. Toutefois, cette recherche est devenue plus systématique à partir des années 1960 grâce aux historiens de l'histoire sociale, aux historiens se consacrant principalement à l'histoire de la famille, aux démographes historiens et, particulièrement à partir des années 1970, aux historiens des femmes et du genre. Longtemps, les chercheurs ont supposé que le service domestique (notamment en résidant chez l'employeur) déclinerait ou même disparaîtrait à cause de la modernisation des ménages, du progrès social et de l’évolution de l’État-providence. Ces trois dernières décennies, la “renaissance” (largement imprévue) du travail et des soins domestiques rémunérés a incité des sociologues et d'autres chercheurs des sciences sociales à étudier ce thème, ce qui a ouvert de nouvelles possibilités d’échange entre les historiens et les chercheurs des sciences sociales. Cet article présente un aperçu de la recherche mondiale sur les sujets évoqués, même si l'accent est mis sur l'Europe et les (anciennes) colonies européennes au cours des cinquante dernières années, en illustrant les différentes approches et leurs résultats.

Traduction: Christine Krätke-Plard

Die historische Forschung zu Dienstboten hat eine lange Tradition. Seit den 1960er Jahren hat diese Forschung allerdings einen systematischeren Charakter angenommen, was Sozial- und Familienhistorikern, historischen Demographen sowie (insbesondere seit den 1970er Jahren) Forscher und Forscherinnen aus den Bereichen der Frauen- und Geschlechtergeschichte zu danken ist. Lange Zeit gingen Wissenschaftler und Wissenschaftlerinnen davon aus, dass sich der Haushaltsdienst (insbesondere wenn die Hausbediensteten im Haushalt wohnen) aufgrund der Modernisierung der Haushalte, des sozialen Fortschritts und der Entwicklung des Wohlfahrtsstaats zurückentwickeln oder sogar gänzlich verschwinden würde. Die während der vergangenen drei Jahrzehnte zu verzeichnende (und weitgehend unerwartete) “Wiederkehr” der bezahlten Haus- und Pflegearbeit hat Soziologen und andere Sozialwissenschaftler und Sozialwissenschaftlerinnen angeregt, sich auf das Thema zu konzentrieren, was neue Möglichkeiten des Austauschs zwischen Historikerinnen und Sozialwissenschaftlern eröffnet hat. Der Artikel bietet einen weltweiten, wenn auch auf Europa und die (ehemaligen) Kolonien fokussierten Überblick über die Forschung, die in den vergangenen fünfzig Jahren zu den genannten Themen entstanden ist und veranschaulicht die verschiedenen Ansätze sowie ihre Ergebnisse.

Übersetzung: Max Henninger

El análisis histórico sobre el servicio doméstico tiene una larga tradición. La investigación, sin embargo, ha sido planteada de forma mucho más sistemática desde la década de 1960 en adelante gracias al impulso dado por los historiadores sociales que enfocaron su atención sobre la historia de la familia, los historiadores demográficos y (particularmente desde la década de 1970) los historiadores e las historiadoras de las mujeres y del género. Durante un largo tiempo los académicos venían asumiendo que el servicio domestico (especialmente el interno) declinaría de forma paulatina y que incluso llegaría a desaparecer a causa de los procesos de modernización de las tareas en el hogar, del progreso social y del desarrollo del estado del bienestar. El renacer (completamente inesperado) del trabajo y los cuidados domésticos remunerados a lo largo de las últimas tres décadas ha dado pie a los sociólogos y a otros analistas sociales a prestar atención sobre el tema, abriendo nuevas oportunidades para el diálogo entre historiadores y otros científicos sociales. Este artículo trata de plantear una revisión de la investigación que se ha desarrollado en los temas anteriormente mencionados desde un nivel global, aunque con un enfoque fundamental sobre el espacio europeo y las que fueron colonias dependientes de las potencias europeas, a lo largo de los últimos cincuenta años, ilustrando las diferentes aproximaciones y sus resultados.

Traducción: Vicent Sanz Rozalén

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References
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1. This survey is based on literature in Italian, English, French, German, Spanish, and Portuguese. It inevitably has some bias, therefore, due to my lack of knowledge of other languages. I generally use the word “servants” when I deal with a (rather) distant past, and the term “domestic workers” when I speak about more recent decades. A first version of this survey was presented at the International Conference of Labour and Social History (ITH), “Towards a Global History of Domestic Workers and Caregivers,” Linz, 12–15 September 2013. I am grateful to the participants for their comments.

2. Grégoire, Henri Jean-Baptiste, De la domesticité chez les peuples anciens et modernes (Paris, 1814). See Soboul, Albert, Une conscience religieuse en temps de révolution: L'abbé Grégoire, in Henri Grégoire, Oeuvres, 14 vols (Nendeln, Lichtenstein [etc.], 1977), I, pp. ix–xi.

3. Pérennes, François, De la domesticité avant et depuis 1789, ou discours sur cette question: comparer les rapports actuels des domestiques et des maîtres avec ce qu'ils étaient avant la Révolution, et indiquer les moyens d'améliorer ces rapports (Paris, 1844). Among books published before World War I, see Robert, Edmond, Les domestiques: Étude de moeurs et d'histoire (Paris, 1875); Motey, Henri Renault Du, L'esclavage à Rome. Le servage au Moyen Age. La domesticité dans le temps modernes (Douai, 1881); Guerlin, Robert, Les serviteurs d'autrefois (Amiens, 1893); Alfred Franklin (ed.), La vie de Paris sous Louis XIV: Tenue de maison et domesticité (reprint of Audiger, La Maison réglée ou L'Art de diriger la maison d'un grand seigneur et autres [] [1692], and of Claude Fleury, Les Devoirs des maîtres et des domestiques [1688]), in idem, La vie privée d'autrefois: Arts et métiers, modes, moeurs, usages des Parisiens, du XIIe au XVIIIe siècle, d'après des documents originaux ou inédits (Paris, 1898), vol. XXIII; d'Avenel, Georges, “Le train de maison depuis sept siècles: Les domestiques”, Revue des Deux Mondes, 8 (1912), pp. 632655.

4. Babeau, Albert, “Les domestiques d'autrefois”, Le Correspondant, 139 (1885), pp. 231256; idem, Les artisans et les domestiques d'autrefois (Paris, 1886).

5. Lazari, Vincenzo, “Del traffico e delle condizioni degli schiavi in Venezia nei tempi di mezzo”, in Miscellanea di storia italiana edita per cura della Regia Deputazione di Storia Patria (Turin, 1862), I, pp. 463–501; Bongi, Salvatore, “Le schiave orientali in Italia”, Nuova Antologia, 2 (1866), pp. 215246.

6. Nino Tamassia, La famiglia italiana nei secoli decimoquinto e decimosesto (Milan [etc.], n.d. [c.1911]), pp. 352–353; Zanelli, Agostino, Le schiave orientali a Firenze nei secoli XIV e XV (Florence, 1885, and Sala Bolognese, 1976), pp. 89.

7. On later developments see, for instance, Origo, Iris, “The Domestic Enemy: The Eastern Slaves in Tuscany in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries”, Speculum, 30 (1955), pp. 321366; Charles Verlinden, L'esclavage dans l'Europe médiévale, 2 vols (Bruges, 1955, and Ghent, 1977); Angiolini, Franco, “Schiave”, in Angela Groppi (ed.), Donne e lavoro (Rome [etc.], 1996), pp. 92115; McKee, Sally, “Domestic Slavery in Renaissance Italy”, Slavery and Abolition, 29 (2008), pp. 305326.

8. Sarti, Raffaella, “Tramonto di schiavitù: Sulle tracce degli ultimi schiavi presenti in Italia (sec. XIX)”, in Felice Gambin (ed.), Alle radici dell'Europa: Mori, giudei e zingari nei paesi del Mediterraneo occidentale, secoli XVIII e XIX (Florence, 2009), II, pp. 281–297.

9. For instance Bono, Salvatore, “La schiavitù nel Mediterraneo moderno: storia di una storia”, Cahiers de la Mediterranée, 65 (2002), available at: http://cdlm.revues.org/28; last accessed 19.12.2013; Casares, Aurelia Martín, La esclavitud en la Granada del Siglo XVI: Género, raza y religión (Granada, 2000); Fiume, Giovanna, Schiavitù mediterranee: Corsari, rinnegati e santi di età moderna (Milan, 2009); Botte, Roger and Alessandro Stella (eds), Couleurs de l'esclavage sur les deux rives de la Méditerranée (Moyen Âge–XXè siècle) (Paris, 2012). For a long time, and with only a few exceptions, this field of studies was restricted to Italian and French scholars. American scholars started to focus on this issue more recently, particularly when conflicts with the Muslim world became sharper (especially after 11 September 2001). As a consequence, the “Barbary wars”, which the US fought against north African Muslims at the beginning of the nineteenth century (because of the enslavement of Americans by Muslims), as well as the more general history of Mediterranean slavery, have entered into the public discourse and the scholarly agenda more often than in the past. See, for instance, Pelizza, Andrea, “‘Maybe We Are Still Fighting the Same War’: Gli Stati Uniti tra i corsari del XVIII secolo e i terroristi del XXI”, Società & Storia, 126 (2009), pp. 587614. Mediterranean slavery was completely different from its Atlantic counterpart, because, especially from the sixteenth century onwards, both Muslims and Christians could be enslaved if captured, especially by members of the other religion: slaves were mainly employed as rowers or domestic servants; they could be ransomed or exchanged and thus often returned home.

10. Lucy Maynard Salmon, Domestic Service (New York [etc.], 1901 [1897]). On the author see Brown, Louise Fargo, Apostle of Democracy: The Life of Lucy Maynard Salmon (New York [etc.], 1943), and the website: http://vcencyclopedia.vassar.edu/faculty/prominent-faculty/lucy-maynard-salmon.html; last accessed 29.1.2014.

11. Katzman, David Manners, Seven Days a Week: Women and Domestic Service in Industrializing America (New York, 1978); Sutherland, Daniel E., Americans and their Servants: Domestic Service in the United States from 1800 to 1920 (Baton Rouge, LA [etc.], 1981); Dudden, Faye E., Serving Women: Household Service in Nineteenth-Century America (Middletown, CT, 1983); idem , “Experts and Servants: The National Council on Household Employment and the Decline of Domestic Service in the Twentieth Century”, Journal of Social History, 20 (1986), pp. 269–289; Salinger, Sharon Vineberg, “To Serve Well and Faithfully”: Labor and Indentured Servants in Pennsylvania, 1682–1800 (Cambridge, MA [etc.], 1987); Palmer, Phyllis, Domesticity and Dirt: Housewives and Domestic Servants in the United States, 1920–1945 (Philadelphia, PA, 1989).

12. Salmon, , Domestic Service, p. 278; the chapter on Europe was added in the 2nd edition.

13. See for instance Prosper-Georges-Marcelin Bouniceau-Gesmon, Domestiques et maîtres: À propos de quelques crimes récents (Paris, 1885); Cusenier, Marcel, Les domestiques en France (Paris, 1912); Stillich, Oskar, Die Lage der weiblichen Dienstboten in Berlin (Berlin [etc.], 1902); Kesten-Conrad, Else, “Zur Dienstbotenfrage: Erhebungen der Arbeiterinnenschutzkommission des Bundes Deutscher Frauenvereine”, Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, 31 (1910), pp. 520553; Bachi, Riccardo, La serva nella evoluzione sociale (Turin, 1900); Alessandro Levi, Il ‘completo’: A proposito della crisi dei domestici”, Critica sociale, 46 (1908), n. 1, pp. 10–13; n. 2, pp. 26–28; n. 3, pp. 42–45; Schiavi, Alessandro, “Per le domestiche”, Critica sociale, 46 (1908), n. 4, pp. 56–58; Pesci, Clementina Giusti, Proposta per la classe delle domestiche presentata alla assemblea delle Donne Italiane il 3 Marzo 1913 (Bologna, 1913); Sullam, Nina Rignano, Le addette ai lavori domestici (Milan, 1914); Salmon, Domestic service; Isaac Max Rubinow, “The Problem of Domestic Service”, Journal of Political Economy, 14 (1906), pp. 502–519. As for research on this period, see on Italy: Reggiani, Flores, “Un problema tecnico e un problema morale: La crisi delle domestiche a Milano (1890–1914)”, in Ada Gigli Marchetti and Nanda Torcellan (eds), Donna lombarda 1860–1945 (Milan, 1992), pp. 149179; Sarti, Raffaella, “Da serva a operaia? Trasformazioni di lungo periodo del servizio domestico in Europa”, Polis. Ricerche e studi su società e politica in Italia, 19 (2005), pp. 91120; on France: Guiral, Pierre and Thuillier, Guy, La vie quotidienne des domestiques en France au XIXe siècle (Paris, 1978); Martin-Fugier, Anne, La place des bonnes: La domesticité féminine à Paris en 1900 (Paris, 1979), pp. 3338; on Belgium: Piette, Valérie, Domestiques et servantes: Des vies sous condition. Essai sur le travail domestique en Belgique au 19e siècle (Brussels, 2000), pp. 327411; on Germany: Ottmüller, Uta, “Dienstbotenfrage und Dienstbotenbewegung zu Beginn dieses Jahrhunderts”, in Dokumentationsgruppe der Sommeruniversität V (ed.), Frauen als bezahlte und unbezahlte Arbeitskräfte: Beiträge zur Berliner Sommeruniversität für Frauen. Oktober 1977 (Berlin, 1978), pp. 438443; Müller, Heidi, Dienstbare Geister: Leben und Arbeitswelt städtischer Dienstboten (Berlin, 1985); Zull, Gertraud, Das Bild vom Dienstmädchen um die Jahrhundertwende: Eine Untersuchung der stereotypen Vorstellungen über den Charakter und die soziale Lage des städtischen weiblichen Hauspersonals (Munich, 1984); Wierling, Dorothee, Mädchen für alles: Arbeitsalltag und Lebensgeschichte städtischer Dienstmädchen um die Jahrhundertwende (Berlin [etc.], 1987); Pierenkemper, Toni, “‘Dienstbotenfrage’ und Dienstmädchenarbeitsmarkt am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts”, Archiv für Sozialgeschichte, 28 (1988), pp. 173201; on Austria: Tichy, Marina, Alltag und Traum: Leben und Lektüre der Dienstmädchen im Wien der Jahrhundertwende (Vienna, 1984), pp. 1623; on Britain: Horn, Pamela, The Rise and Fall of the Victorian Servant (Dublin [etc.], 1975), pp. 151165; McBride, Theresa M., The Domestic Revolution: The Modernization of Household Service in England and France 1820–1920 (London, 1976), p. 28 and passim; on Norway: A. Ellen Schrumpf, “Domestic Servants and Housewives: Controversies in Kristiania at the End of the 19th Century”, paper presented at the seminar Servant Adaptability to the Labour Market: Domestic Service in Europe in a Stage of Transition, Oslo, 13–16 June 2002, abstract available in Suzy Pasleau and Isabelle Schopp (eds), with Raffaella Sarti, Proceedings of the Servant Project, 5 vols (Liège, 2005), II, pp. 167–168.

14. Raffaella Sarti, “Conclusion: Domestic Service and European Identity”, in Pasleau and Schopp, with Sarti, Proceedings of the Servant Project, V, pp. 195–284, in part. pp. 248–252.

15. According to Salmon, Domestic Service, pp. 278–279, both in Europe and America women “prefer work in factories where the hours of work are definitely prescribed and evenings and Sundays are free; [...] in shops where their individual life is less under control [...]; in hotels [...] since these give opportunity for specialized work, a life of variety and excitement, and larger wages in the form of fees; [...] prefer short engagements with large fees at summer resorts to permanent engagements with moderate wages in families; because the growing spirit of democracy rebels against the inferior social position accorded household employees, even to those whose work is rightly classed as skilled labor”. On the different ways of interpreting the crisis, its reasons, and its possible solutions, see among others Zull, Das Bild vom Dienstmädchen, pp. 52–198; Wierling, Mädchen für alles, pp. 183–222, 283–296; Reggiani, “Un problema tecnico e un problema morale”; Sarti, “Da serva a operaia?”, pp. 92–99.

16. August Bebel, Die Frau und der Sozialismus (Bonn, 1994, which follows the 50th edn, printed in 1910 [1879]), ch. 27, section 3 (Kommunistische Küche), available at: http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/bebel/frausoz/frau2741.htm; last accessed 19.12.2013.

17. Ibid., ch. 27, section 4 (“Umwandlung des häuslichen Lebens”).

18. See Müller, , Dienstbare Geister, pp. 172178, for debates at the turn of the nineteenth to the twentieth century about the future development of households without servants.

19. Frederick, Christine, The New Housekeeping: Efficiency Studies in Home Management (New York, 1914), p. 178.

20. See e.g. Fairchilds, Cissie C., Domestic Enemies: Servants and Their Masters in Old Regime France (Baltimore, MD [etc.], 1984), p. xi. See also McBride, , The Domestic Revolution, p. 9; Guiral, and Thuillier, , La vie quotidienne des domestiques, pp. 1617; Maza, Sarah C., Servants and Masters in Eighteenth-Century France: The Uses of Loyalty (Princeton, NJ, 1983), p. 4; Petitfrère, Claude, L'oeil du maître: Maîtres et serviteurs, de l’époque classique au romantisme (Brussels, 1986), p. 7.

21. Fairchilds, Domestic Enemies, p. xi. See also, for instance, McBride, , The Domestic Revolution, p. 9; Guiral, and Thuillier, , La vie quotidienne des domestiques, pp. 1417, 250; Maza, , Servants and Masters, p. 4; Karin Walser, Dienstmädchen: Frauenarbeit und Weiblichkeitsbilder um 1900 (Frankfurt a. Main, 1985 and 1986), p. 7; Wierling, , Mädchen für alles, pp. 1213.

22. On the 1880s in France and Britain see McBride, , The Domestic Revolution, p. 34; Marchand, Olivier and Thelot, Claude, Deux siècles de travail en France: Population active et structure sociale, durée e productivité du travail (Paris, 1991), p. 102.

23. Sarti, Raffaella, “Domestic Service: Past and Present in Southern and Northern Europe”, Gender and History, 18 (2006), pp. 222245.

24. Platzer, Ellinor, “From Private Solutions to Public Responsibility and Back Again: The New Domestic Services in Sweden”, Gender and History, 18 (2006), pp. 211221.

25. Sarti, , “Domestic Service and European Identity”, pp. 277278; idem, “Domestic Service: Past and Present”, p. 223, Table 1.

26. Nevertheless, Lucy Delap has recently shown that being a “modern” middle-class woman always implied, at least in Britain, having some domestic help; Delap, Lucy, Knowing their Place: Domestic Service in Twentieth-Century Britain (Oxford, 2011), pp. 98139.

27. Social scientists who focused on domestic service include George Joseph Stigler, future Nobel prize winner in economic science (1982) and author of Domestic Servants in the United States, 1900–1940 (New York, 1946); James H.S. Bossard, who in his very influential book The Sociology of Child Development (New York, 1948) briefly analysed the role of domestic servants (pp. 265–267); and Keller, Gretel, Hausgehilfin und Hausflucht, ein soziales Problem von gestern und heute (Dortmund, 1950). Some of them explicitly denounced its crisis; see e.g. Aubert, Vilhelm, “The Housemaid: An Occupational Role in Crisis”, Acta Sociologica, 1 (1956), pp. 149158. In some countries, such as Spain, there was a certain interest in the legal evolution of domestic service. See, among others, Galvarriato, María Dolores, “Notas para la historia del servicio doméstico”, Revista del Trabajo, 8 (1946), pp. 143147; Unsaín, Alejandro M., “Evolución del servicio doméstico”, Revista del Trabajo, 10 (1948), pp. 1620; Joaquín, Luis, Pedregal, Evolución legal del servicio doméstico (estudio histórico-jurídico) (Seville, 1951).

28. Hecht, Joseph Jean, “Continental and Colonial Servants in Eighteenth Century England”, Smith College Studies in History, 40 (1954), pp. 161; idem, The Domestic Servant Class in Eighteenth-Century England (London, 1956), republished as The Domestic Servant in Eighteenth Century England (London [etc.], 1980). Among recent contributions on domestic service in Britain which deal with colonialism and imperialism see Horn, Pamela, Life below Stairs in the Twentieth Century (Stroud, 2001).

29. Ariès, Philippe, L'enfant et la vie familiale sous l'ancien régime (Paris, 1960); idem, “Le service domestique: Permanence et variations”, XVIIe Siècle, 32 (1980), pp. 415–420.

30. Among articles and books on childhood and youth which also have focused on servants, see, for instance, Gillis, John Randall, Youth and History: Continuity and Change in European Age Relations, 1770 to Present (New York, 1974); Mitterauer, Michael, Sozialgeschichte der Jugend (Frankfurt a. Main, 1986); Ben-Amos, Ilana Krausman, “Service and the Coming of Age of Young Men in Seventeenth-Century England”, Continuity and Change, 3 (1988), pp. 4164; idem, Adolescence and Youth in Early Modern England (New Haven, CT [etc.], 1994); Goldberg, Jeremy, “Orphans and Servants: The Socialization of Young People Living Away from Home in the English Later Middle Ages”, in Mireille Corbier (ed.), Adoption et Fosterage (Paris, 1999), pp. 231246; Carlo Pancera, “L'infanzia laboriosa: Il rapporto maestro-apprendista”, in Egle Becchi (ed.), Il bambino sociale: Privatizzazione e deprivatizzazione dell'infanzia (Milan, 1979), pp. 77–113; Giacomo Casarino, “I giovani e l'apprendistato: Iniziazione e addestramento”, Quaderni del Centro di studio sulla storia della tecnica del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, special issue “Maestri e garzoni nella società genovese fra XV e XVI secolo”, 4 (1982), pp. 5–178; Marcello, Luciano, “Andare a bottega: Adolescenza e apprendistato nelle arti (sec. XVI–XVII)”, in Ottavia Niccoli (ed.), Infanzie: Funzioni di un gruppo liminale dal mondo classico all'Età moderna (Florence, 1993), pp. 231251; Bellavitis, Anna, “Apprentissages masculins, apprentissages féminins à Venise au XVIe siècle”, Histoire Urbaine, 15 (2006), pp. 4973; Delpiano, Patrizia and Sarti, Raffaella (eds), “Servants, Domestic Workers and Children: The Role of Domestic Personnel in the Upbringing and Education of the Master's and the Employer's Children from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-First Century”, special issue of Paedagogica Historica, 4 (2007); Isabel dos Guimarães Sá, , “Up and Out: Children in Portugal and the Empire (1500–1800)”, in Ondina E. González and Bianca Premo (eds), Raising an Empire: Children in Early Modern Iberia and Colonial Latin America (Albuquerque, NM, 2007).

31. Roche, Daniel, “Les domestiques comme intermédiaires culturels”, in Les intermédiaires culturels: Actes du Colloque du Centre Méridional d'Histoire Sociale, des Mentalités et des Cultures (Aix-en-Provence [etc.], 1978), pp. 189202; idem, Le peuple de Paris (Paris, 1981). Hecht, Already, The Domestic Servant, pp. 200228, had defined the “servant class as cultural nexus” connecting rural and urban cultures.

32. For instance Daniela Perco (ed.), Balie da latte: Una forma peculiare di emigrazione temporanea (Feltre, 1984); Fairchilds, Domestic Enemies; Irene Hardach-Pinke, Die Gouvernante: Geschichte eines Frauenberufs (Frankfurt a. Main [etc.], 1993); Stoler, Ann Laura, “A Sentimental Education: Native Servants and the Cultivation of European Children in the Netherlands Indies”, in Laurie Jo Sears (ed.), Fantasizing the Feminine in Indonesia (Durham, NC, 1997), pp. 7191; idem, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate in Colonial Rule (Berkeley, CA [etc.], 2002); Petzen, Barbara, “Matmazels nell'harem: Le governanti europee nell'Impero ottomano”, Genesis. Rivista della Società Italiana delle Storiche, 1 (2002), pp. 6184; Pech, Sarah, “L'influence des nourrices sur la formation physique et morale des enfants qu'elles allaitent selon les médecins et moralistes espagnols des XVIe et XVIIe siècles”, Paedagogica Historica, 43 (2007), pp. 493507; Véronique Pache Huber, “Delegation of Childcare as a Corner Stone of Children's Interethnic Relations”, in Véronique Pache Huber and Spyros Spyrou (eds), “Children Interethnic Relations in Everyday Life: Beyond Institutional Contexts”, special issue of Childhood: A Journal of Global Child Research, 19 (2012), pp. 389–396.

33. Laslett, Peter, The World We Have Lost (London, 1965).

34. Idem, “Size and Structure of the Household in England over Three Centuries”, Population Studies, 23 (1969), pp. 199–223, 219.

35. Hajnal, John, “European Marriage Patterns in Perspective”, in David Victor Glass and David Edward Charles Eversley (eds), Population in History (London, 1965), pp. 101135.

36. Hajnal, John, “Two Kinds of Pre-Industrial Household Formation Systems”, in Richard Wall, Jean Robin, and Peter Laslett (eds), Family Forms in Historic Europe (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 65104, 96–97; Peter Laslett, “Family and Household as Work and Kin Group: Areas of Traditional Europe Compared”, in ibid., pp. 513–563.

37. Laslett, Peter, “Characteristics of the Western Family Considered over Time”, Journal of Family History, 2 (1977), pp. 89115, 104, 110; there is another version in idem, Family Life and Illicit Love in Earlier Generations (Cambridge, 1977), pp. 12–49.

38. The amount of literature on this issue is huge. For comparative data see, for instance, Mitterauer, Michael, “Servants and Youth”, Continuity and Change, 5 (1990), pp. 1138. On north-western Europe: Cooper, Sheila McIsaac, “Service to Servitude? The Decline and Demise of Life-Cycle Service in England”, The History of the Family, 10 (2005), pp. 367386; Beatrice Moring, “Servanthood, Marriage and Female Destinies in an Urban Environment”, Pasleau and Schopp, with Sarti Proceedings of the Servant Project, IV, pp. 71–97, also published with the title “Migration, Servanthood and Assimilation in a New Environment”, in Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux (ed.), Domestic Service and the Formation of European Identity: Understanding the Globalization of Domestic Work, 16th–21st Centuries (Bern, 2004), pp. 43–70; Sogner, Sølvi, “Domestic Service in Norway: The Long View”, in Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux and Ludmila Fialová (eds), Le phénomène de la domesticité en Europe, XVIe–XXe siècles (Prague, 1997), pp. 95105; Lundh, Christer, “Life-Cycle Servants in Nineteenth Century Sweden: Norms and Practices”, in Fauve-Chamoux, Domestic Service, pp. 7185, and in Pasleau, Schopp, and Sarti, Proceedings of the Servant Project, III, pp. 69–82; Paping, Richard, “Oferta y demanda de criados rurales en Holanda, 1760–1920”, in Carmen Sarasúa (ed.), “Criados y mozos en la organización histórica del trabajo agrario”, special issue of Historia Agraria, 35 (2005), pp. 115142; Bras, Hilde, Liefbroer, Aart C., and Elzinga, Cees H., “Standardization of Pathways to Adulthood? An Analysis of Dutch Cohorts Born between 1850 and 1900”, Demography, 47 (2010), pp. 10131034; Hayhoe, Jeremy, “Rural Domestic Servants in Eighteenth-Century Burgundy: Demography, Economy, and Mobility”, Journal of Social History, 46 (2012), pp. 549571; Simonton, Deborah, “‘Birds of Passage’ or ‘Career’ Women? Thoughts on the Life Cycle of the Eighteenth-Century European Servant”, Women's History Review, 20 (2011), pp. 207225; on central Europe: Ehmer, Josef, Heiratsverhalten, Sozialstruktur, Ökonomischer Wandel: England und Mitteleuropa in der Formationsperiode des Kapitalismus (Göttingen, 1991); Schlumbohm, Jürgen, “Gesindedienst als Lebensphase und als Klassenphenomen: Mägde und Knechte in einem ländlichen Kirchspiel Nordwestdeutschlands. 1650–1860”, in Fauve-Chamoux and Fialová, Le phénomène de la domesticité, pp. 2339; Szołtysek, Mikołai, “Life–Cycle Service and Family Systems in the Rural Countryside: A Lesson from Historical East-Central Europe”, Annales de démographie historique (2009), pp. 5394; Faragó, Tamás, “Different Household Formation Systems in Hungary at the End of the Eighteenth Century: Variations on John Hajnal's Thesis”, Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung, 23 (1998), pp. 83111; the discussion on eastern Europe and Russia mainly deals with the status of serfs and servants: see, for instance, Stanziani, Alessandro, “Serfs, Slaves, or Wage Earners? The Legal Status of Labour in Russia from a Comparative Perspective, from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century”, Journal of Global History, 3 (2008), pp. 183202; information on life-cycle/lifetime serfs and servants can be found in Tracy Dennison, The Institutional Framework of Russian Serfdom (Cambridge, 2011). On southern Europe see n. 40. For an overview see Sarti, Raffaella, “Criados, servi, domestiques, Gesinde, Servants: For a Comparative History of Domestic Service in Europe (16th–19th Centuries)”, Obradoiro de Historia Moderna, 16 (2007), pp. 939, available at: http://dspace.usc.es/bitstream/10347/3909/1/pg_009-040_obradoiro16.pdf; last accessed 20.12.2013.

39. Nagata, Mary Louise Powell, “One of the Family: Domestic Service in Early Modern Japan”, The History of the Family, 10 (2005), pp. 355365.

40. Reher, David Sven, “Family Ties in Western Europe: Persistent Contrasts”, Population and Development Review, 24 (1998), pp. 203235. On domestic service in southern Europe see, for instance, Arru, Angiolina, “The Distinguishing Features of Domestic Service in Italy”, Journal of Family History, 15 (1990), pp. 547566; Molin, Giovanna Da, “Family Forms and Domestic Service in Southern Italy from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century”, Journal of Family History, 15 (1990), pp. 503527; Dubert, Isidro, “Domestic Service and Social Modernization in Urban Galicia, 1752–1920”, Continuity and Change, 14 (1999), pp. 207226; García, Serrana Mercedes Rial, Mujer y actividad económica en la Galicia Moderna: La inserción de las mujeres en la producción económica rural y urbana (Santiago, 2003); the special issue of Historia agraria, 35 (2005) on rural servants; Violetta Hionidou, “Domestic Service on Three Greek Islands in the Later 19th and Early 20th Centuries”, The History of the Family, 10 (2005), pp. 473–489; Castelao, Ofelia Rey, “Les femmes ‘seules’ du nord-ouest de l'Espagne: Trajectoires féminines dans un territoire d’émigration 1700–1860”, Annales de démographie historique, 112 (2006), pp. 105133; Francisco García González, “Criados, Trabajo, Movilidad población, Castilla rural, Siglo XVIII”, in María José Pérez Álvarez, Laureano M. Rubio Pérez, Alfredo Martín García, and Francisco Fernández Izquierdo (eds), Campo y campesinos en la España Moderna: Culturas políticas en el mundo hispano (León, 2012), pp. 1101–1112.

41. Chatelain, Abel, “Migrations et domesticité féminine urbaine en France, XVIIIe siècle–XIXe siècle”, Revue d'histoire économique et sociale, 47 (1969), pp. 506528.

42. Fauve-Chamoux, Antoinette, “Le surplus urbain des femmes en France préindustrielle et le rôle de la domesticité”, Population, 1 (1998), pp. 359377.

43. Walser, , Dienstmädchen, pp. 78.

44. McBride, Theresa, The Domestic Revolution: The Modernisation of Household Service in England and France 1820–1920 (London, 1976), p. 117.

45. For instance, McBride, , The Domestic Revolution, p. 9, considered domestic service as a “bridging occupation” as defined by Broom, L. and Smith, J.H., “Bridging Occupations”, British Journal of Sociology, 14 (1963), pp. 321334; Wierling, Mädchen für alles, pp. 16, 67–83; Arru, Angiolina, Il servo: Storia di una carriera nel Settecento (Bologna, 1995), in part. pp. 210–213.

46. McBride, , The Domestic Revolution, p. 116.

47. Ibid., p. 34.

48. Boserup, Ester, Women's Role in Economic Development (London, 1970), pp. 103104. For two examples of early articles dealing with domestic service in Latin America and/or Africa and also discussing Boserup's thesis, see Jelin, Elizabeth, “Migration and Labor Force Participation of Latin American Women: The Domestic Servants in the Cities”, Signs, 3 (1977), pp. 129141; Huntington, Suellen, “Issues in Woman's Role in Economic Development: Critique and Alternatives”, Journal of Marriage and Family, 37 (1975), pp. 10011012.

49. Coser, Lewis A., “Servants: The Obsolescence of an Occupational Role”, Social Forces, 1 (1973), pp. 3140, 39.

50. Davidoff, Leonore, “Mastered for Life: Servant and Wife in Victorian and Edwardian England”, The Journal of Social History, 7 (1974), pp. 406428.

51. For instance, Davidoff, Leonore and Hawthorn, Ruth, A Day in the Life of a Victorian Servant (London, 1976); Ottmüller, , Dienstbotenfrage und Dienstbotenbewegung, pp. 438443; idem, Die Dienstbotenfrage: Zur Sozialgeschichte der doppelten Ausnutzung von Dienstmädchen im deutschen Kaiserreich (Münster, 1978); Fraisse, Geneviève, Femmes toutes mains: Essai sur le service domestiques. Recherches, discussions, documentation et interviews en collaboration avec Martine Guillin (Paris, 1979); Martin-Fugier, La place des bonnes; Angiolina Arru, “Lavorare in casa d'altri: Servi e serve domestici a Roma nell'800”, in Annali della Fondazione Lelio e Lisli Basso-Issoco (Rome, 1983–1984), pp. 95–160.

52. Wierling, , Mädchen für alles, pp. 1415, for instance, contested the idea put forward by Rolf Engelsing that domestic work was a traditional and declining occupation: from women's point of view, it was an expanding one, and had new features in comparison with the past. For Engelsing's interpretation, see Engelsing, Rolf, “Das häusliche Personal in der Epoche der Industrialisierung”, Jahrbuch für Sozialwissenschaft, 20 (1969), pp. 84121, republished in a longer version in idem, Zur Sozialgeschichte deutscher Mitte- und Unterschichten (Göttingen, 1978 [1973]), pp. 224–261. See also Walser, , Dienstmädchen, pp. 78.

53. Almost all the books and articles on domestic service in the eighteenth and nineteenth century analyse or at least mention the issue of feminization.

54. Davidoff, Leonore, “Domestic Service and the Working-Class Life Cycle”, Society of the Study of Labour History, 26 (1973), pp. 1013; Tilly, Louise A. and Scott, Joan W., Women, Work and Family (New York, 1978); Klapisch-Zuber, Christiane, “Célibat et service féminins dans la Florence du XVe siècle”, Annales de démographie historique, (1981), pp. 289302; Arru, Angiolina, “A che prezzo la carriera! Nubilato e servizio domestico a Roma nell'Ottocento”, in Società Italiana di Demografia Storica, Popolazione, società, ambiente: Temi di demografia storica italiana (secc. XVII–XIX): Relazioni e comunicazioni presentate da Autori italiani al I Congrés Hispano Luso Italià de Demografìa Histórica, Barcellona, 22–25 aprile 1987 (Bologna, 1990), pp. 103123.

55. See e.g. McBride, , The Domestic Revolution, pp. 9, 82–98; Sarasúa, Carmen, Criados, nodrizas y amos: El servicio doméstico en la formación del mercado de trabajo madrileño, 1758–1868 (Madrid, 1994).

56. McBride, , The Domestic Revolution, pp. 99110; Wilcox, Penelope, “Marriage, Mobility and Domestic Service”, Annales de demographie historique, (1981), pp. 195206.

57. Fraisse, Femmes toutes mains; Martin-Fugier, La place des bonnes; Walser, Dienstmädchen.

58. Maria Casalini thought, for instance, that the association of the maid with the prostitute was not only a stereotype: “Le serve e i loro padroni”, in Paola Nava (ed.) Operaie, serve, maestre, impiegate: Atti del convegno internazionale di studi: Il lavoro delle donne nell'Italia contemporanea: continuità e rotture (Carpi, 1990) (Turin, 1992), pp. 265–286, 276.

59. Walser, Karin, “Prostitutionsverdacht und Geschlechterforschung: Das Beispiel der Dienstmädchen um 1900”, Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 11 (1985), pp. 99111; idem, Dienstmädchen, pp. 59–73; Pelaja, Margherita, “Mestieri femminili e luoghi comuni: Le domestiche a Roma a metà Ottocento”, Quaderni storici, 23 (1968), pp. 497518. See also Reggiani, “Un problema tecnico e un problema morale”, n. 50.

60. Arru, Angiolina, “Protezione e legittimazione: Come si usa il lavoro di serva nell'Ottocento”, in Lucia Ferrante, Maura Palazzi, and Gianna Pomata (eds), Ragnatele di rapporti: Patronage e reti di relazione nella storia delle donne (Turin, 1988), pp. 381416; Daniela Lombardi and Flores Reggiani, “Da assistita a serva: Circuiti di reclutamento delle serve attraverso le istituzioni assistenziali (Firenze–Milano, XVII–XVIII sec.)”, in Simonetta Cavaciocchi (ed.), La donna nell'economia, secc. XIII–XVIII, Istituto Internazionale di Storia Economica “F. Datini” (Florence, 1990), pp. 301–319; Groppi, Angela, I conservatori della virtù: Donne recluse nella Roma dei Papi (Rome [etc.], 1994), pp. 166173; Swain, Shurlee, “Maids and Mothers: Domestic Servants and Illegitimacy in 19th-Century Australia”, The History of the Family, 10 (2005), pp. 461471.

61. See e.g. Davidoff, “Mastered for Life”.

62. Schulte, Regina, “Dienstmädchen im herrschaftlichen Haushalt: Zur Genese ihrer Sozialpsychologie”, Zeitschrift für bayerische Landesgeschichte, 41 (1978), pp. 879920; Guiral, and Thuillier, , La vie quotidienne des domestiques, pp. 130132.

63. Martin-Fugier, , La place des bonnes, p. 11; Fraisse, , Femmes toutes mains, p. 14; Walser, , Dienstmädchen, pp. 131133.

64. See e.g. Wierling, Mädchen für alles; Angiolina Arru, “ ‘Nel carattere scortese, nel comportamento impertinente e sfrontata’. Racconti di serve tedesche nell'Ottocento”, in Angiolina Arru and Maria Teresa Chialant (eds), Il racconto delle donne: Voci autobiografie figurazioni (Naples [etc.], 1990), pp. 11–26.

65. For instance Hardach-Pinke, Die Gouvernante; M. Jeanne Peterson, The Victorian Governess: Status Incongruence in Family and Society, in Vicinus, Martha (ed.), Suffer and Be Still: Women in the Victorian Age (Bloomington, IN [etc.], 1973), pp. 319; Gillis, John Randall, “Servants, Sexual Relations, and the Risks of Illegitimacy in London, 1801–1900”, Feminist Studies, 5 (1979), pp. 142173.

66. See for instance Davidoff, Leonore, “Class and Gender in Victorian England: The Diaries of Arthur Munby and Hannah Cullwick”, Feminist Studies, 5 (1979), pp. 86141.

67. Davidoff, , “Mastered for Life”, p. 425, briefly mentions both Mheta, Aban B., The Domestic Servant Class (Bombay, 1960), and Whisson, Michael G. and Weil, William, Domestic Servants: A Microcosm of “the Race Problem” (Johannesburg, 1971).

68. Glenn, Evelyn Nakano, “From Servitude to Service Work: Historical Continuities in the Racial Division of Paid Reproductive Work”, Signs, 18 (1992), pp. 143; see also idem, Issei, Nisei, War Bride: Three Generations of Japanese American Women in Domestic Service (Philadelphia, PA, 1986); Romero, Mary, Maid in the USA (New York [etc.], 1992), 10th Anniversary (revised) edn by Routledge published in 2002; see also Romero, Mary, “Sisterhood and Domestic Service: Race, Class and Gender in the Mistress–Maid Relationship”, Humanity & Society, 12 (1988), pp. 318346.

69. An important conference was organized by Victoria Haskins at the University of Newcastle in 2012, see “Colonization and Domestic Service: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives”, Research Symposium, Newcastle, Crowne Plaza, 2012, at http://www.newcastle.edu.au/Resources/Institutes/The%20Australian%20Institute%20for%20Social%20Inclusion%20and%20Wellbeing/Seminars/Colonization%20and%20Domestic%20Services_Program%20Final_web.pdf; last accessed 20.12.2013.

70. Victoria Haskins and Claire Lowrie (eds.), Colonization and Domestic Service: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (London [etc.], 2014, forthcoming).

71. For instance, García, Alberto Rutté, Simplemente explotadas: El mundo de las empleadas domésticas de Lima (Lima, 1976 [1973]); Chaney, Elsa M. and Castro, Mary Garcia (eds), Muchachas No More: Household Workers in Latin America and the Caribbean (Philadelphia, PA, 1989).

72. Stoler, “A Sentimental Education”; idem, Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power. Stoler focuses on emotions with an approach influenced by Michel Foucault; she does not mention Ariès.

73. See e.g. Barber, Marilyn, Immigrant Domestic Servants in Canada (Ottawa, 1991); Arat-Koc, Sedef, “From ‘Mothers of the Nation’ to ‘Migrant Domestic Workers’ ”, in Abigail B. Bakan and Daiva Stasiulis (eds), Not One of the Family: Foreign Domestic Workers in Canada (Toronto [etc.], 1997), pp. 5379; Horn, , Life Below Stairs, p. 161; Harzig, Christiane, “MacNamara's DP Domestics: Immigration Policy Makers Negotiate Class, Race, and Gender in the Aftermath of World War II”, Social Politics, 10 (2003), pp. 2348; Hamilton, Paula and Higman, Barry W., “Servants of Empire: The British Training of Domestics for Australia”, Social History, 28 (2003), pp. 6782.

74. For instance Petzen, , “Matmazels nell'harem”, pp. 6184.

75. Hansen, Karen Tranberg, “Household Work as a Man's Job: Sex and Gender in Domestic Service in Zambia”, Anthropology Today, 2 (1986), pp. 1823; idem, Distant Companions: Servants and Employers in Zambia, 1900–1985 (Ithaca, NY [etc.], 1989). See also Pape, John, “Still Serving Tea: Domestic Workers in Zimbabwe 1980–90”, Journal of Southern African Studies, 19 (1993), pp. 387404. Among more recent studies on the African context see Bujra, Janet M., Serving Class: Masculinity and the Feminisation of Domestic Service in Tanzania (Edinburgh, 2000); Bartolomei, Maria Rita, “Migrant Male Domestic Workers in Comparative Perspective: Four Case Studies from Italy, India, Ivory Coast, and Congo”, Men and Masculinities, 13 (2010), pp. 87110. For a comprehensive history of masculinity and colonial rule in India see Sinha, Mrinalini, Colonial Masculinity: The ‘Manly Englishman’ and the ‘Effeminate Bengali’ in the Late Nineteenth Century (Manchester, 1995). On domestic workers see Ray, Raka, “Masculinity, Femininity and Servitude: Domestic Workers in Calcutta in the Late Twentieth Century”, Feminist Studies, 26 (2000), pp. 691718; Banerjee, Swapna M., Men, Women, and Domestics: Articulating Middle-Class Identity in Colonial Bengal (New York, 2004); Qayum, Seemin and Ray, Raka, Cultures of Servitude: Modernity, Domesticity, and Class in India (Stanford, CA, 2009); idem, “Male Servants and the Failure of Patriarchy in Kolkata (Calcutta)”, Men and Masculinities, 13 (2010), pp. 111–125; Bartolomei, , “Migrant Male Domestic Workers”. On other Asian contexts see Christine B.N. Chin, In Service and Servitude: Foreign Domestic Workers and the Malaysian ‘Modernity’ Project (New York, 1998), pp. 6973. On Australia see Martínez, Julia and Lowrie, Claire, “Colonial Constructions of Masculinity: Transforming Aboriginal Australian Men into ‘Houseboys’ ”, Gender and History, 21 (2009), pp. 305323.

76. In the late ninteenth and early twentieth centuries, male domestic workers underwent a symbolic castration in many European countries, too. They were, for example, prevented from growing moustaches, which at the time were a sign of virility. Significantly, this prohibition provoked several protests, see Sarti, Raffaella, “Fighting for Masculinity: Male Domestic Workers, Gender, and Migration in Italy from the Late Nineteenth Century to the Present”, Men and Masculinities, 13 (2010), pp. 1643.

77. Hansen, Distant Companions, p. xii.

78. Tilly, Louise A., “Does Waged Domestic Labor Have a Future?”, International Labor and Working-Class History, 39 (1991), pp. 6171, 70. The other three reviewed books are Chaney and Castro, Muchachas No More; Graham, Sandra Lauderdale, House and Street: The Domestic World of Servants and Masters in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro (Cambridge, 1988); Palmer, Domesticity and Dirt.

79. In 1978 David Chaplin still considered domestic service a “declining occupation”, and maintained that its incidence “is a prime indicator of the level and quality of industrialization and modernization”. Yet at the same time he noted that “as it ‘casualizes’ (with more part-time, seasonal, and short-term incumbents), it appears to disappear faster than is the case”: fewer workers “can still serve more households than ever before”; they are less likely to be enumerated in the census; in the US “a sizeable proportion of the illegal immigrants from Latin America and the West Indies hide out as unreported domestic servants”; Chaplin, David, “Domestic Service and Industrialization”, Comparative Studies in Sociology, 1 (1978), pp. 97127, 105–106, 123–124.

80. Sassen-Koob, Saskia, “The New Labor Demand in Global Cities”, in Michael Peter Smith (ed.), Cities in Transformation: Class, Capital, and the State (Thousand Oaks, CA, 1984), pp. 139171; idem, “Notes on the Incorporation of Third World Women into Wage-Labor Through Immigration and Off-Shore Production”, International Migration Review, 18 (1984), pp. 1144–1167; in the same issue of the International Migration Review, Morokvaśic, Mirjana, “Birds of Passage are also Women”, pp. 886907, also stresses the high number of migrant domestic workers.

81. Portes, Alejandro and Sassen-Koob, Saskia, “Making it Underground: Comparative Material on the Informal Sector in Western Market Economies”, American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1987), pp. 3061. In 1991 Sassen published The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo (Princeton, NJ, 1991) that, among other things, stimulated scholars to analyse the composition of migration flows to different cities. Eleonore Kofman, in particular, stressed the diversity of migrant women; see Kofman, Eleonore, “Beyond a Reductionist Analysis of Female Migrants in Global European Cities: The Unskilled, Deskilled and Professional”, in Marianne H. Marchand and Anne Sisson Runyan (eds), Gender and Global Restructuring: Sightings, Sites and Resistances, (London [etc.], 2000), pp. 129139.

82. Gregson, Nicky and Lowe, Michelle, Servicing the Middle Classes: Class, Gender and Waged Domestic Labour in Contemporary Britain (London [etc.], 1994), p. 4.

83. In Italy, for instance, as far back as 1977 the sociologist Olga Turrini in Le Casalinghe di riserva: Lavoratrici domestiche e famiglia borghese (Rome, 1977), p. 34, had noted that domestic workers were not disappearing, as some thought, and she emphasized the growing presence of foreigners in the sector. In 1991, John Clarke in New Times and Old Enemies: Essays on Cultural Studies and America (New York, 1991), p. 174, highlighted the fact that in the US the growing female presence in the labour market was often limited to marginal sectors, above all the service sector, where a “revival of domestic service” could be noted. At the time that Gregson and Lowe's book (n. 82) was published, Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo also spoke of a resurgence in paid domestic work in the US: “Regulating the Unregulated: Domestic Workers’ Social Networks: Special Issue on Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in America”, Social Problems, 41 (1994), pp. 50–64. The same year, the Italian publisher Manifestolibri published a booklet entitled, significantly, Nuove servitù [New Servitudes]. Among the essays, that by André Gorz on the “new servants” (which built on his previous work) also spoke explicitly of the (growing) presence of domestic workers: “Perché la società del lavoro salariato ha bisogno di nuovi servi?”, in Marco Bascetta et al., Nuove servitù (Rome, 1994), pp. 61–70.

84. For instance Odierna, Simone, Die heimliche Rückkehr der Dienstmädchen: Bezahlte Arbeit im privaten Haushalt (Opladen, 2000); Devetter, François-Xavier and Rousseau, Sandrine, Du balai: Essai sur le ménage à domicile et le retour de la domesticité (Ivry-sur-Seine, 2011).

85. Anderson, Bridget, Britain's Secret Slaves: An Investigation into the Plight of Overseas Domestic Workers (London, 1993); http://www.antislavery.org; last accessed 20.12.2013; http://www.kalayaan.org.uk/; last accessed 20.12.2013. Later works by Anderson include the influential book Doing the Dirty Work? The Global Politics of Domestic Labour (London, 2000) and the volume, edited with Ruhs, Martin, Who Needs Migrant Workers? Labour Shortages, Immigration and Public Policy (Oxford, 2010).

86. Torrès, Dominique, Esclaves: 200 millions d'esclaves aujourd'hui (Paris, 1996). On the CCEM see http://www.esclavagemoderne.org/; last accessed 20.12.2013.

87. Georgina Vaz Cabral, “Action nationale comparée de lutte contre l'esclavage moderne: Le cas particulier de l'esclavage domestique en Belgique, Espagne, France et Italie”, report presented for the Daphne Initiative JAH/98/DAF/215, Paris, 1998, originally available at: http://www.esclavagemoderne.org/img_doc/daphne_ccem98.pdf (link no longer working); the text, without the name of the author and the title, is still available at: http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/daphnetoolkit/files/projects/1998_215/fr_legislations_nationales.pdf; an English translation without footnotes is available at: http://ccem.elteg.com/media/daphne_ccem98_uk.pdf; last accessed 02.06.2014; Arlacchi, Pino, Schiavi: Il nuovo traffico di esseri umani (Milan, 1999); Bales, Kevin, Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy (Berkeley, CA, 1999); John Connor, “Domestic Slavery”, Report for the Commission on Equal Opportunity for Men and Women, Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe, doc. 9102, Strasbourg, 2001; Zarembka, Joy M., “America's Dirty Work: Migrant Maids and Modern-Day Slavery”, in Barbara Ehrenreich and Arlie Russel Hochschild (eds), Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy (New York, 2003), pp. 142153; Carchedi, Francesco, Mottura, Giovanni, and Pugliese, Enrico (eds), Il lavoro servile e le nuove schiavitù (Milan, 2003); Bellesi, Benedetto and Moiola, Paolo (eds), Il prezzo del mercato: Viaggio nelle nuove schiavitù (Bologna, 2006); Bianchini, Tiziana (ed.), Nuove schiavitù: Fenomeni, strumenti e prospettive (Rome, 2006); Ciampa, Gianluca, Il delitto di riduzione o mantenimento in schiavitù o servitù (Naples, 2008); Resta, Federica, Vecchie e nuove schiavitù: Dalla tratta allo sfruttamento sessuale (Milan, 2008); Skinner, E. Benjamin, A Crime So Monstrous: Face-to-Face with Modern-Day Slavery (New York, 2008); Angioi, Silvia, Schiavitù e tratta: Antiche e nuove forme (Naples, 2010); Francesco Carchedi (ed.), Schiavitù di ritorno. Il fenomeno del lavoro gravemente sfruttato: Le vittime, i servizi di protezione, i percorsi di uscita, il quadro normativo, Dipartimento per le Pari Opportunità – Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri (Rimini, 2010).

88. “The Parliamentary Assembly is dismayed that slavery continues to exist in Europe in the 21st century. Although, officially, slavery was abolished over 150 years ago, thousands of people are still held as slaves in Europe, treated as objects, humiliated and abused. Modern slaves, like their counterparts of old, are forced to work (through mental or physical threat) with no or little financial reward. They are physically constrained or have other limits placed on their freedom of movement and are treated in a degrading and inhumane manner”; Giuseppe Gaburro, “Domestic Slavery: Servitude, Au Pairs and Mail-Order Brides”, Report for the Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe, doc. 10.144, Strasbourg, 2004.

89. Among influential studies focusing on the past decades which are not mentioned in other notes, see, for instance, Constable, Nicole, Maid to Order: Stories of Filipina Workers (Cambridge, 1997), new revised edn: Maid to Order in Hong Kong: Stories of Migrant Workers (Ithaca, NY, 2007); Janet Henshall Momsen (ed.), Gender, Migration and Domestic Service (London, 1999); Adams, Kathleen M. and Dickey, Sara (eds), Home and Hegemony: Domestic Service and Identity Politics in South and Southeast Asia (Ann Arbor, MI, 2000); Ozyegin, Gul, Untidy Gender: Domestic Service in Turkey (Philadelphia, PA, 2001); Destremau, Blandine and Lautier, Bruno (eds), “Femmes en domesticité: Les domestiques du Sud, au Nord et au Sud”, special issue of Tiers-Monde, 43 (2002); Dussuet, Annie, Travaux de femmes: Enquêtes sur les services à domicile (Paris, 2005); Cox, Rosie, The Servant Problem: The Home Life of a Global Economy (London [etc.], 2006).

90. Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette and Avila, Ernestine, “‘I'm Here, but I'm There’: The Meaning of Latina Transnational Motherhood”, Gender and Society, 11 (1997), pp. 548571. Later works by Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo include the influential volume, Doméstica: Immigrant Workers Cleaning and Caring in the Shadows of Affluence (Berkeley, CA, 2001).

91. Hochschild, Arlie Russel, “Global Care Chains and Emotional Surplus Value”, in Will Hutton and Anthony Giddens (eds), On the Edge: Living with Global Capitalism (London, 2000), pp. 130146; Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar, Servants of Globalization: Women, Migration and Domestic Work (Stanford, CA, 2001).

92. Parreñas, , Servants of Globalization, pp. 150196; “Migrant Filipina domestic workers define their sense of self and place in the global labour market from the contentious subject-position of contradictory class mobility. This contentious location refers to their simultaneous experience of upward and downward mobility in migration. More specifically, it refers to their decline in social status [because they work abroad as maids, being often middle-class women in their own country] and increase in financial status [because salaries in countries where they work are higher than salaries in the Philippines]. This is the central dislocation that defines their experience of domestic work” (p. 150).

93. Sassen, Saskia, “Women's Burden: Counter-Geographies of Globalization and the Feminization of Survival”, Nordic Journal of International Law, 71 (2002), pp. 255274.

94. Andall, Jaqueline, Gender, Migration and Domestic Service: The Politics of Black Women in Italy (Aldershot, 2000).

95. As mentioned, Italian scholars had begun early on to stress the growing presence of domestic workers, particularly of migrants; some of their contributions had impact outside Italy, too; others did not because they were written in Italian. See, for instance, Turrini, Le casalinghe di riserva; Crippa, Erminio, Lavoro amaro: Le estere in Italia (Rome, 1979); Campani, Giovanna, “Du Tiers-Monde à l'Italie: Une nouvelle immigration féminine”, Revue européenne de migrations internationales, 5 (1989), pp. 2949; Alemani, Claudia and Fasoli, Maria Grazia, Donne in frontiera: Le colf nella transizione (Milan, 1994); Ambrosini, Maurizio, “Convenienze nascoste: L'inserimento degli immigrati nell'economia informale”, Studi di sociologia, 36 (1998), pp. 233257. The growth of scientific interest has paralleled the growth of immigration; see for instance Sciortino, Giuseppe, “Immigration in a Mediterranean Welfare State: The Italian Experience in Comparative Perspective”, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 6 (2004), pp. 111129. Among recent volumes (articles are too numerous to be listed) on domestic work by Italian scholars, sometimes in collaboration with non-Italian ones, see Andall, Jaqueline and Raffaella Sarti (eds), “Servizio domestico, migrazioni e identità di genere in Italia dall'Ottocento a oggi”, special issue of Polis: Ricerche e studi su società e politica in Italia, 18 (2004); Decimo, Francesca, Quando emigrano le donne: Percorsi e reti femminili della mobilità transnazionale (Bologna, 2005); Pasquinelli, Sergio and Rusmini, Giselda, Badanti. La nuova generazione: Caratteristiche e tendenze del lavoro privato di cura (Milan, 2008); Bonizzoni, Paola, Famiglie globali: Le frontiere della maternità (Turin, 2009); Catanzaro, Raimondo and Colombo, Asher (eds), Badanti & Co: Il lavoro domestico straniero in Italia (Bologna, 2009) (the volume presents the results of research funded by the Italian Ministry for University and Scientific Research on “Nationality, Gender and Class in the New Domestic Service. Changes in the Italian Family and Evolution of Migratory Systems”); Vianello, Francesca Alice, Migrando sole: Legami transnazionali tra Ucraina e Italia (Milan, 2009); Marchetti, Sabrina, “Paid Domestic Labour and Postcoloniality: Narratives of Eritrean and Afro-Surinamese Migrant Women” (Ph.D., Utrecht University, 2010); Roit, Barbara Da and Facchini, Carla, Anziani e badanti: Le differenti condizioni di chi è accudito e di chi accudisce (Milan, 2010); Sarti, Raffaella and Scrinzi, Francesca (eds), “Men in a Woman's Job: Male Domestic Workers, International Migration and the Globalization of Care”, special issue of Men and Masculinities, 13 (2010); Vietti, Francesco, Il paese delle badanti (Rome, 2010); Zontini, Elisabetta, Transnational Families, Migration and Gender: Moroccan and Filipino Women in Bologna and Barcelona (New York, 2010); Marchetti, Sabrina, Le ragazze di Asmara: Lavoro domestico e migrazione postcoloniale (Rome, 2011); Boccagni, Paolo and Ambrosini, Maurizio, Cercando il benessere nelle migrazioni: L'esperienza delle assistenti familiari straniere in Trentino (Milan, 2012); Colf d'Italia: 150 anni di lavoro domestico per raccontare l'Italia che cura, Atti del convegno, 18 novembre 2011, Roma (Rome, 2012); Piperno, Flavia and Bordogna, Mara Tognetti (eds), Welfare transnazionale: La frontiera esterna delle politiche sociali (Rome, 2012); Pasquinelli, Sergio and Rusmini, Giselda (eds), Badare non basta: Il lavoro di cura: attori, progetti, politiche (Rome, 2013); Ambrosini, Maurizio, Irregular Migration and Invisible Welfare (Basingstoke, 2013); Scrinzi, Francesca, Genre, migrations et emplois domestiques en France et en Italie: Construction de la non-qualification et de l'altérité ethnique (Paris, 2013); Marchetti, Sabrina, Black Girls: Migrant Domestic Workers and Colonial Legacies (Leiden, 2014, forthcoming).

96. Books and articles with titles including the words “domestic service” but which do not deal with domestic work have not been considered . The aim of Figure 2 is to give an approximate idea of the growing production of research that deals with domestic service. Since scholars focusing on the present generally (and correctly) speak of domestic workers rather than domestic servants, the column “domestic workers” in particular gives an idea of the boom in production of articles and books by sociologists and other social scientists. Obviously, the data and method used to create Figure 2 are rather rough and the results have many biases: interrogating Google Scholar, I have considered only texts written in English; many texts which deal with domestic service, domestic servants, or domestic workers do not have these words in the title; texts written in recent years are more likely to be listed by Google Scholar; etc.

97. For instance, Whisson and Weil, Domestic Servants; Rutté García, Simplemente explotadas.

98. For instance, the volume by Chaney and Castro, Muchachas No More, includes a section on domestic service in the past, with three chapters: Kuznesof, Elizabeth, “A History of Domestic Service in Spanish America, 1492–1980”, pp. 1735; Higman, Barry W., “Domestic Service in Jamaica since 1750”, pp. 3766; Graham, Sandra Lauderdale, “Servants and Masters in Rio de Janeiro: Perceptions of House and Street in the 1870s”, pp. 6780; moreover, within Part 5, “In Their Own Words: Testimonies of Workers”, there is a chapter by Aída Moreno Valenzuela on the “History of the Household Workers’ Movement in Chile, 1926–1983”, pp. 407–415. Other examples of books and articles which deal with both past and present are Gill, Lesley, Precarious Dependencies: Gender, Class and Domestic Service in Bolivia (New York, 1994); Cock, Jacklyn, Maids & Madams: A Study in the Politics of Exploitation (Johannesburg, 1980), which also includes a historical chapter, and the article by Gaitskell, Deborah, Kimble, Judy, Maconachie, Moira, and Unterhalter, Elaine, “Class, Race and Gender: Domestic Workers in South Africa”, Review of African Political Economy, 10 (1983), pp. 86108.

99. I list only international conferences where both historians and social scientists were present. I do not list sessions and panels in congresses, which are too numerous to be mentioned.

100. Fauve-Chamoux and Fialová, Le phénomène de la domesticité.

101. The application for the “Servant Project” was prepared by Antoinette Fauve-Chamoux, Raffaella Sarti, Suzy Pasleau, and Isabelle Schopp. The official title of the project was “The Socio-Economic Role of Domestic Service as a Factor of European Identity”, with the main conferences taking place in Florence (14–16 February 2002), Oslo (13–15 June 2002), Barcelona (12–15 December 2002), Essex (8–10 May 2003), and Munich (8–11 September 2003). See Fauve-Chamoux, Domestic Service and the Formation of European Identity; Pasleau and Schopp, with Sarti, Proceedings of the Servant Project. I: Servants and Changes in Mentality, 16th–20th Centuries; II: Domestic Service and the Emergence of a New Conception of Labour in Europe; III: Domestic Service and the Evolution of the Law; IV: Domestic Service as a Factor of Social Revival in Europe; V: The Modelization of Domestic Service. For the conclusion of the project see Sarti, “Conclusion: Domestic Service and European Identity”.

102. Regina Schulte and Pothiti Hantzaroula (eds), “Narratives of the Servant”, European University Institute, EUI Working Papers, Florence, 2001. On Schulte's production on domestic service see n. 63; by Pothiti Hantzaroula see, besides several articles, her Ph.D. thesis: “The Making of Subordination: Domestic Servants in Greece, 1920–1945” (Ph.D., EUI, Department of History and Civilization, 2002).

103. Eliane Gubin and Valérie Piette (eds), “Domesticité”, special issue of Sextant, 25–26 (2001). On Piette's production see n. 13.

104. “Domestic Service and Mobility: Labour, Livelihoods and Lifestyles”, CLARA (Changing Labour Relations in Asia) and University of Amsterdam, International Institute of Social History, 5–7 February 2001. The proceedings of the conference were not published. The publications on domestic service by Ratna Saptari include “Rethinking Domestic Service”, International Review of Social History, 44 (1999), pp. 77–85; “Studying Asian Domestics Within Global Processes: Comparisons and Connections”, in Lucassen, Jan (ed.), Global Labour History: A State of the Art (Bern, 2006), pp. 479512; “Servant Problems: Regulation, Boundary Work and Trans-Border Links”, International Review of Social History, 54 (2009), pp. 275–286; those by Annelies Moors include “Migrant Domestic Workers: Debating Transnationalism, Identity Politics, and Family Relations: A Review Essay”, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 45 (2003), pp. 386–394; idem and de Regt, Marina, “Migrant Domestic Workers in the Middle East”, in Marlou Schrover, Joanne van der Leun, Leo Lucassen, and Chris Quispel (eds), Illegal Migration and Gender in a Global and Historical Perspective (Amsterdam, 2008), pp. 151170.

105. The conference was financed by the Volkswagen Foundation as part of the research project coordinated by Helma Lutz on “Gender, Ethnicity and Identity: The New Maids in the Age of Globalisation”. Many papers presented at the conference were published in Helma Lutz (ed.), Migration and Domestic Work: A European Perspective on a Global Theme (Aldershot, 2008). Lutz is the author of several studies on domestic work; see especially idem, Vom Weltmarkt in den Privathaushalt: Die neuen Dienstmädchen im Zeitalter der Globalisierung (Leverkusen, 2007), Engl. transl.: The New Maids: Transnational Women and the Care Economy (London, 2011).

106. “Waged Domestic Work and the Making of the Modern World”, Conference, University of Warwick, 9–11 May 2008. The proceedings were not published. Books on domestic service by Carolyn Steedman include Master and Servant (Cambridge, 2007); Labours Lost: Domestic Service and the Making of Modern England (Cambridge, 2009).

107. “À qui me confier? Du monde des nourrices aux réseaux des ‘mamans de jour’: Pratiques et enjeux de la garde d'enfant”, Fribourg, 23–25 April 2008; for the proceedings see Véronique Pache Huber and Véronique Dasen (eds), “Politics of Child Care in Historical Perspective: From the World of Wet Nurses to the Networks of Family Child Care Providers”, special issue of Paedagogica Historica, 46 (2010). On Pache Huber's production see n. 32. Annelies Head Koenig, who had a responsibility role within the Servant Project, was one of the scholars who also took part in the Freiburg conference, to mention one example.

108. “Intimate Labors. An Interdisciplinary Conference on Domestic, Care, and Sex Work”, University of California, Santa Barbara, 4–6 October 2007; for the programme see: http://www.ihc.ucsb.edu/intimatelabors/downloadable_schedule.pdf; last accessed 20.12.2013; for the proceedings see Boris, Eileen and Parreñas, Rhacel Salazar (eds), Intimate Labors: Care, Sex, and Domestic Work (Stanford, CA, 2010). On Parreñas see n. 91; the long list of publications by Eileen Boris includes the recent volume with Klein, Jennifer, Caring for America: Home Health Workers in the Shadow of the Welfare State (Oxford, 2012).

109. “Colonization and Domestic Service: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives”, Research Symposium, Newcastle, 16–17 July 2012; for the programme see: http://www.newcastle.edu.au/Resources/Institutes/The%20Australian%20Institute%20for%20Social%20Inclusion%20and%20Wellbeing/Seminars/Colonization%20and%20Domestic%20Services_Program%20Final_web.pdf; last accessed 20.12.2013. Works by Victoria Haskins on the history of domestic service include several articles on Australia, such as “On the Doorstep: Aboriginal Domestic Service as a ‘Contact Zone’ ”, Australian Feminist Studies, 16 (2001), pp. 13–25, and the volume Matrons and Maids: Regulating Indian Domestic Service in Tucson, 1914–1934 (Tucson, AZ, 2012).

110. Markus Krajewski (ed.), Master and Servant in Technoscience, special issue of Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 37 (2012). Publications by Krajewski include Der Diener: Mediengeschichte einer Figur zwischen König und Klient (Frankfurt a. Main, 2010).

111. For an overview see Sarti, Raffaella, “The Globalisation of Domestic Service: An Historical Perspective”, in Lutz, Migration and Domestic Work, pp. 7798, also published in French in a longer version: “La globalisation du service domestique dans une perspective historique, XVIIe–XXe siècles”, in Manuela Martini and Philippe Rygiel (eds), Genre et travail migrant: Mondes atlantiques, XIXe–XXe siècles (Paris, 2009), pp. 53–82. Among books and chapters (also) dealing with this issue, see for instance: Leslie Page Moch, Moving Europeans: Migrations in Western Europe since 1650 (Bloomington, IN, 1992); Sogner, Sølvi, “Young in Europe around 1700: Norwegian Sailors and Servant-Girls Seeking Employment in Amsterdam”, in Jean-Pierre Bardet, François Lebrun, and René Le Mée (eds), Mesurer et comprendre: Mélanges offerts à Jacques Dupâquier (Paris, 1993), pp. 515532; Hoerder, Dirk and Moch, Leslie Page (eds), European Migrants: Global and Local Perspectives (Boston, MA, 1996); Anne-Lise Head-König, “The Foreign Labour Force in Urban Switzerland: Immigration and Marriage Patterns of Female Servants in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries”, in René Leboutte (ed.), Migrations et Migrants dans une perspective historique: Permanences et innovations/Migrations and Migrants in Historical Perspective: Permanencies and Innovations (Brussels [etc.], 2000), pp. 77–96; Hahn, Sylvia, Migration – Arbeit – Geschlecht: Arbeitsmigration in Mitteleuropa vom 17. bis zum Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts (Göttingen, 2008); Lynch-Brennan, Margaret, Irish Immigrant Women in Domestic Service in America, 1840–1930 (Syracuse, NY, 2009); Hoerder, Dirk and Kaur, Amarjit (eds), Proletarian and Gendered Mass Migrations: A Global Perspective on Continuities and Discontinuities from the 19th to the 21st Centuries (Leiden, 2013).

112. For example Sarti, “The Globalisation of Domestic Service”.

113. For comparative data see, for instance, Sarti, Raffaella, “Notes on the Feminization of Domestic Service: Bologna as a Case Study (18th–19th centuries)”, in Fauve-Chamoux and Fialová, Le Phénomène de la domesticité, pp. 125163; idem, “Domestic Service: Past and Present in Southern and Northern Europe”, Gender and History, 18 (2006), pp. 222–245; Moya, José C., “Domestic Service in a Global Perspective: Gender, Migration, and Ethnic Niches”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33 (2007), pp. 559579. For another interesting case that questions the modernization paradigm see Dubert, Isidro, “Modernity without Modernisation: The Evolution of Domestic Service in North-West Spain, 1752–1900”, Gender & History, 18 (2006), pp. 199210.

114. On this re-masculinization and male domestic workers see Sarti, , “Domestic Service: Past and Present”, pp. 232235; Scrinzi, Francesca, “Les hommes de ménage, ou comment aborder la féminisation des migrations en interviewant des hommes”, Migrations Société, 17 (2005), pp. 229240; Sarti and Scrinzi, “Men in a Woman's Job”, special issue of Men and Masculinities, 13 (2010), including Sarti, “Fighting for Masculinity”; Scrinzi, Francesca, “Masculinities and the International Division of Care: Migrant Male Domestic Workers in Italy and France”, pp. 4464; Lena Näre, “Sri Lankan Men Working as Cleaners and Carers: Negotiating Masculinity in Naples”, pp. 65–86; Bartolomei, “Migrant Male Domestic Workers”; Qayum and Ray, “Male Servants and the Failure of Patriarchy in Kolkata”; Kilkey, Majella, “Men and Domestic Labor: A Missing Link in the Global Care Chain”, pp. 126149. See also Kilkey, Majella, Perrons, Diane, and Plomien, Ania, Gender, Migration and Domestic Work: Masculinities, Male Labour and Fathering in the UK and US (Basingstoke, 2013).

115. Delap, , Knowing their Place, p. 1.

116. Spagnolo, Rebecca, “When Private Home Meets Public Workplace: Service, Space and the Urban Domestic in 1920s Russia”, in Eric Naiman and Christina Kaier (eds), Everyday Life in Early Soviet Russia: Taking the Revolution Inside (Bloomington, IN, 2006), pp. 230255.

117. Guo, Man, “Migration Experience of Floating Population in China: A Case Study of Women Migrant Domestic Workers in Beijing” (M.Phil. thesis, University of Hong Kong, 2006); Hairong, Yan, New Masters, New Servants: Migration, Development, and Women Workers in China (Durham, NC, 2008); Shuang, Li, “Employées domestiques en Chine: Les implications de la hiérarchie urbain/rural”, in Tania Angeloff and Marylène Lieber (eds), Chinoises au XXIè siècle: Ruptures et continuités (Paris, 2012), pp. 121138.

118. For some efforts in this direction see, for instance, Moya, “Domestic Service in a Global Perspective”; Sarti, “The Globalisation of Domestic Service”.

119. See, for instance, the discussion of the meaning of global history of labour by Linden, Marcel van der, Workers of the World: Essays toward a Global Labor History (Leiden, 2009), pp. 613. Here he puts forward a series of (provisional) definitions and research questions which can also serve as guide for discussions among scholars working on domestic service.

120. Raffaella Sarti, “Who are Servants? Defining Domestic Service in Western Europe (16th–21st Centuries)”, in Pasleau and Schopp, with Sarti, Proceedings of the Servant Project, II, pp. 3–59, available at: http://www.uniurb.it/sarti/3.%20Raffaella%20Sarti-Who%20are%20servants-Proceedings%20of%20the%20Servant%20Project-Final%20Version.pdf; last accessed 20.12.2013. Among later articles see, for instance, Lotta Vikström, “Aspects of Women's Work in Sundsvall, Sweden, 1860–1893”, in Harvey J. Graff, Alison Mackinnon, Bengt Sandin, and Ian Winchester (eds), Understanding Literacy in Its Historical Contexts: Socio-Cultural History and the Legacy of Egil Johansson (Lund, 2009), pp. 127–142.

121. Convention Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers, International Labour Organization Convention No. 189, Geneva, 2011, available at: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:2551460; last accessed 20.12.2013.

122. For instance, Bailly, Franck, Devetter, François-Xavier, and Horn, François, “Can Working and Employment Conditions in the Personal Services Sector Be Improved?”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 37 (2013), pp. 299321.

123. Hildete Pereira de Melo, O serviço doméstico remunerado no Brasil: de criadas a trabalhadoras, (Rio de Janeiro [etc.], 1998), pp. 15–17, available at: https://sistema.planalto.gov.br/spmulheres/textos/DOMINIO%20PUBLICO/td_0565.pdf; last accessed 20.12.2013.

124. For instance, Ally, Sheireen A., From Servants to Workers: South African Domestic Workers and the Democratic State (Ithaca, NY, 2009); Sarti, Raffaella (ed.), Lavoro domestico e di cura: quali diritti? (Rome, 2010).

125. International Labour Organization, “Convention No. 189: Decent Work for Domestic Workers”, Geneva, n.d., p. 1, available at: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---travail/documents/publication/wcms_161104.pdf; last accessed 20.12.2013.

126. See for instance “Pétition des domestiques (28 August 1792)”, in Archives Parlementaires de 1787 à 1860: Recueil complet des débats législatifs et politiques des Chambres françaises, Première série, 1787 à 1799 (Paris, 1867), L, pp. 671–672. See Sarti, “Who are Servants?”, pp. 18–26; idem, “Freedom and Citizenship? The Legal Status of Servants and Domestic Workers in a Comparative Perspective (16th–21st Centuries)”, in Pasleau, Schopp, with Sarti, Proceedings of the Servant Project, III, pp. 127–164, available at: http://www.uniurb.it/sarti/Raffaella%20Sarti-Freedom%20and%20Citizenship-Proceedings%20of%20the%20Servant%20Project.pdf); last accessed 20.12.2013; idem, “Servo e/o cittadino? Il dibattito sui diritti politici dei domestici durante la Rivoluzione francese”, in Glauco Maria Cantarella, Angela De Benedictis, Patrizia Dogliani, Carla Salvaterra, and Raffaella Sarti (eds), Potere e violenza: Concezioni e pratiche dall'antichità all'età contemporanea (Rome, 2012), pp. 71–93.

127. See e.g. Sarti, “Freedom and Citizenship?”; idem, “Conclusion: Domestic Service and European Identity”, pp. 242–247.

128. Sakia Sassen, “The Limits of Power and the Complexity of Powerlessness: The Case of Immigration 1”, Unbound, 3 (2007), pp. 105–116; Encarnación Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Migration, Domestic Work and Affect: A Decolonial Approach on Value and the Feminization of Labour (New York, 2010), pp. 155–156.

129. Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Encarnación, Migration, Domestic Work and Affect: A Decolonial Approach on Value and the Feminization of Labour (New York, 2010), pp. 148169; she comments, “Creolizing human rights […] evokes a cosmological perception of rights, one that attaches rights not to a single individual or subject, but to the relationship of this individual or subject to others and his/her environment. From this angle, human rights cannot depart from the separation between the Self and the Other or the Human and the Environment. Rather, it engages with an ethics of relationality and transversality […]. Thus, framing domestic workers’ rights from the perspective of creolizing human rights entails more than just fighting for fair working conditions or professionalization of domestic work. Rather, it interconnects domestic work as affective labor to a cosmological perspective, uncovering it as the main source for the production and maintenance of human vitality, the sustenance of ‘perpetual life’. Further, it urges us to locate this labor within a collective framework of sustainability and transversal conviviality, departing from a decolonial ethics of affects” (p. 164).

130. Piperno and Tognetti Bordogna, Welfare transnazionale.

131. The issue of a lack of equality is at the centre of a recent issue of the Revista de Estudios Sociales: Poblete, Lorena and Tizziani, Ania (eds), “Servicio doméstico y desigualdad social”, Revista de Estudios Sociales, 45 (2013).

132. Tronto, Joan C., “The ‘Nanny’ Question in Feminism”, Hypatia, 17 (2002), pp. 3451. There are stimulating insights in Tronto's new book, Caring Democracy: Markets, Equality, and Justice (New York, 2013).

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International Review of Social History
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