Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Recruitment and Volunteerism for the Cypriot Mule Corps, 1916-1919. Pushed or Pulled?

  • Andrekos Varnava
Abstract

In the summer of 1916, the British Salonica Army and the Cyprus colonial government established the Cypriot Mule Corps (officially called the Macedonian Mule Corps), composed of mostly of Christian (Eastern Orthodox, and smaller numbers of Catholics, Armenians, and Maronites) and Muslim Cypriot muleteers and interpreters. These men served mostly in Salonica during the war and in Istanbul after the armistice. Although given the title of “Macedonian” Mule Corps, it was almost exclusively Cypriot in composition, with a staggering enlistment of about 12,000 Cypriots from every religious group in Cyprus. This article explores the formation of the corps, muleteer numbers, and recruitment strategies. It argues that there were both push and pull factors in understanding the striking enlistment of between 20 and 25 per cent of peasant and labouring men aged between 18 and 39.

Copyright
References
Hide All

Primary Sources

Maj.Alexander, H. M.On Two Fronts. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1917.
Cundall, Frank. Jamaica's Part in the Great War, 1915-1918. West India Commission, for the Institute of Jamaica, London, 1925.
The Cyprus Gazette. British Colonial Government, Nicosia, Cyprus.
Cyprus: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1911 Taken on the 2nd April 1911. London, 1912.
Eleutheria. Newspaper, Nicosia, Cyprus.
Government of India, India's Contribution to the Great War. Calcutta, 1923.
Lukach, Harry Charles, and Jardine, Douglas James. The Handbook of Cyprus. London: Edward Stanford, 1913.
Luke, Harry Charles, and Jardine, Douglas James. The Handbook of Cyprus. London: Macmillan, 1920.
Merewether, J. W. B., and Smith, Frederick. The Indian Corps in France. London: William Clowes & Sons, 1917.
Murray, Archibald Sir. “Egyptian Labour Corps, January 1916-June 1917.” Appendix F in Sir Archibald Murrays Despatches, 206-16. London: J. M. Dent, 1920.
Secretariat Archive (SA1). State Archives Nicosia.
Studholme, John. New Zealand Expeditionary Force. Wellington: W A. G. Skinner, 1928.
Argyrou, Vassos. Tradition and Modernity in the Mediterranean, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Bailey, Paul J.‘An Army of Workers’: Chinese Indentured Labour in First World War France.” In Race, Empire and First World War Writing, edited by Das, Santanu, 3552. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Bailey, Paul J.From Shandong to Somme: Chinese Indentured Labour in France during World War I.” In Language, Labour, and Migration, edited by Kershen, A. J., 179-96. Farnham: Ashgate, 2000.
Bailey, Paul J.Semi-Colonialism and Cultural Interaction: Chinese Indentured Labor in World War One France and the Sino-French Connection.” In From Early Tang Court Debates to China's Peaceful Rise, edited by Assandri, Friederike and Martins, Dora, 111-20. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2009.
Corrigan, Gordon. Sepoys in the Trenches. Stroud: Spellmont, 2006.
Dendooven, Dominiek. “Troops of British India in Flanders, 1914-1919.” In World War I, edited by Dendooven, Dominiek and Chielens, Piet, 116-29. Tielt: Lanoo, 2008.
Doumanis, Nicolas. Before the Nation, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Elkins, W F.A Source of Black Nationalism in the Caribbean: The Revolt of the British West Indies Regiment at Taranto, Italy.” Science and Society 33:2 (1970): 99103.
Fawcett, Brian C.The Chinese Labour Corps in France, 1917-1921.” Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 40 (2000): 33111.
Greenhut, Jeffrey. “The Imperial Reserve: The Indian Corps on the Western Front, 1914-15.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 12:1 (1983): 5473.
Griffin, Nicholas J.Britain's Chinese Labor Corps in World War I.” Military Affairs 40:3 (1976): 102108.
Hagen, Gwynnie. “The Chinese Labour Corps.” In World War I, edited by Dendooven, Dominiek and Chielens, Piet, 136-44. Tielt: Lanoo, 2008.
Joseph, C. L.The British West Indies Regiment, 1914-18.” Journal of Caribbean History 2 (1971): 94124.
Kaushik, Roy, ed. The Indian Army in the Two World Wars. Leiden: Brill, 2012.
Khalidi, Omar. “Ethnic Group Recruitment in the Indian Army: The Contrasting Cases of Sikhs, Muslims, Gurkhas and Others.” Pacific Affairs 74:4 (2001-2002): 529-52.
Liava'a, Christine. Qaravi na'i tavi, They did their duty. Auckland: Polygraphia, 2009.
Morton-Jack, George. “The Indian Army on the Western Front, 1914-1915: A Portrait of Collaboration.” War in History 13:3 (2006): 329-62.
Morton-Jack, George. The Indian Army on the Western Front. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Nevzat, Altay, Nationalism amongst the Turks of Cyprus. Oulu: Oulu University Press, 2005.
Omissi, David. “The Indian Army in the First World War, 1914-1918.” In A Military History of India and South Asia, edited by Marston, Daniel P. and Sundaram, Chandar S., 7487. Westport: Praeger, 2007.
Omissi, David. Indian Voices of the Great War. London: Macmillan, 1999.
Omissi, David. “Sikh Soldiers in Europe during the First World War, 1914-18.” In Sikhs Across Borders, edited by Jacobsen, Knut A. and Myrvold, Kristina, 3650. London: Bloomsbury, 2012.
Pointer, Margaret. Tagi tote e loto haaku, My Heart Is Crying a Little. Translated by Folau, Kalaisi. Suva: University of the South Pacific, Suva, 2000.
Savage, Donald C., and Munro, J. Forbes. “Carrier Corps Recruitment in the British East Africa Protectorate, 1914-1918.” Journal of African History 7:2 (1966): 313-42.
Saxena, Shyam Narain. Role of Indian Army in the First World War. Delhi: Bhavna Prakashan, 1987.
Singha, Radhika. “Finding Labor from India for the War in Iraq: The Jail Porter and Labor Corps, 1916-1920.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 39:2 (2007): 412-45.
Smith, Richard. Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.
Summerskill, Michael. China on the Western Front. London: Michael Summerskill, 1982.
Varnava, Andrekos. “British Military Intelligence in Cyprus during the Great War.” War in History 19:3 (2012): 353-78.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Itinerario
  • ISSN: 0165-1153
  • EISSN: 2041-2827
  • URL: /core/journals/itinerario
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed